Visible to the public Biblio

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2020-12-11
Phu, T. N., Hoang, L., Toan, N. N., Tho, N. Dai, Binh, N. N..  2019.  C500-CFG: A Novel Algorithm to Extract Control Flow-based Features for IoT Malware Detection. 2019 19th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies (ISCIT). :568—573.

{Static characteristic extraction method Control flow-based features proposed by Ding has the ability to detect malicious code with higher accuracy than traditional Text-based methods. However, this method resolved NP-hard problem in a graph, therefore it is not feasible with the large-size and high-complexity programs. So, we propose the C500-CFG algorithm in Control flow-based features based on the idea of dynamic programming, solving Ding's NP-hard problem in O(N2) time complexity, where N is the number of basic blocks in decom-piled executable codes. Our algorithm is more efficient and more outstanding in detecting malware than Ding's algorithm: fast processing time, allowing processing large files, using less memory and extracting more feature information. Applying our algorithms with IoT data sets gives outstanding results on 2 measures: Accuracy = 99.34%

2020-10-26
Leach, Kevin, Dougherty, Ryan, Spensky, Chad, Forrest, Stephanie, Weimer, Westley.  2019.  Evolutionary Computation for Improving Malware Analysis. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Workshop on Genetic Improvement (GI). :18–19.
Research in genetic improvement (GI) conventionally focuses on the improvement of software, including the automated repair of bugs and vulnerabilities as well as the refinement of software to increase performance. Eliminating or reducing vulnerabilities using GI has improved the security of benign software, but the growing volume and complexity of malicious software necessitates better analysis techniques that may benefit from a GI-based approach. Rather than focus on the use of GI to improve individual software artifacts, we believe GI can be applied to the tools used to analyze malicious code for its behavior. First, malware analysis is critical to understanding the damage caused by an attacker, which GI-based bug repair does not currently address. Second, modern malware samples leverage complex vectors for infection that cannot currently be addressed by GI. In this paper, we discuss an application of genetic improvement to the realm of automated malware analysis through the use of variable-strength covering arrays.
2020-09-04
Chatterjee, Urbi, Santikellur, Pranesh, Sadhukhan, Rajat, Govindan, Vidya, Mukhopadhyay, Debdeep, Chakraborty, Rajat Subhra.  2019.  United We Stand: A Threshold Signature Scheme for Identifying Outliers in PLCs. 2019 56th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1—2.

This work proposes a scheme to detect, isolate and mitigate malicious disruption of electro-mechanical processes in legacy PLCs where each PLC works as a finite state machine (FSM) and goes through predefined states depending on the control flow of the programs and input-output mechanism. The scheme generates a group-signature for a particular state combining the signature shares from each of these PLCs using \$(k,\textbackslashtextbackslash l)\$-threshold signature scheme.If some of them are affected by the malicious code, signature can be verified by k out of l uncorrupted PLCs and can be used to detect the corrupted PLCs and the compromised state. We use OpenPLC software to simulate Legacy PLC system on Raspberry Pi and show İ/O\$ pin configuration attack on digital and pulse width modulation (PWM) pins. We describe the protocol using a small prototype of five instances of legacy PLCs simultaneously running on OpenPLC software. We show that when our proposed protocol is deployed, the aforementioned attacks get successfully detected and the controller takes corrective measures. This work has been developed as a part of the problem statement given in the Cyber Security Awareness Week-2017 competition.

2020-04-24
Ogale, Pushkar, Shin, Michael, Abeysinghe, Sasanka.  2018.  Identifying Security Spots for Data Integrity. 2018 IEEE 42nd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 02:462—467.

This paper describes an approach to detecting malicious code introduced by insiders, which can compromise the data integrity in a program. The approach identifies security spots in a program, which are either malicious code or benign code. Malicious code is detected by reviewing each security spot to determine whether it is malicious or benign. The integrity breach conditions (IBCs) for object-oriented programs are specified to identify security spots in the programs. The IBCs are specified by means of the concepts of coupling within an object or between objects. A prototype tool is developed to validate the approach with a case study.

2020-04-06
Haoliang, Sun, Dawei, Wang, Ying, Zhang.  2019.  K-Means Clustering Analysis Based on Adaptive Weights for Malicious Code Detection. 2019 IEEE 11th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :652—656.

Nowadays, a major challenge to network security is malicious codes. However, manual extraction of features is one of the characteristics of traditional detection techniques, which is inefficient. On the other hand, the features of the content and behavior of the malicious codes are easy to change, resulting in more inefficiency of the traditional techniques. In this paper, a K-Means Clustering Analysis is proposed based on Adaptive Weights (AW-MMKM). Identifying malicious codes in the proposed method is based on four types of network behavior that can be extracted from network traffic, including active, fault, network scanning, and page behaviors. The experimental results indicate that the AW-MMKM can detect malicious codes efficiently with higher accuracy.

