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2020-07-10
Javed Butt, Usman, Abbod, Maysam, Lors, Anzor, Jahankhani, Hamid, Jamal, Arshad, Kumar, Arvind.  2019.  Ransomware Threat and its Impact on SCADA. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :205—212.
Modern cybercrimes have exponentially grown over the last one decade. Ransomware is one of the types of malware which is the result of sophisticated attempt to compromise the modern computer systems. The governments and large corporations are investing heavily to combat this cyber threat against their critical infrastructure. It has been observed that over the last few years that Industrial Control Systems (ICS) have become the main target of Ransomware due to the sensitive operations involved in the day to day processes of these industries. As the technology is evolving, more and more traditional industrial systems are replaced with advanced industry methods involving advanced technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT). These technology shift help improve business productivity and keep the company's global competitive in an overflowing competitive market. However, the systems involved need secure measures to protect integrity and availability which will help avoid any malfunctioning to their operations due to the cyber-attacks. There have been several cyber-attack incidents on healthcare, pharmaceutical, water cleaning and energy sector. These ICS' s are operated by remote control facilities and variety of other devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) and sensors to make a network. Cyber criminals are exploring vulnerabilities in the design of these ICS's to take the command and control of these systems and disrupt daily operations until ransomware is paid. This paper will provide critical analysis of the impact of Ransomware threat on SCADA systems.
Radhakrishnan, Kiran, Menon, Rajeev R, Nath, Hiran V.  2019.  A survey of zero-day malware attacks and its detection methodology. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :533—539.
The recent malware outbreaks have shown that the existing end-point security solutions are not robust enough to secure the systems from getting compromised. The techniques, like code obfuscation along with one or more zero-days, are used by malware developers for evading the security systems. These malwares are used for large-scale attacks involving Advanced Persistent Threats(APT), Botnets, Cryptojacking, etc. Cryptojacking poses a severe threat to various organizations and individuals. We are summarising multiple methods available for the detection of malware.
Nahmias, Daniel, Cohen, Aviad, Nissim, Nir, Elovici, Yuval.  2019.  TrustSign: Trusted Malware Signature Generation in Private Clouds Using Deep Feature Transfer Learning. 2019 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1—8.
This paper presents TrustSign, a novel, trusted automatic malware signature generation method based on high-level deep features transferred from a VGG-19 neural network model pre-trained on the ImageNet dataset. While traditional automatic malware signature generation techniques rely on static or dynamic analysis of the malware's executable, our method overcomes the limitations associated with these techniques by producing signatures based on the presence of the malicious process in the volatile memory. Signatures generated using TrustSign well represent the real malware behavior during runtime. By leveraging the cloud's virtualization technology, TrustSign analyzes the malicious process in a trusted manner, since the malware is unaware and cannot interfere with the inspection procedure. Additionally, by removing the dependency on the malware's executable, our method is capable of signing fileless malware. Thus, we focus our research on in-browser cryptojacking attacks, which current antivirus solutions have difficulty to detect. However, TrustSign is not limited to cryptojacking attacks, as our evaluation included various ransomware samples. TrustSign's signature generation process does not require feature engineering or any additional model training, and it is done in a completely unsupervised manner, obviating the need for a human expert. Therefore, our method has the advantage of dramatically reducing signature generation and distribution time. The results of our experimental evaluation demonstrate TrustSign's ability to generate signatures invariant to the process state over time. By using the signatures generated by TrustSign as input for various supervised classifiers, we achieved 99.5% classification accuracy.
Yulianto, Arief Dwi, Sukarno, Parman, Warrdana, Aulia Arif, Makky, Muhammad Al.  2019.  Mitigation of Cryptojacking Attacks Using Taint Analysis. 2019 4th International Conference on Information Technology, Information Systems and Electrical Engineering (ICITISEE). :234—238.

Cryptojacking (also called malicious cryptocurrency mining or cryptomining) is a new threat model using CPU resources covertly “mining” a cryptocurrency in the browser. The impact is a surge in CPU Usage and slows the system performance. In this research, in-browsercryptojacking mitigation has been built as an extension in Google Chrome using Taint analysis method. The method used in this research is attack modeling with abuse case using the Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack as a testing for mitigation. The proposed model is designed so that users will be notified if a cryptojacking attack occurs. Hence, the user is able to check the script characteristics that run on the website background. The results of this research show that the taint analysis is a promising method to mitigate cryptojacking attacks. From 100 random sample websites, the taint analysis method can detect 19 websites that are infcted by cryptojacking.

