Visible to the public Biblio

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Kang, Hongyue, Liu, Bo, Mišić, Jelena, Mišić, Vojislav B., Chang, Xiaolin.  2020.  Assessing Security and Dependability of a Network System Susceptible to Lateral Movement Attacks. 2020 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :513—517.
Lateral movement attack performs malicious activities by infecting part of a network system first and then moving laterally to the left system in order to compromise more computers. It is widely used in various sophisticated attacks and plays a critical role. This paper aims to quantitatively analyze the transient security and dependability of a critical network system under lateral movement attacks, whose intruding capability increases with the increasing number of attacked computers. We propose a survivability model for capturing the system and adversary behaviors from the time instant of the first intrusion launched from any attacked computer to the other vulnerable computers until defense solution is developed and deployed. Stochastic Reward Nets (SRN) is applied to automatically build and solve the model. The formulas are also derived for calculating the metrics of interest. Simulation is carried out to validate the approximate accuracy of our model and formulas. The quantitative analysis can help network administrators make a trade-off between damage loss and defense cost.
Liu, Bo, Bobbio, Andrea, Bai, Jing, Martinez, Jose, Chang, Xiaolin, Trivedi, Kishor S..  2021.  Transient Security and Dependability Analysis of MEC Micro Datacenter under Attack. 2021 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS). :1—7.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONSA Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) micro data center (MEDC) consists of multiple MEC hosts close to endpoint devices. MEC service is delivered by instantiating a virtualization system (e.g., Virtual Machines or Containers) on a MEC host. MEDC faces more new security risks due to various device connections in an open environment. When more and more IoT/CPS systems are connected to MEDC, it is necessary for MEC service providers to quantitatively analyze any security loss and then make defense-related decision. This paper develops a CTMC model for quantitatively analyzing the security and dependability of a vulnerable MEDC system under lateral movement attacks, from the adversary’s initial successful access until the MEDC becomes resistant to the attack. The proposed model captures the behavior of the system in a scenario where (i) the rate of vulnerable MEC servers being infected increases with the increasing number of infected MEC servers, (ii) each infected MEC server can perform its compromising activity independently and randomly, and (iii) any infected MEC may fail and then cannot provide service. We also introduce the formulas for computing metrics. The proposed model and formula are verified to be approximately accurate by comparing numerical results and simulation results.
Song, Xiumin, Liu, Bo, Zhang, Hongxin, Mao, Yaya, Ren, Jianxin, Chen, Shuaidong, Xu, Hui, Zhang, Jingyi, Jiang, Lei, Zhao, Jianye et al..  2020.  Security Enhancing and Probability Shaping Coordinated Optimization for CAP-PON in Physical Layer. 2020 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP) and International Conference on Information Photonics and Optical Communications (IPOC). :1–3.
A secure-enhanced scheme based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) encoding encryption and probabilistic shaping (PS) is proposed. Experimental results verify the superiority of our proposed scheme in the achievement of security and power gain. © 2020 The Author(s).
Guo, Shaoying, Xu, Yanyun, Huang, Weiqing, Liu, Bo.  2021.  Specific Emitter Identification via Variational Mode Decomposition and Histogram of Oriented Gradient. 2021 28th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT). :1—6.
Specific emitter identification (SEI) is a physical-layer-based approach for enhancing wireless communication network security. A well-done SEI method can be widely applied in identifying the individual wireless communication device. In this paper, we propose a novel specific emitter identification method based on variational mode decomposition and histogram of oriented gradient (VMD-HOG). The signal is decomposed into specific temporal modes via VMD and HOG features are obtained from the time-frequency spectrum of temporal modes. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated both in single hop and relaying scenarios and under three channels with the number of emitters varying. Results depict that our proposed method provides great identification performance for both simulated signals and realistic data of Zigbee devices and outperforms the two existing methods in identification accuracy and computational complexity.
Liu, Bo, Kong, Qingshan, Huang, Weiqing, Guo, Shaoying.  2021.  Detection of Events in OTDR Data via Variational Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Transform. 2021 IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :38—43.
Optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) plays an important role in optical fiber communications. To improve the performance of OTDR, we propose a method based on the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) and Hilbert transform (HT) for fiber events detection. Firstly, the variational mode decomposition is applied to decompose OTDR data into some intrinsic mode functions (imfs). To determine the decomposition mode number in VMD, an adaptive estimation method is introduced. Secondly, the Hilbert transform is utilized to obtain the instantaneous amplitude of the imf for events localization. Finally, the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is used for identifying the type of event. Experimental results show that the proposed method can locate events accurately. Compared with the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) method, the VMD-HT method presents a higher accuracy in events localization, which indicates that the method is effective and applicable.
Zhang, Chi, Chen, Jinfu, Cai, Saihua, Liu, Bo, Wu, Yiming, Geng, Ye.  2020.  iTES: Integrated Testing and Evaluation System for Software Vulnerability Detection Methods. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1455–1460.
To find software vulnerabilities using software vulnerability detection technology is an important way to ensure the system security. Existing software vulnerability detection methods have some limitations as they can only play a certain role in some specific situations. To accurately analyze and evaluate the existing vulnerability detection methods, an integrated testing and evaluation system (iTES) is designed and implemented in this paper. The main functions of the iTES are:(1) Vulnerability cases with source codes covering common vulnerability types are collected automatically to form a vulnerability cases library; (2) Fourteen methods including static and dynamic vulnerability detection are evaluated in iTES, involving the Windows and Linux platforms; (3) Furthermore, a set of evaluation metrics is designed, including accuracy, false positive rate, utilization efficiency, time cost and resource cost. The final evaluation and test results of iTES have a good guiding significance for the selection of appropriate software vulnerability detection methods or tools according to the actual situation in practice.
Liu, Bo, Xiong, Jian, Wu, Yiyan, Ding, Ming, Wu, Cynthia M..  2019.  Protecting Multimedia Privacy from Both Humans and AI. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting (BMSB). :1—6.
With the development of artificial intelligence (AI), multimedia privacy issues have become more challenging than ever. AI-assisted malicious entities can steal private information from multimedia data more easily than humans. Traditional multimedia privacy protection only considers the situation when humans are the adversaries, therefore they are ineffective against AI-assisted attackers. In this paper, we develop a new framework and new algorithms that can protect image privacy from both humans and AI. We combine the idea of adversarial image perturbation which is effective against AI and the obfuscation technique for human adversaries. Experiments show that our proposed methods work well for all types of attackers.
Xiao, Tianran, Tong, Wei, Lei, Xia, Liu, Jingning, Liu, Bo.  2019.  Per-File Secure Deletion for Flash-Based Solid State Drives. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Architecture and Storage (NAS). :1—8.

