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Wang, Liang, Asharov, Gilad, Pass, Rafael, Ristenpart, Thomas, shelat, abhi.  2019.  Blind Certificate Authorities. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1015—1032.
We explore how to build a blind certificate authority (CA). Unlike conventional CAs, which learn the exact identity of those registering a public key, a blind CA can simultaneously validate an identity and provide a certificate binding a public key to it, without ever learning the identity. Blind CAs would therefore allow bootstrapping truly anonymous systems in which no party ever learns who participates. In this work we focus on constructing blind CAs that can bind an email address to a public key. To do so, we first introduce secure channel injection (SCI) protocols. These allow one party (in our setting, the blind CA) to insert a private message into another party's encrypted communications. We construct an efficient SCI protocol for communications delivered over TLS, and use it to realize anonymous proofs of account ownership for SMTP servers. Combined with a zero-knowledge certificate signing protocol, we build the first blind CA that allows Alice to obtain a X.509 certificate binding her email address to a public key of her choosing without ever revealing “alice” to the CA. We show experimentally that our system works with standard email server implementations as well as Gmail.
Kiffer, Lucianna, Rajaraman, Rajmohan, shelat, abhi.  2018.  A Better Method to Analyze Blockchain Consistency. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :729–744.

The celebrated Nakamoto consensus protocol [16] ushered in several new consensus applications including cryptocurrencies. A few recent works [7, 17] have analyzed important properties of blockchains, including most significantly, consistency, which is a guarantee that all honest parties output the same sequence of blocks throughout the execution of the protocol. To establish consistency, the prior analysis of Pass, Seeman and Shelat [17] required a careful counting of certain combinatorial events that was difficult to apply to variations of Nakamoto. The work of Garay, Kiayas, and Leonardas [7] provides another method of analyzing the blockchain under the simplifying assumption that the network was synchronous. The contribution of this paper is the development of a simple Markov-chain based method for analyzing consistency properties of blockchain protocols. The method includes a formal way of stating strong concentration bounds as well as easy ways to concretely compute the bounds. We use our new method to answer a number of basic questions about consistency of blockchains: Our new analysis provides a tighter guarantee on the consistency property of Nakamoto's protocol, including for parameter regimes which [17] could not consider; We analyze a family of delaying attacks first presented in [17], and extend them to other protocols; We analyze how long a participant should wait before considering a high-value transaction "confirmed"; We analyze the consistency of CliqueChain, a variation of the Chainweb [14] system; We provide the first rigorous consistency analysis of GHOST [20] and also analyze a folklore "balancing"-attack. In each case, we use our framework to experimentally analyze the consensus bounds for various network delay parameters and adversarial computing percentages. We hope our techniques enable authors of future blockchain proposals to provide a more rigorous analysis of their schemes.

Wahby, Riad S., Ji, Ye, Blumberg, Andrew J., shelat, abhi, Thaler, Justin, Walfish, Michael, Wies, Thomas.  2017.  Full Accounting for Verifiable Outsourcing. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :2071–2086.
Systems for verifiable outsourcing incur costs for a prover, a verifier, and precomputation; outsourcing makes sense when the combination of these costs is cheaper than not outsourcing. Yet, when prior works impose quantitative thresholds to analyze whether outsourcing is justified, they generally ignore prover costs. Verifiable ASICs (VA)—in which the prover is a custom chip—is the other way around: its cost calculations ignore precomputation. This paper describes a new VA system, called Giraffe; charges Giraffe for all three costs; and identifies regimes where outsourcing is worthwhile. Giraffe's base is an interactive proof geared to data-parallel computation. Giraffe makes this protocol asymptotically optimal for the prover and improves the verifier's main bottleneck by almost 3x, both of which are of independent interest. Giraffe also develops a design template that produces hardware designs automatically for a wide range of parameters, introduces hardware primitives molded to the protocol's data flows, and incorporates program analyses that expand applicability. Giraffe wins even when outsourcing several tens of sub-computations, scales to 500x larger computations than prior work, and can profitably outsource parts of programs that are not worthwhile to outsource in full.
Doerner, Jack, Evans, David, shelat, abhi.  2016.  Secure Stable Matching at Scale. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1602–1613.

When a group of individuals and organizations wish to compute a stable matching–-for example, when medical students are matched to medical residency programs–-they often outsource the computation to a trusted arbiter in order to preserve the privacy of participants' preferences. Secure multi-party computation offers the possibility of private matching processes that do not rely on any common trusted third party. However, stable matching algorithms have previously been considered infeasible for execution in a secure multi-party context on non-trivial inputs because they are computationally intensive and involve complex data-dependent memory access patterns. We adapt the classic Gale-Shapley algorithm for use in such a context, and show experimentally that our modifications yield a lower asymptotic complexity and more than an order of magnitude in practical cost improvement over previous techniques. Our main improvements stem from designing new oblivious data structures that exploit the properties of the matching algorithms. We apply a similar strategy to scale the Roth-Peranson instability chaining algorithm, currently in use by the National Resident Matching Program. The resulting protocol is efficient enough to be useful at the scale required for matching medical residents nationwide, taking just over 18 hours to complete an execution simulating the 2016 national resident match with more than 35,000 participants and 30,000 residency slots.