2020-06-29
Sebbar, Anass, Zkik, Karim, Baadi, Youssef, Boulmalf, Mohammed, ECH-CHERIF El KETTANI, Mohamed Dafir.  2019.  Using advanced detection and prevention technique to mitigate threats in SDN architecture. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :90–95.
Software defined networks represent a new centralized network abstraction that aims to ease configuration and facilitate applications and services deployment to manage the upper layers. However, SDN faces several challenges that slow down its implementation such as security which represents one of the top concerns of SDN experts. Indeed, SDN inherits all security matters from traditional networks and suffers from some additional vulnerability due to its centralized and unique architecture. Using traditional security devices and solutions to mitigate SDN threats can be very complicated and can negatively effect the networks performance. In this paper we propose a study that measures the impact of using some well-known security solution to mitigate intrusions on SDN's performances. We will also present an algorithm named KPG-MT adapted to SDN architecture that aims to mitigate threats such as a Man in the Middle, Deny of Services and malware-based attacks. An implementation of our algorithm based on multiple attacks' scenarios and mitigation processes will be made to prove the efficiency of the proposed framework.
2020-06-01
Luo, Xupeng, Yan, Qiao, Wang, Mingde, Huang, Wenyao.  2019.  Using MTD and SDN-based Honeypots to Defend DDoS Attacks in IoT. 2019 Computing, Communications and IoT Applications (ComComAp). :392–395.
With the rapid development of Internet of Things (IoT), distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks become the important security threat of the IoT. Characteristics of IoT, such as large quantities and simple function, which have easily caused the IoT devices or servers to be attacked and be turned into botnets for launching DDoS attacks. In this paper, we use software-defined networking (SDN) to develop moving target defense (MTD) architecture that increases uncertainty because of ever changing attack surface. In addition, we deploy SDN-based honeypots to mimic IoT devices, luring attackers and malwares. Finally, experimental results show that combination of MTD and SDN-based honeypots can effectively hide network asset from scanner and defend against DDoS attacks in IoT.
Vishwakarma, Ruchi, Jain, Ankit Kumar.  2019.  A Honeypot with Machine Learning based Detection Framework for defending IoT based Botnet DDoS Attacks. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1019–1024.

With the tremendous growth of IoT botnet DDoS attacks in recent years, IoT security has now become one of the most concerned topics in the field of network security. A lot of security approaches have been proposed in the area, but they still lack in terms of dealing with newer emerging variants of IoT malware, known as Zero-Day Attacks. In this paper, we present a honeypot-based approach which uses machine learning techniques for malware detection. The IoT honeypot generated data is used as a dataset for the effective and dynamic training of a machine learning model. The approach can be taken as a productive outset towards combatting Zero-Day DDoS Attacks which now has emerged as an open challenge in defending IoT against DDoS Attacks.

2020-05-18
Thejaswini, S, Indupriya, C.  2019.  Big Data Security Issues and Natural Language Processing. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1307–1312.
Whenever we talk about big data, the concern is always about the security of the data. In recent days the most heard about technology is the Natural Language Processing. This new and trending technology helps in solving the ever ending security problems which are not completely solved using big data. Starting with the big data security issues, this paper deals with addressing the topics related to cyber security and information security using the Natural Language Processing technology. Including the well-known cyber-attacks such as phishing identification and spam detection, this paper also addresses issues on information assurance and security such as detection of Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) in DNS and vulnerability analysis. The goal of this paper is to provide the overview of how natural language processing can be used to address cyber security issues.
2020-04-24
Ogale, Pushkar, Shin, Michael, Abeysinghe, Sasanka.  2018.  Identifying Security Spots for Data Integrity. 2018 IEEE 42nd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 02:462—467.

This paper describes an approach to detecting malicious code introduced by insiders, which can compromise the data integrity in a program. The approach identifies security spots in a program, which are either malicious code or benign code. Malicious code is detected by reviewing each security spot to determine whether it is malicious or benign. The integrity breach conditions (IBCs) for object-oriented programs are specified to identify security spots in the programs. The IBCs are specified by means of the concepts of coupling within an object or between objects. A prototype tool is developed to validate the approach with a case study.