2019-01-31
Guri, M., Zadov, B., Daidakulov, A., Elovici, Y..  2018.  xLED: Covert Data Exfiltration from Air-Gapped Networks via Switch and Router LEDs. 2018 16th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1–12.

An air-gapped network is a type of IT network that is separated from the Internet - physically - due to the sensitive information it stores. Even if such a network is compromised with a malware, the hermetic isolation from the Internet prevents an attacker from leaking out any data - thanks to the lack of connectivity. In this paper we show how attackers can covertly leak sensitive data from air-gapped networks via the row of status LEDs on networking equipment such as LAN switches and routers. Although it is known that some network equipment emanates optical signals correlated with the information being processed by the device (‘side-channel'), malware controlling the status LEDs to carry any type of data (‘covert-channel') has never studied before. Sensitive data can be covertly encoded over the blinking of the LEDs and received by remote cameras and optical sensors. A malicious code is executed in a compromised LAN switch or router allowing the attacker direct, low-level control of the LEDs. We provide the technical background on the internal architecture of switches and routers at both the hardware and software level which enables these attacks. We present different modulation and encoding schemas, along with a transmission protocol. We implement prototypes of the malware and discuss its design and implementation. We tested various receivers including remote cameras, security cameras, smartphone cameras, and optical sensors, and discuss detection and prevention countermeasures. Our experiments show that sensitive data can be covertly leaked via the status LEDs of switches and routers at bit rates of 1 bit/sec to more than 2000 bit/sec per LED.

2017-04-20
Chaudhary, P., Gupta, B. B., Yamaguchi, S..  2016.  XSS detection with automatic view isolation on online social network. 2016 IEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics. :1–5.

Online Social Networks (OSNs) are continuously suffering from the negative impact of Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities. This paper describes a novel framework for mitigating XSS attack on OSN-based platforms. It is completely based on the request authentication and view isolation approach. It detects XSS attack through validating string value extracted from the vulnerable checkpoint present in the web page by implementing string examination algorithm with the help of XSS attack vector repository. Any similarity (i.e. string is not validated) indicates the presence of malicious code injected by the attacker and finally it removes the script code to mitigate XSS attack. To assess the defending ability of our designed model, we have tested it on OSN-based web application i.e. Humhub. The experimental results revealed that our model discovers the XSS attack vectors with low false negatives and false positive rate tolerable performance overhead.

2017-02-14
B. Gu, Y. Fang, P. Jia, L. Liu, L. Zhang, M. Wang.  2015.  "A New Static Detection Method of Malicious Document Based on Wavelet Package Analysis". 2015 International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP). :333-336.

More and more advanced persistent threat attacks has happened since 2009. This kind of attacks usually use more than one zero-day exploit to achieve its goal. Most of the times, the target computer will execute malicious program after the user open an infected compound document. The original detection method becomes inefficient as the attackers using a zero-day exploit to structure these compound documents. Inspired by the detection method based on structural entropy, we apply wavelet analysis to malicious document detection system. In our research, we use wavelet analysis to extract features from the raw data. These features will be used todetect whether the compound document was embed malicious code.

J. Choi, C. Choi, H. M. Lynn, P. Kim.  2015.  "Ontology Based APT Attack Behavior Analysis in Cloud Computing". 2015 10th International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA). :375-379.

Recently personal information due to the APT attack, the economic damage and leakage of confidential information is a serious social problem, a great deal of research has been done to solve this problem. APT attacks are threatening traditional hacking techniques as well as to increase the success rate of attacks using sophisticated attack techniques such attacks Zero-Day vulnerability in order to avoid detection techniques and state-of-the-art security because it uses a combination of intelligence. In this paper, the malicious code is designed to detect APT attack based on APT attack behavior ontology that occur during the operation on the target system, it uses intelligent APT attack than to define inference rules can be inferred about malicious attack behavior to propose a method that can be detected.

2015-05-06
Ahmad, A., Hassan, M.M., Aziz, A..  2014.  A Multi-token Authorization Strategy for Secure Mobile Cloud Computing. Mobile Cloud Computing, Services, and Engineering (MobileCloud), 2014 2nd IEEE International Conference on. :136-141.

Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm shifting the shape of computing models from being a technology to a utility. However, security, privacy and trust are amongst the issues that can subvert the benefits and hence wide deployment of cloud computing. With the introduction of omnipresent mobile-based clients, the ubiquity of the model increases, suggesting a still higher integration in life. Nonetheless, the security issues rise to a higher degree as well. The constrained input methods for credentials and the vulnerable wireless communication links are among factors giving rise to serious security issues. To strengthen the access control of cloud resources, organizations now commonly acquire Identity Management Systems (IdM). This paper presents that the most popular IdM, namely OAuth, working in scope of Mobile Cloud Computing has many weaknesses in authorization architecture. In particular, authors find two major issues in current IdM. First, if the IdM System is compromised through malicious code, it allows a hacker to get authorization of all the protected resources hosted on a cloud. Second, all the communication links among client, cloud and IdM carries complete authorization token, that can allow hacker, through traffic interception at any communication link, an illegitimate access of protected resources. We also suggest a solution to the reported problems, and justify our arguments with experimentation and mathematical modeling.

