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Lampert, Ben, Wahby, Riad S., Leonard, Shane, Levis, Philip.  2016.  Robust, Low-cost, Auditable Random Number Generation for Embedded System Security. Proceedings of the 14th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems CD-ROM. :16–27.

This paper presents an architecture for a discrete, high-entropy hardware random number generator. Because it is constructed out of simple hardware components, its operation is transparent and auditable. Using avalanche noise, a non-deterministic physical phenomenon, the circuit is inherently probabilistic and resists adversarial control. Furthermore, because it compares the outputs from two matched noise sources, it rejects environmental disturbances like RF energy and power supply ripple. The resulting hardware produces more than 0.98 bits of entropy per sample, is inexpensive, has a small footprint, and can be disabled to conserve power when not in use.