2020-04-17
Burgess, Jonah, Carlin, Domhnall, O'Kane, Philip, Sezer, Sakir.  2019.  MANiC: Multi-step Assessment for Crypto-miners. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1—8.
Modern Browsers have become sophisticated applications, providing a portal to the web. Browsers host a complex mix of interpreters such as HTML and JavaScript, allowing not only useful functionality but also malicious activities, known as browser-hijacking. These attacks can be particularly difficult to detect, as they usually operate within the scope of normal browser behaviour. CryptoJacking is a form of browser-hijacking that has emerged as a result of the increased popularity and profitability of cryptocurrencies, and the introduction of new cryptocurrencies that promote CPU-based mining. This paper proposes MANiC (Multi-step AssessmeNt for Crypto-miners), a system to detect CryptoJacking websites. It uses regular expressions that are compiled in accordance with the API structure of different miner families. This allows the detection of crypto-mining scripts and the extraction of parameters that could be used to detect suspicious behaviour associated with CryptoJacking. When MANiC was used to analyse the Alexa top 1m websites, it detected 887 malicious URLs containing miners from 11 different families and demonstrated favourable results when compared to related CryptoJacking research. We demonstrate that MANiC can be used to provide insights into this new threat, to identify new potential features of interest and to establish a ground-truth dataset, assisting future research.
2020-04-06
Chen, Chia-Mei, Wang, Shi-Hao, Wen, Dan-Wei, Lai, Gu-Hsin, Sun, Ming-Kung.  2019.  Applying Convolutional Neural Network for Malware Detection. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Awareness Science and Technology (iCAST). :1—5.

Failure to detect malware at its very inception leaves room for it to post significant threat and cost to cyber security for not only individuals, organizations but also the society and nation. However, the rapid growth in volume and diversity of malware renders conventional detection techniques that utilize feature extraction and comparison insufficient, making it very difficult for well-trained network administrators to identify malware, not to mention regular users of internet. Challenges in malware detection is exacerbated since complexity in the type and structure also increase dramatically in these years to include source code, binary file, shell script, Perl script, instructions, settings and others. Such increased complexity offers a premium on misjudgment. In order to increase malware detection efficiency and accuracy under large volume and multiple types of malware, this research adopts Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), one of the most successful deep learning techniques. The experiment shows an accuracy rate of over 90% in identifying malicious and benign codes. The experiment also presents that CNN is effective with detecting source code and binary code, it can further identify malware that is embedded into benign code, leaving malware no place to hide. This research proposes a feasible solution for network administrators to efficiently identify malware at the very inception in the severe network environment nowadays, so that information technology personnel can take protective actions in a timely manner and make preparations for potential follow-up cyber-attacks.

Liu, Lan, Lin, Jun, Wang, Qiang, Xu, Xiaoping.  2018.  Research on Network Malicious Code Detection and Provenance Tracking in Future Network. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :264–268.
with the development of SDN, ICN and 5G networks, the research of future network becomes a hot topic. Based on the design idea of SDN network, this paper analyzes the propagation model and detection method of malicious code in future network. We select characteristics of SDN and analyze the features use different feature selection methods and sort the features. After comparison the influence of running time by different classification algorithm of different feature selection, we analyze the choice of reduction dimension m, and find out the different types of malicious code corresponding to the optimal feature subset and matching classification method, designed for malware detection system. We analyze the node migration rate of malware in mobile network and its effect on the outbreak of the time. In this way, it can provide reference for the management strategy of the switch node or the host node by future network controller.
2020-03-27
Walker, Aaron, Amjad, Muhammad Faisal, Sengupta, Shamik.  2019.  Cuckoo’s Malware Threat Scoring and Classification: Friend or Foe? 2019 IEEE 9th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0678–0684.
Malware threat classification involves understanding the behavior of the malicious software and how it affects a victim host system. Classifying threats allows for measured response appropriate to the risk involved. Malware incident response depends on many automated tools for the classification of threat to help identify the appropriate reaction to a threat alert. Cuckoo Sandbox is one such tool which can be used for automated analysis of malware and one method of threat classification provided is a threat score. A security analyst might submit a suspicious file to Cuckoo for analysis to determine whether or not the file contains malware or performs potentially malicious behavior on a system. Cuckoo is capable of producing a report of this behavior and ranks the severity of the observed actions as a score from one to ten, with ten being the most severe. As such, a malware sample classified as an 8 would likely take priority over a sample classified as a 3. Unfortunately, this scoring classification can be misleading due to the underlying methodology of severity classification. In this paper we demonstrate why the current methodology of threat scoring is flawed and therefore we believe it can be improved with greater emphasis on analyzing the behavior of the malware. This allows for a threat classification rating which scales with the risk involved in the malware behavior.
Liu, Yingying, Wang, Yiwei.  2019.  A Robust Malware Detection System Using Deep Learning on API Calls. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1456–1460.
With the development of technology, the massive malware become the major challenge to current computer security. In our work, we implemented a malware detection system using deep learning on API calls. By means of cuckoo sandbox, we extracted the API calls sequence of malicious programs. Through filtering and ordering the redundant API calls, we extracted the valid API sequences. Compared with GRU, BGRU, LSTM and SimpleRNN, we evaluated the BLSTM on the massive datasets including 21,378 samples. The experimental results demonstrate that BLSTM has the best performance for malware detection, reaching the accuracy of 97.85%.
2020-03-12
Park, Sean, Gondal, Iqbal, Kamruzzaman, Joarder, Zhang, Leo.  2019.  One-Shot Malware Outbreak Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Isomorphic Dynamic Features. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :751–756.

