Visible to the public Biblio

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2021
Fan, Wenjun, Chang, Sang-Yoon, Zhou, Xiaobo, Xu, Shouhuai.  2021.  ConMan: A Connection Manipulation-based Attack Against Bitcoin Networking. 2021 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :101–109.
Bitcoin is a representative cryptocurrency system using a permissionless peer-to-peer (P2P) network as its communication infrastructure. A number of attacks against Bitcoin have been discovered over the past years, including the Eclipse and EREBUS Attacks. In this paper, we present a new attack against Bitcoin’s P2P networking, dubbed ConMan because it leverages connection manipulation. ConMan achieves the same effect as the Eclipse and EREBUS Attacks in isolating a target (i.e., victim) node from the rest of the Bitcoin network. However, ConMan is different from these attacks because it is an active and deterministic attack, and is more effective and efficient. We validate ConMan through proof-of-concept exploitation in an environment that is coupled with real-world Bitcoin node functions. Experimental results show that ConMan only needs a few minutes to fully control the peer connections of a target node, which is in sharp contrast to the tens of days that are needed by the Eclipse and EREBUS Attacks. Further, we propose several countermeasures against ConMan. Some of them would be effective but incompatible with the design principles of Bitcoin, while the anomaly detection approach is positively achievable. We disclosed ConMan to the Bitcoin Core team and received their feedback, which confirms ConMan and the proposed countermeasures.
Khalimov, Gennady, Sievierinov, Oleksandr, Khalimova, Svitlana, Kotukh, Yevgen, Chang, Sang-Yoon, Balytskyi, Yaroslav.  2021.  Encryption Based on the Group of the Hermitian Function Field and Homomorphic Encryption. 2021 IEEE 8th International Conference on Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S T). :465–469.
The article proposes a general approach to the implementation of encryption schemes based on the group of automorphisms of the Hermitian functional field. The three-parameter group is used with logarithmic captions outside the center of the group. This time we applied for an encryption scheme based on a Hermitian function field with homomorphic encryption. The use of homomorphic encryption is an advantage of this implementation. The complexity of the attack and the size of the encrypted message depends on the strength of the group.
Fan, Wenjun, Hong, Hsiang-Jen, Wuthier, Simeon, Zhou, Xiaobo, Bai, Yan, Chang, Sang-Yoon.  2021.  Security Analyses of Misbehavior Tracking in Bitcoin Network. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :1–3.
Because Bitcoin P2P networking is permissionless by the application requirement, it is vulnerable against networking threats based on identity/credential manipulations such as Sybil and spoofing attacks. The current Bitcoin implementation keeps track of its peer's networking misbehaviors through ban score. In this paper, we investigate the security problems of the ban-score mechanism and discover that the ban score is not only ineffective against the Bitcoin Message-based DoS attacks but also vulnerable to a Defamation attack. In the Defamation attack, the network adversary can exploit the ban-score mechanism to defame innocent peers.
2020
Chang, Sang-Yoon, Park, Younghee, Kengalahalli, Nikhil Vijayakumar, Zhou, Xiaobo.  2020.  Query-Crafting DoS Threats Against Internet DNS. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–9.
Domain name system (DNS) resolves the IP addresses of domain names and is critical for IP networking. Recent denial-of-service (DoS) attacks on Internet targeted the DNS system (e.g., Dyn), which has the cascading effect of denying the availability of the services and applications relying on the targeted DNS. In view of these attacks, we investigate the DoS on DNS system and introduce the query-crafting threats where the attacker controls the DNS query payload (the domain name) to maximize the threat impact per query (increasing the communications between the DNS servers and the threat time duration), which is orthogonal to other DoS approaches to increase the attack impact such as flooding and DNS amplification. We model the DNS system using a state diagram and comprehensively analyze the threat space, identifying the threat vectors which include not only the random/invalid domains but also those using the domain name structure to combine valid strings and random strings. Query-crafting DoS threats generate new domain-name payloads for each query and force increased complexity in the DNS query resolution. We test the query-crafting DoS threats by taking empirical measurements on the Internet and show that they amplify the DoS impact on the DNS system (recursive resolver) by involving more communications and taking greater time duration. To defend against such DoS or DDoS threats, we identify the relevant detection features specific to query-crafting threats and evaluate the defense using our prototype in CloudLab.
2018
Lakshminarayana, Subhash, Karachiwala, Jabir Shabbir, Chang, Sang-Yoon, Revadigar, Girish, Kumar, Sristi Lakshmi Sravana, Yau, David K.Y., Hu, Yih-Chun.  2018.  Signal Jamming Attacks Against Communication-Based Train Control: Attack Impact and Countermeasure. Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Security & Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks. :160-171.
We study the impact of signal jamming attacks against the communication based train control (CBTC) systems and develop the countermeasures to limit the attacks' impact. CBTC supports the train operation automation and moving-block signaling, which improves the transport efficiency. We consider an attacker jamming the wireless communication between the trains or the train to wayside access point, which can disable CBTC and the corresponding benefits. In contrast to prior work studying jamming only at the physical or link layer, we study the real impact of such attacks on end users, namely train journey time and passenger congestion. Our analysis employs a detailed model of leaky medium-based communication system (leaky waveguide or leaky feeder/coaxial cable) popularly used in CBTC systems. To counteract the jamming attacks, we develop a mitigation approach based on frequency hopping spread spectrum taking into account domain-specific structure of the leaky-medium CBTC systems. Specifically, compared with existing implementations of FHSS, we apply FHSS not only between the transmitter-receiver pair but also at the track-side repeaters. To demonstrate the feasibility of implementing this technology in CBTC systems, we develop a FHSS repeater prototype using software-defined radios on both leaky-medium and open-air (free-wave) channels. We perform extensive simulations driven by realistic running profiles of trains and real-world passenger data to provide insights into the jamming attack's impact and the effectiveness of the proposed countermeasure.
2016
Padekar, Hitesh, Park, Younghee, Hu, Hongxin, Chang, Sang-Yoon.  2016.  Enabling Dynamic Access Control for Controller Applications in Software-Defined Networks. Proceedings of the 21st ACM on Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies. :51–61.

Recent findings have shown that network and system attacks in Software-Defined Networks (SDNs) have been caused by malicious network applications that misuse APIs in an SDN controller. Such attacks can both crash the controller and change the internal data structure in the controller, causing serious damage to the infrastructure of SDN-based networks. To address this critical security issue, we introduce a security framework called AEGIS to prevent controller APIs from being misused by malicious network applications. Through the run-time verification of API calls, AEGIS performs a fine-grained access control for important controller APIs that can be misused by malicious applications. The usage of API calls is verified in real time by sophisticated security access rules that are defined based on the relationships between applications and data in the SDN controller. We also present a prototypical implementation of AEGIS and demonstrate its effectiveness and efficiency by performing six different controller attacks including new attacks we have recently discovered.