2015-05-05
Han, Lansheng, Qian, Mengxiao, Xu, Xingbo, Fu, Cai, Kwisaba, Hamza.  2014.  Malicious code detection model based on behavior association. Tsinghua Science and Technology. 19:508-515.

Malicious applications can be introduced to attack users and services so as to gain financial rewards, individuals' sensitive information, company and government intellectual property, and to gain remote control of systems. However, traditional methods of malicious code detection, such as signature detection, behavior detection, virtual machine detection, and heuristic detection, have various weaknesses which make them unreliable. This paper presents the existing technologies of malicious code detection and a malicious code detection model is proposed based on behavior association. The behavior points of malicious code are first extracted through API monitoring technology and integrated into the behavior; then a relation between behaviors is established according to data dependence. Next, a behavior association model is built up and a discrimination method is put forth using pushdown automation. Finally, the exact malicious code is taken as a sample to carry out an experiment on the behavior's capture, association, and discrimination, thus proving that the theoretical model is viable.
 

2015-05-04
Lopes, H., Chatterjee, M..  2014.  Application H-Secure for mobile security. Circuits, Systems, Communication and Information Technology Applications (CSCITA), 2014 International Conference on. :370-374.

Mobile security is as critical as the PIN number on our ATM card or the lock on our front door. More than our phone itself, the information inside needs safeguarding as well. Not necessarily for scams, but just peace of mind. Android seems to have attracted the most attention from malicious code writers due to its popularity. The flexibility to freely download apps and content has fueled the explosive growth of smart phones and mobile applications but it has also introduced a new risk factor. Malware can mimic popular applications and transfer contacts, photos and documents to unknown destination servers. There is no way to disable the application stores on mobile operating systems. Fortunately for end-users, our smart phones are fundamentally open devices however they can quite easily be hacked. Enterprises now provide business applications on these devices. As a result, confidential business information resides on employee-owned device. Once an employee quits, the mobile operating system wipe-out is not an optimal solution as it will delete both business and personal data. Here we propose H-Secure application for mobile security where one can store their confidential data and files in encrypted form. The encrypted file and encryption key are stored on a web server so that unauthorized person cannot access the data. If user loses the mobile then he can login into web and can delete the file and key to stop further decryption process.

2015-04-30
Han, Lansheng, Qian, Mengxiao, Xu, Xingbo, Fu, Cai, Kwisaba, Hamza.  2014.  Malicious code detection model based on behavior association. Tsinghua Science and Technology. 19:508-515.

Malicious applications can be introduced to attack users and services so as to gain financial rewards, individuals' sensitive information, company and government intellectual property, and to gain remote control of systems. However, traditional methods of malicious code detection, such as signature detection, behavior detection, virtual machine detection, and heuristic detection, have various weaknesses which make them unreliable. This paper presents the existing technologies of malicious code detection and a malicious code detection model is proposed based on behavior association. The behavior points of malicious code are first extracted through API monitoring technology and integrated into the behavior; then a relation between behaviors is established according to data dependence. Next, a behavior association model is built up and a discrimination method is put forth using pushdown automation. Finally, the exact malicious code is taken as a sample to carry out an experiment on the behavior's capture, association, and discrimination, thus proving that the theoretical model is viable.

2014-09-26
Rossow, C., Dietrich, C.J., Grier, C., Kreibich, C., Paxson, V., Pohlmann, N., Bos, H., van Steen, M..  2012.  Prudent Practices for Designing Malware Experiments: Status Quo and Outlook. Security and Privacy (SP), 2012 IEEE Symposium on. :65-79.

Malware researchers rely on the observation of malicious code in execution to collect datasets for a wide array of experiments, including generation of detection models, study of longitudinal behavior, and validation of prior research. For such research to reflect prudent science, the work needs to address a number of concerns relating to the correct and representative use of the datasets, presentation of methodology in a fashion sufficiently transparent to enable reproducibility, and due consideration of the need not to harm others. In this paper we study the methodological rigor and prudence in 36 academic publications from 2006-2011 that rely on malware execution. 40% of these papers appeared in the 6 highest-ranked academic security conferences. We find frequent shortcomings, including problematic assumptions regarding the use of execution-driven datasets (25% of the papers), absence of description of security precautions taken during experiments (71% of the articles), and oftentimes insufficient description of the experimental setup. Deficiencies occur in top-tier venues and elsewhere alike, highlighting a need for the community to improve its handling of malware datasets. In the hope of aiding authors, reviewers, and readers, we frame guidelines regarding transparency, realism, correctness, and safety for collecting and using malware datasets.