File update operations generate many invalid flash pages in Solid State Drives (SSDs) because of the-of-place update feature. If these invalid flash pages are not securely deleted, they will be left in the “missing” state, resulting in leakage of sensitive information. However, deleting these invalid pages in real time greatly reduces the performance of SSD. In this paper, we propose a Per-File Secure Deletion (PSD) scheme for SSD to achieve non-real-time secure deletion. PSD assigns a globally unique identifier (GUID) to each file to quickly locate the invalid data blocks and uses Security-TRIM command to securely delete these invalid data blocks. Moreover, we propose a PSD-MLC scheme for Multi-Level Cell (MLC) flash memory. PSD-MLC distributes the data blocks of a file in pairs of pages to avoid the influence of programming crosstalk between paired pages. We evaluate our schemes on different hardware platforms of flash media, and the results prove that PSD and PSD-MLC only have little impact on the performance of SSD. When the cache is disabled and enabled, compared with the system without the secure deletion, PSD decreases SSD throughput by 1.3% and 1.8%, respectively. PSD-MLC decreases SSD throughput by 9.5% and 10.0%, respectively.

Yoon, Man-Ki, Liu, Bo, Hovakimyan, Naira, Sha, Lui.  2017.  VirtualDrone: Virtual Sensing, Actuation, and Communication for Attack-resilient Unmanned Aerial Systems. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems. :143–154.

As modern unmanned aerial systems (UAS) continue to expand the frontiers of automation, new challenges to security and thus its safety are emerging. It is now difficult to completely secure modern UAS platforms due to their openness and increasing complexity. We present the VirtualDrone Framework, a software architecture that enables an attack-resilient control of modern UAS. It allows the system to operate with potentially untrustworthy software environment by virtualizing the sensors, actuators, and communication channels. The framework provides mechanisms to monitor physical and logical system behaviors and to detect security and safety violations. Upon detection of such an event, the framework switches to a trusted control mode in order to override malicious system state and to prevent potential safety violations. We built a prototype quadcoper running an embedded multicore processor that features a hardware-assisted virtualization technology. We present extensive experimental study and implementation details, and demonstrate how the framework can ensure the robustness of the UAS in the presence of security breaches.

Wang, Chen, Guo, Xiaonan, Wang, Yan, Chen, Yingying, Liu, Bo.  2016.  Friend or Foe?: Your Wearable Devices Reveal Your Personal PIN Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :189–200.

The proliferation of wearable devices, e.g., smartwatches and activity trackers, with embedded sensors has already shown its great potential on monitoring and inferring human daily activities. This paper reveals a serious security breach of wearable devices in the context of divulging secret information (i.e., key entries) while people accessing key-based security systems. Existing methods of obtaining such secret information relies on installations of dedicated hardware (e.g., video camera or fake keypad), or training with labeled data from body sensors, which restrict use cases in practical adversary scenarios. In this work, we show that a wearable device can be exploited to discriminate mm-level distances and directions of the user's fine-grained hand movements, which enable attackers to reproduce the trajectories of the user's hand and further to recover the secret key entries. In particular, our system confirms the possibility of using embedded sensors in wearable devices, i.e., accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, to derive the moving distance of the user's hand between consecutive key entries regardless of the pose of the hand. Our Backward PIN-Sequence Inference algorithm exploits the inherent physical constraints between key entries to infer the complete user key entry sequence. Extensive experiments are conducted with over 5000 key entry traces collected from 20 adults for key-based security systems (i.e. ATM keypads and regular keyboards) through testing on different kinds of wearables. Results demonstrate that such a technique can achieve 80% accuracy with only one try and more than 90% accuracy with three tries, which to our knowledge, is the first technique that reveals personal PINs leveraging wearable devices without the need for labeled training data and contextual information.