Fingerprinting the malware by its behavioural signature has been an attractive approach for malware detection due to the homogeneity of dynamic execution patterns across different variants of similar families. Although previous researches show reasonably good performance in dynamic detection using machine learning techniques on a large corpus of training set, decisions must be undertaken based upon a scarce number of observable samples in many practical defence scenarios. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of generative adversarial autoencoder for dynamic malware detection under outbreak situations where in most cases a single sample is available for training the machine learning algorithm to detect similar samples that are in the wild.

2020-03-09
Khan, Iqra, Durad, Hanif, Alam, Masoom.  2019.  Data Analytics Layer For high-interaction Honeypots. 2019 16th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). :681–686.

Security of VMs is now becoming a hot topic due to their outsourcing in cloud computing paradigm. All VMs present on the network are connected to each other, making exploited VMs danger to other VMs. and threats to organization. Rejuvenation of virtualization brought the emergence of hyper-visor based security services like VMI (Virtual machine introspection). As there is a greater chance for any intrusion detection system running on the same system, of being dis-abled by the malware or attacker. Monitoring of VMs using VMI, is one of the most researched and accepted technique, that is used to ensure computer systems security mostly in the paradigm of cloud computing. This thesis presents a work that is to integrate LibVMI with Volatility on a KVM, a Linux based hypervisor, to introspect memory of VMs. Both of these tools are used to monitor the state of live VMs. VMI capability of monitoring VMs is combined with the malware analysis and virtual honeypots to achieve the objective of this project. A testing environment is deployed, where a network of VMs is used to be introspected using Volatility plug-ins. Time execution of each plug-in executed on live VMs is calculated to observe the performance of Volatility plug-ins. All these VMs are deployed as Virtual Honeypots having honey-pots configured on them, which is used as a detection mechanism to trigger alerts when some malware attack the VMs. Using STIX (Structure Threat Information Expression), extracted IOCs are converted into the understandable, flexible, structured and shareable format.

Joseph, Linda, Mukesh, Rajeswari.  2019.  To Detect Malware attacks for an Autonomic Self-Heal Approach of Virtual Machines in Cloud Computing. 2019 Fifth International Conference on Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (ICONSTEM). 1:220–231.

Cloud Computing as of large is evolving at a faster pace with an ever changing set of cloud services. The amenities in the cloud are all enabled with respect to the public cloud services in their own enormous domain aspects commercially, which tend to be more insecure. These cloud services should be thus protected and secured which is very vital to the cloud infrastructures. Therefore, in this research work, we have identified security features with a self-heal approach that could be rendered on the infrastructure as a service (IaaS) in a private cloud environment. We have investigated the attack model from the virtual machine snapshots and have analyzed based on the supervised machine learning techniques. The virtual machines memory snapshots API call sequences are considered as input for the supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms to classify the attacked and the un-attacked virtual machine memory snapshots. The obtained set of the attacked virtual machine memory snapshots are given as input to the self-heal algorithm which is enabled to retrieve back the functionality of the virtual machines. Our method of detecting the malware attains about 93% of accuracy with respect to the virtual machine snapshots.

