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Zhang, Hao, Yao, Danfeng(Daphne), Ramakrishnan, Naren.  2016.  Causality-based Sensemaking of Network Traffic for Android Application Security. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Security. :47–58.

Malicious Android applications pose serious threats to mobile security. They threaten the data confidentiality and system integrity on Android devices. Monitoring runtime activities serves as an important technique for analyzing dynamic app behaviors. We design a triggering relation model for dynamically analyzing network traffic on Android devices. Our model enables one to infer the dependency of outbound network requests from the device. We describe a new machine learning approach for discovering the dependency of network requests. These request-level dependence relations are used to detect stealthy malware activities. Malicious requests are identified due to the lack of dependency with legitimate triggers. Our prototype is evaluated on 14GB network traffic data and system logs collected from an Android tablet. Experimental results show that our solution achieves a high accuracy (99.1%) in detecting malicious requests sent from new malicious apps.

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Zhang, Hao, Li, Zhuolin, Shahriar, Hossain, Lo, Dan, Wu, Fan, Qian, Ying.  2019.  Protecting Data in Android External Data Storage. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:924–925.
Insecure data storage may open a door to malicious malware to steal users' and system sensitive information. These problems may due to developer negligence or lack of security knowledge. Android developers use various storage methods to store data. However, Attackers have attacked these vulnerable data storage. Although the developers have modified the apps after knowing the vulnerability, the user's personal information has been leaked and caused serious consequences. As a result, instead of patching and fixing the vulnerability, we should conduct proactive control for secure Android data storage. In this paper, we analyzed Android external storage vulnerability and discussed the prevention solutions to prevent sensitive information in external storage from disclosure.
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Liu, Donglan, Zhang, Hao, Yu, Hao, Liu, Xin, Zhao, Yong, Lv, Guodong.  2019.  Research and Application of APT Attack Defense and Detection Technology Based on Big Data Technology. 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication (ICEIEC). :1—4.
In order to excavate security threats in power grid by making full use of heterogeneous data sources in power information system, this paper proposes APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) attack detection sandbox technology and active defense system based on big data analysis technology. First, the file is restored from the mirror traffic and executed statically. Then, sandbox execution was carried out to introduce analysis samples into controllable virtual environment, and dynamic analysis and operation samples were conducted. Through analyzing the dynamic processing process of samples, various known and unknown malicious code, APT attacks, high-risk Trojan horses and other network security risks were comprehensively detected. Finally, the threat assessment of malicious samples is carried out and visualized through the big data platform. The results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively warn of unknown threats, improve the security level of system data, have a certain active defense ability. And it can effectively improve the speed and accuracy of power information system security situation prediction.
Liu, Donglan, Liu, Xin, Zhang, Hao, Yu, Hao, Wang, Wenting, Ma, Lei, Chen, Jianfei, Li, Dong.  2019.  Research on End-to-End Security Authentication Protocol of NB-IoT for Smart Grid Based on Physical Unclonable Function. 2019 IEEE 11th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :239–244.
As a national strategic hot spot, the Internet of Things (IoT) has shown its vigor and vitality. With the development of IoT, its application in power grid is more and more extensive. As an advanced technology for information sensing and transmission, IoT has been applied extensively in power generation, transmission, transformation, distribution, utilization and other processes, and will develop with broad prospect in smart grid. Narrow Band Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is of broad application prospects in production management, life-cycle asset management and smart power utilization of smart grid. Its characteristics and security demands of application domain present a challenge for the security of electric power business. However, current protocols either need dual authentication and key agreements, or have poor compatibility with current network architecture. In order to improve the high security of power network data transmission, an end-to-end security authentication protocol of NB-IoT for smart grid based on physical unclonable function and state secret algorithm SM3 is proposed in this paper. A self-controllable NB-IoT application layer security architecture was designed by introducing the domestic cryptographic algorithm, extending the existing key derivation structure of LTE, and combining the physical unclonable function to ensure the generation of encryption keys between NB-IoT terminals and power grid business platforms. The protocol of this paper realizes secure data transmission and bidirectional identity authentication between IoT devices and terminals. It is of low communication costs, lightweight and flexible key update. In addition, the protocol also supports terminal authentication during key agreement, which furtherly enhances the security of business systems in smart grid.
Liu, Donglan, Zhang, Hao, Wang, Wenting, Zhao, Yang, Zhao, Xiaohong, Yu, Hao, Lv, Guodong, Zhao, Yong.  2019.  Research on Protection for the Database Security Based on the Cloud of Smart Grid. 2019 IEEE 11th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :585–589.

As cloud services enter the Internet market, cloud security issues are gradually exposed. In the era of knowledge economy, the unique potential value of big data is being gradually explored. However, the control of data security is facing many challenges. According to the development status and characteristics of database within the cloud environment, this paper preliminary studies on the database security risks faced by the “three-clouds” of State Grid Corporation of China. Based on the mature standardization of information security, this paper deeply studies the database security requirements of cloud environment, and six-step method for cloud database protection is presented, which plays an important role in promoting development of security work for the cloud database. Four key technologies of cloud database security protection are introduced, including database firewall technology, sensitive data encryption, production data desensitization, and database security audit technology. It is helpful to the technology popularization of the grade protection in the security of the cloud database, and plays a great role in the construction of the security of the state grid.

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Zhang, Hao, Zhang, Tao, Chen, Huajin.  2017.  Variance Analysis of Pixel-Value Differencing Steganography. Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy. :28–32.

As the adaptive steganography selects edge and texture area for loading, the theoretical analysis is limited by modeling difficulty. This paper introduces a novel method to study pixel-value difference (PVD) embedding scheme. First, the difference histogram values of cover image are used as parameters, and a variance formula for PVD stego noise is obtained. The accuracy of this formula has been verified through analysis with standard pictures. Second, the stego noise is divided into six kinds of pixel regions, and the regional noise variances are utilized to compare the security between PVD and least significant bit matching (LSBM) steganography. A mathematical conclusion is presented that, with the embedding capacity less than 2.75 bits per pixel, PVD is always not safer than LSBM under the same embedding rate, regardless of region selection. Finally, 10000 image samples are used to observe the validity of mathematical conclusion. For most images and regions, the data are also shown to be consistent with the prior judgment. Meanwhile, the cases of exception are analyzed seriously, and are found to be caused by randomness of pixel selection and abandoned blocks in PVD scheme. In summary, the unity of theory and practice completely indicates the effectiveness of our new method.