Visible to the public Biblio

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Hosseinzadeh, Shohreh, Laurén, Samuel, Leppänen, Ville.  2016.  Security in Container-based Virtualization Through vTPM. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing. :214–219.

Cloud computing is a wide-spread technology that enables the enterprises to provide services to their customers with a lower cost, higher performance, better availability and scalability. However, privacy and security in cloud computing has always been a major challenge to service providers and a concern to its users. Trusted computing has led its way in securing the cloud computing and virtualized environment, during the past decades. In this paper, first we study virtualized trusted platform modules and integration of vTPM in hypervisor-based virtualization. Then we propose two architectural solutions for integrating the vTPM in container-based virtualization model.

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Laurén, Samuel, Rauti, Sampsa, Leppänen, Ville.  2016.  An Interface Diversified Honeypot for Malware Analysis. Proccedings of the 10th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops. :29:1–29:6.

Defending information systems against advanced attacks is a challenging task; even if all the systems have been properly updated and all the known vulnerabilities have been patched, there is still the possibility of previously unknown zero day attack compromising the system. Honeypots offer a more proactive tool for detecting possible attacks. What is more, they can act as a tool for understanding attackers intentions. In this paper, we propose a design for a diversified honeypot. By increasing variability present in software, diversification decreases the number of assumptions an attacker can make about the target system.

Laurén, Samuel, Leppänen, Ville.  2018.  Virtual Machine Introspection Based Cloud Monitoring Platform. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies. :104–109.

Virtual Machine Introspection (VMI) is an emerging family of techniques for extracting data from virtual machines without the use of active monitoring probes within the target machines themselves. In VMI based systems, the data is collected at the hypervisor-level by analyzing the state of virtual machines. This has the benefit of making collection harder to detect and block by malware as there is nothing in the machine indicating that monitoring is taking place. In this paper we present Nitro Web, a web-based monitoring system for virtual machines that uses virtual machine introspection for data collection. The platform is capable of detecting and visualizing system call activity taking place within virtual machines in real-time. The secondary purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to Nitro virtual machine introspection framework that we have been involved in developing. In this paper, we reflect on how Nitro Framework can be used for building applications making use of VMI data.

M
Mäki, Petteri, Rauti, Sampsa, Hosseinzadeh, Shohreh, Koivunen, Lauri, Leppänen, Ville.  2016.  Interface Diversification in IoT Operating Systems. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing. :304–309.

With the advancement of Internet in Things (IoT) more and more "things" are connected to each other through the Internet. Due to the fact that the collected information may contain personal information of the users, it is very important to ensure the security of the devices in IoT. Diversification is a promising technique that protects the software and devices from harmful attacks and malware by making interfaces unique in each separate system. In this paper we apply diversification on the interfaces of IoT operating systems. To this aim, we introduce the diversification in post-compilation and linking phase of the software life-cycle, by shuffling the order of the linked objects while preserving the semantics of the code. This approach successfully prevents malicious exploits from producing adverse effects in the system. Besides shuffling, we also apply library symbol diversification method, and construct needed support for it e.g. into the dynamic loading phase. Besides studying and discussing memory layout shuffling and symbol diversification as a security measures for IoT operating systems, we provide practical implementations for these schemes for Thingsee OS and Raspbian operating systems and test these solutions to show the feasibility of diversification in IoT environments.

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Ruohonen, Jukka, Leppänen, Ville.  2016.  On the Design of a Simple Network Resolver for DNS Mining. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies 2016. :105–112.

The domain name system (DNS) offers an ideal distributed database for big data mining related to different cyber security questions. Besides infrastructural problems, scalability issues, and security challenges related to the protocol itself, information from DNS is often required also for more nuanced cyber security questions. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the fundamental characteristics of DNS in relation to cyber security and different research prototypes designed for passive but continuous DNS-based monitoring of domains and addresses. With this discussion, the paper also illustrates a few general software design aspects.

Ruohonen, Jukka, Šćepanović, Sanja, Hyrynsalmi, Sami, Mishkovski, Igor, Aura, Tuomas, Leppänen, Ville.  2016.  Correlating File-based Malware Graphs Against the Empirical Ground Truth of DNS Graphs. Proccedings of the 10th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops. :30:1–30:6.

This exploratory empirical paper investigates whether the sharing of unique malware files between domains is empirically associated with the sharing of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and the sharing of normal, non-malware files. By utilizing a graph theoretical approach with a web crawling dataset from F-Secure, the paper finds no robust statistical associations, however. Unlike what might be expected from the still continuing popularity of shared hosting services, the sharing of IP addresses through the domain name system (DNS) seems to neither increase nor decrease the sharing of malware files. In addition to these exploratory empirical results, the paper contributes to the field of DNS mining by elaborating graph theoretical representations that are applicable for analyzing different network forensics problems.

S
Saarela, Marko, Hosseinzadeh, Shohreh, Hyrynsalmi, Sami, Leppänen, Ville.  2017.  Measuring Software Security from the Design of Software. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies. :179–186.

With the increasing use of mobile phones in contemporary society, more and more networked computers are connected to each other. This has brought along security issues. To solve these issues, both research and development communities are trying to build more secure software. However, there is the question that how the secure software is defined and how the security could be measured. In this paper, we study this problem by studying what kinds of security measurement tools (i.e. metrics) are available, and what these tools and metrics reveal about the security of software. As the result of the study, we noticed that security verification activities fall into two main categories, evaluation and assurance. There exist 34 metrics for measuring the security, from which 29 are assurance metrics and 5 are evaluation metrics. Evaluating and studying these metrics, lead us to the conclusion that the general quality of the security metrics are not in a satisfying level that could be suitably used in daily engineering work flows. They have both theoretical and practical issues that require further research, and need to be improved.