Hăjmăȿan, Gheorghe, Mondoc, Alexandra, Creț, Octavian.  2019.  Bytecode Heuristic Signatures for Detecting Malware Behavior. 2019 Conference on Next Generation Computing Applications (NextComp). :1–6.
For a long time, the most important approach for detecting malicious applications was the use of static, hash-based signatures. This approach provides a fast response time, has a low performance overhead and is very stable due to its simplicity. However, with the rapid growth in the number of malware, as well as their increased complexity in terms of polymorphism and evasion, the era of reactive security solutions started to fade in favor of new, proactive approaches such as behavior based detection. We propose a novel approach that uses an interpreter virtual machine to run proactive behavior heuristics from bytecode signatures, thus combining the advantages of behavior based detection with those of signatures. Based on our approximation, using this approach we succeeded to reduce by 85% the time required to update a behavior based detection solution to detect new threats, while continuing to benefit from the versatility of behavior heuristics.
2020-02-26
Matin, Iik Muhamad Malik, Rahardjo, Budi.  2019.  Malware Detection Using Honeypot and Machine Learning. 2019 7th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM). 7:1–4.

Malware is one of the threats to information security that continues to increase. In 2014 nearly six million new malware was recorded. The highest number of malware is in Trojan Horse malware while in Adware malware is the most significantly increased malware. Security system devices such as antivirus, firewall, and IDS signature-based are considered to fail to detect malware. This happens because of the very fast spread of computer malware and the increasing number of signatures. Besides signature-based security systems it is difficult to identify new methods, viruses or worms used by attackers. One other alternative in detecting malware is to use honeypot with machine learning. Honeypot can be used as a trap for packages that are suspected while machine learning can detect malware by classifying classes. Decision Tree and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used as classification algorithms. In this paper, we propose architectural design as a solution to detect malware. We presented the architectural proposal and explained the experimental method to be used.

Bhatnagar, Dev, Som, Subhranil, Khatri, Sunil Kumar.  2019.  Advance Persistant Threat and Cyber Spying - The Big Picture, Its Tools, Attack Vectors and Countermeasures. 2019 Amity International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AICAI). :828–839.

Advance persistent threat is a primary security concerns to the big organizations and its technical infrastructure, from cyber criminals seeking personal and financial information to state sponsored attacks designed to disrupt, compromising infrastructure, sidestepping security efforts thus causing serious damage to organizations. A skilled cybercriminal using multiple attack vectors and entry points navigates around the defenses, evading IDS/Firewall detection and breaching the network in no time. To understand the big picture, this paper analyses an approach to advanced persistent threat by doing the same things the bad guys do on a network setup. We will walk through various steps from foot-printing and reconnaissance, scanning networks, gaining access, maintaining access to finally clearing tracks, as in a real world attack. We will walk through different attack tools and exploits used in each phase and comparative study on their effectiveness, along with explaining their attack vectors and its countermeasures. We will conclude the paper by explaining the factors which actually qualify to be an Advance Persistent Threat.

2020-02-18
Huang, Yonghong, Verma, Utkarsh, Fralick, Celeste, Infantec-Lopez, Gabriel, Kumar, Brajesh, Woodward, Carl.  2019.  Malware Evasion Attack and Defense. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :34–38.

Machine learning (ML) classifiers are vulnerable to adversarial examples. An adversarial example is an input sample which is slightly modified to induce misclassification in an ML classifier. In this work, we investigate white-box and grey-box evasion attacks to an ML-based malware detector and conduct performance evaluations in a real-world setting. We compare the defense approaches in mitigating the attacks. We propose a framework for deploying grey-box and black-box attacks to malware detection systems.

