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2021-11-08
He, Hongmei, Gray, John, Cangelosi, Angelo, Meng, Qinggang, McGinnity, T. M., Mehnen, Jörn.  2020.  The Challenges and Opportunities of Artificial Intelligence for Trustworthy Robots and Autonomous Systems. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Robotic and Control Engineering (IRCE). :68–74.
Trust is essential in designing autonomous and semiautonomous Robots and Autonomous Systems (RAS), because of the ``No trust, no use'' concept. RAS should provide high quality services, with four key properties that make them trustworthy: they must be (i) robust with regards to any system health related issues, (ii) safe for any matters in their surrounding environments, (iii) secure against any threats from cyber spaces, and (iv) trusted for human-machine interaction. This article thoroughly analyses the challenges in implementing the trustworthy RAS in respects of the four properties, and addresses the power of AI in improving the trustworthiness of RAS. While we focus on the benefits that AI brings to human, we should realize the potential risks that could be caused by AI. This article introduces for the first time the set of key aspects of human-centered AI for RAS, which can serve as a cornerstone for implementing trustworthy RAS by design in the future.
Liu, Qian, de Simone, Robert, Chen, Xiaohong, Kang, Jiexiang, Liu, Jing, Yin, Wei, Wang, Hui.  2020.  Multiform Logical Time Amp; Space for Mobile Cyber-Physical System With Automated Driving Assistance System. 2020 27th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC). :415–424.
We study the use of Multiform Logical Time, as embodied in Esterel/SyncCharts and Clock Constraint Specification Language (CCSL), for the specification of assume-guarantee constraints providing safe driving rules related to time and space, in the context of Automated Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). The main novelty lies in the use of logical clocks to represent the epochs of specific area encounters (when particular area trajectories just start overlapping for instance), thereby combining time and space constraints by CCSL to build safe driving rules specification. We propose the safe specification pattern at high-level that provide the required expressiveness for safe driving rules specification. In the pattern, multiform logical time provides the power of parameterization to express safe driving rules, before instantiation in further simulation contexts. We present an efficient way to irregularly update the constraints in the specification due to the context changes, where elements (other cars, road sections, traffic signs) may dynamically enter and exit the scene. In this way, we add constraints for the new elements and remove the constraints related to the disappearing elements rather than rebuild everything. The multi-lane highway scenario is used to illustrate how to irregularly and efficiently update the constraints in the specification while receiving a fresh scene.
2021-10-12
Remlein, Piotr, Rogacki, Mikołaj, Stachowiak, Urszula.  2020.  Tamarin software – the tool for protocols verification security. 2020 Baltic URSI Symposium (URSI). :118–123.
In order to develop safety-reliable standards for IoT (Internet of Things) networks, appropriate tools for their verification are needed. Among them there is a group of tools based on automated symbolic analysis. Such a tool is Tamarin software. Its usage for creating formal proofs of security protocols correctness has been presented in this paper using the simple example of an exchange of messages with asynchronous encryption between two agents. This model can be used in sensor networks or IoT e.g. in TLS protocol to provide a mechanism for secure cryptographic key exchange.
Zhong, Zhenyu, Hu, Zhisheng, Chen, Xiaowei.  2020.  Quantifying DNN Model Robustness to the Real-World Threats. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :150–157.
DNN models have suffered from adversarial example attacks, which lead to inconsistent prediction results. As opposed to the gradient-based attack, which assumes white-box access to the model by the attacker, we focus on more realistic input perturbations from the real-world and their actual impact on the model robustness without any presence of the attackers. In this work, we promote a standardized framework to quantify the robustness against real-world threats. It is composed of a set of safety properties associated with common violations, a group of metrics to measure the minimal perturbation that causes the offense, and various criteria that reflect different aspects of the model robustness. By revealing comparison results through this framework among 13 pre-trained ImageNet classifiers, three state-of-the-art object detectors, and three cloud-based content moderators, we deliver the status quo of the real-world model robustness. Beyond that, we provide robustness benchmarking datasets for the community.
2021-10-04
Yadav, Mohini, Shankar, Deepak, Jose, Tom.  2020.  Functional Safety for Braking System through ISO 26262, Operating System Security and DO 254. 2020 AIAA/IEEE 39th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–8.
This paper presents an introduction to functional safety through ISO 26262 focusing on system, software and hardware possible failures that bring security threats and discussion on DO 254. It discusses the approach to bridge the gap between different other hazard level and system ability to identify the particular fault and resolve it minimum time span possible. Results are analyzed by designing models to check and avoid all the failures, loophole prior development.
Das, Debashis, Banerjee, Sourav, Mansoor, Wathiq, Biswas, Utpal, Chatterjee, Pushpita, Ghosh, Uttam.  2020.  Design of a Secure Blockchain-Based Smart IoV Architecture. 2020 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Information Security (ICSPIS). :1–4.
Blockchain is developing rapidly in various domains for its security. Nowadays, one of the most crucial fundamental concerns is internet security. Blockchain is a novel solution to enhance the security of network applications. However, there are no precise frameworks to secure the Internet of Vehicle (IoV) using Blockchain technology. In this paper, a blockchain-based smart internet of vehicle (BSIoV) framework has been proposed due to the cooperative, collaborative, transparent, and secure characteristics of Blockchain. The main contribution of the proposed work is to connect vehicle-related authorities together to fix a secure and transparent vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication through the peer-to-peer network connection and provide secure services to the intelligent transport systems. A key management strategy has been included to identify a vehicle in this proposed system. The proposed framework can also provide a significant solution for the data security and safety of the connected vehicles in blockchain network.
2021-09-30
Bagbaba, Ahmet Cagri, Jenihhin, Maksim, Ubar, Raimund, Sauer, Christian.  2020.  Representing Gate-Level SET Faults by Multiple SEU Faults at RTL. 2020 IEEE 26th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :1–6.
The advanced complex electronic systems increasingly demand safer and more secure hardware parts. Correspondingly, fault injection became a major verification milestone for both safety- and security-critical applications. However, fault injection campaigns for gate-level designs suffer from huge execution times. Therefore, designers need to apply early design evaluation techniques to reduce the execution time of fault injection campaigns. In this work, we propose a method to represent gate-level Single-Event Transient (SET) faults by multiple Single-Event Upset (SEU) faults at the Register-Transfer Level. Introduced approach is to identify true and false logic paths for each SET in the flip-flops' fan-in logic cones to obtain more accurate sets of flip-flops for multiple SEUs injections at RTL. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method to successfully reduce the fault space and also its advantage with respect to state of the art. It was shown that the approach is able to reduce the fault space, and therefore the fault-injection effort, by up to tens to hundreds of times.
Gava, Jonas, Reis, Ricardo, Ost, Luciano.  2020.  RAT: A Lightweight System-Level Soft Error Mitigation Technique. 2020 IFIP/IEEE 28th International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SOC). :165–170.
To achieve a substantial reliability and safety level, it is imperative to provide electronic computing systems with appropriate mechanisms to tackle soft errors. This paper proposes a low-cost system-level soft error mitigation technique, which allocates the critical application function to a pool of specific general-purpose processor registers. Both the critical function and the register pool are automatically selected by a developed profiling tool. The proposed technique was validated through more than 320K fault injections considering a Linux kernel, different benchmarks and two multicore ARM processors. Results show that our technique significantly reduces the code size and performance overheads while providing reliability improvement, w.r.t. the Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) technique.
2021-09-21
Ilavendhan, A., Saruladha, K..  2020.  Comparative Analysis of Various Approaches for DoS Attack Detection in VANETs. 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC). :821–825.