2020-02-17
Biswal, Satya Ranjan, Swain, Santosh Kumar.  2019.  Model for Study of Malware Propagation Dynamics in Wireless Sensor Network. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :647–653.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) faces critical security challenges due to malware(worm, virus, malicious code etc.) attack. When a single node gets compromised by malware then start to spread in entire sensor network through neighboring sensor nodes. To understand the dynamics of malware propagation in WSN proposed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Dead (SEIRD) model. This model used the concept of epidemiology. The model focused on early detection of malicious signals presence in the network and accordingly application of security mechanism for its removal. The early detection method helps in controlling of malware spread and reduce battery consumption of sensor nodes. In this paper study the dynamics of malware propagation and stability analysis of the system. In epidemiology basic reproduction number is a crucial parameter which is used for the determination of malware status in the system. The expression of basic reproduction number has been obtained. Analyze the propagation dynamics and compared with previous model. The proposed model provides improved security mechanism in comparison to previous one. The extensive simulation results conform the analytical investigation and accuracy of proposed model.
Skopik, Florian, Filip, Stefan.  2019.  Design principles for national cyber security sensor networks: Lessons learned from small-scale demonstrators. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–8.
The timely exchange of information on new threats and vulnerabilities has become a cornerstone of effective cyber defence in recent years. Especially national authorities increasingly assume their role as information brokers through national cyber security centres and distribute warnings on new attack vectors and vital recommendations on how to mitigate them. Although many of these initiatives are effective to some degree, they also suffer from severe limitations. Many steps in the exchange process require extensive human involvement to manually review, vet, enrich, analyse and distribute security information. Some countries have therefore started to adopt distributed cyber security sensor networks to enable the automatic collection, analysis and preparation of security data and thus effectively overcome limiting scalability factors. The basic idea of IoC-centric cyber security sensor networks is that the national authorities distribute Indicators of Compromise (IoCs) to organizations and receive sightings in return. This effectively helps them to estimate the spreading of malware, anticipate further trends of spreading and derive vital findings for decision makers. While this application case seems quite simple, there are some tough questions to be answered in advance, which steer the further design decisions: How much can the monitored organization be trusted to be a partner in the search for malware? How much control of the scanning process should be delegated to the organization? What is the right level of search depth? How to deal with confidential indicators? What can be derived from encrypted traffic? How are new indicators distributed, prioritized, and scan targets selected in a scalable manner? What is a good strategy to re-schedule scans to derive meaningful data on trends, such as rate of spreading? This paper suggests a blueprint for a sensor network and raises related questions, outlines design principles, and discusses lessons learned from small-scale pilots.
2020-02-10
Ding, Steven H. H., Fung, Benjamin C. M., Charland, Philippe.  2019.  Asm2Vec: Boosting Static Representation Robustness for Binary Clone Search against Code Obfuscation and Compiler Optimization. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :472–489.

Reverse engineering is a manually intensive but necessary technique for understanding the inner workings of new malware, finding vulnerabilities in existing systems, and detecting patent infringements in released software. An assembly clone search engine facilitates the work of reverse engineers by identifying those duplicated or known parts. However, it is challenging to design a robust clone search engine, since there exist various compiler optimization options and code obfuscation techniques that make logically similar assembly functions appear to be very different. A practical clone search engine relies on a robust vector representation of assembly code. However, the existing clone search approaches, which rely on a manual feature engineering process to form a feature vector for an assembly function, fail to consider the relationships between features and identify those unique patterns that can statistically distinguish assembly functions. To address this problem, we propose to jointly learn the lexical semantic relationships and the vector representation of assembly functions based on assembly code. We have developed an assembly code representation learning model \textbackslashemphAsm2Vec. It only needs assembly code as input and does not require any prior knowledge such as the correct mapping between assembly functions. It can find and incorporate rich semantic relationships among tokens appearing in assembly code. We conduct extensive experiments and benchmark the learning model with state-of-the-art static and dynamic clone search approaches. We show that the learned representation is more robust and significantly outperforms existing methods against changes introduced by obfuscation and optimizations.

2020-01-28
KADOGUCHI, Masashi, HAYASHI, Shota, HASHIMOTO, Masaki, OTSUKA, Akira.  2019.  Exploring the Dark Web for Cyber Threat Intelligence Using Machine Leaning. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :200–202.

In recent years, cyber attack techniques are increasingly sophisticated, and blocking the attack is more and more difficult, even if a kind of counter measure or another is taken. In order for a successful handling of this situation, it is crucial to have a prediction of cyber attacks, appropriate precautions, and effective utilization of cyber intelligence that enables these actions. Malicious hackers share various kinds of information through particular communities such as the dark web, indicating that a great deal of intelligence exists in cyberspace. This paper focuses on forums on the dark web and proposes an approach to extract forums which include important information or intelligence from huge amounts of forums and identify traits of each forum using methodologies such as machine learning, natural language processing and so on. This approach will allow us to grasp the emerging threats in cyberspace and take appropriate measures against malicious activities.