VANET plays a vital role to optimize the journey between source and destination in the growth of smart cities worldwide. The crucial information shared between vehicles is concerned primarily with safety. VANET is a MANET sub-class network that provides a free movement and communication between the RSU and vehicles. The self organized with high mobility in VANET makes any vehicle can transmit malicious messages to some other vehicle in the network. In the defense horizon of VANETs this is a matter of concern. It is the duty of RSU to ensure the safe transmission of sensitive information across the Network to each node. For this, network access exists as the key safety prerequisite, and several risks or attacks can be experienced. The VANETs is vulnerable to a range of security attacks including masquerading, selfish node attack, Sybil attack etc. One of the main threats to network access is this Denial of Service attack. The most important research in the literature on the prevention of Denial of Service Attack in VANETs was explored in this paper. The limitations of each reviewed paper are also presented and Game theory based security model is defined in this paper.
2021-09-16
Astakhova, Liudmila, Medvedev, Ivan.  2020.  The Software Application for Increasing the Awareness of Industrial Enterprise Workers on Information Security of Significant Objects of Critical Information Infrastructure. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :121–126.
Digitalization of production and management as the imperatives of Industry 4.0 stipulated the requirements of state regulators for informing and training personnel of a significant object of critical information infrastructure. However, the attention of industrial enterprises to this problem is assessed as insufficient. This determines the relevance and purpose of this article - to develop a methodology and tool for raising the awareness of workers of an industrial enterprise about information security (IS) of significant objects of critical information infrastructure. The article reveals the features of training at industrial enterprises associated with a high level of development of safety and labor protection systems. Traditional and innovative methods and means of training personnel at the workplace within the framework of these systems and their opportunities for training in the field of information security are shown. The specificity of the content and forms of training employees on the security of critical information infrastructure has been substantiated. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the development of methods and software applications that can perform the functions of identifying personal qualities of employees; testing the input level of their knowledge in the field of IS; testing for knowledge of IS rules (by the example of a response to socio-engineering attacks); planning an individual thematic plan for employee training; automatic creation of a modular program and its content; automatic notification of the employee about the training schedule at the workplace; organization of training according to the schedule; control self-testing and testing the level of knowledge of the employee after training; organizing a survey to determine satisfaction with employee training. The practical significance of the work lies in the possibility of implementing the developed software application in industrial enterprises, which is confirmed by the successful results of its testing.
2021-09-09
Zeke, LI, Zewen, CHEN, Chunyan, WANG, Zhiguang, XU, Ye, LIANG.  2020.  Research on Security Evaluation Technology of Wireless Access of Electric Power Monitoring System Based on Fuzzy. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering Technology (CCET). :318–321.
In order to solve the defense problem of wireless network security threats in new energy stations, a new wireless network security risk assessment model which proposes a wireless access security evaluation method for power monitoring system based on fuzzy theory, was established based on the study of security risk assessment methods in this paper. The security evaluation method first divides the security evaluation factor set, then determines the security evaluation weight coefficient, then calculates the network security level membership matrix, and finally combines specific examples to analyze the resulting data. this paper provided new ideas and methods for the wireless access security evaluation of new energy stations.
2021-09-01
Hardin, David S..  2020.  Verified Hardware/Software Co-Assurance: Enhancing Safety and Security for Critical Systems. 2020 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1—6.
Experienced developers of safety-critical and security-critical systems have long emphasized the importance of applying the highest degree of scrutiny to a system's I/O boundaries. From a safety perspective, input validation is a traditional “best practice.” For security-critical architecture and design, identification of the attack surface has emerged as a primary analysis technique. One of our current research focus areas concerns the identification of and mitigation against attacks along that surface, using mathematically-based tools. We are motivated in these efforts by emerging application areas, such as assured autonomy, that feature a high degree of network connectivity, require sophisticated algorithms and data structures, are subject to stringent accreditation/certification, and encourage hardware/software co-design approaches. We have conducted several experiments employing a state-of-the-art toolchain, due to Russinoff and O'Leary, and originally designed for use in floating-point hardware verification, to determine its suitability for the creation of safety-critical/security-critical input filters. We focus first on software implementation, but extending to hardware as well as hardware/software co-designs. We have implemented a high-assurance filter for JSON-formatted data used in an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) application. Our JSON filter is built using a table-driven lexer/parser, supported by mathematically-proven lexer and parser table generation technology, as well as verified data structures. Filter behavior is expressed in a subset of Algorithmic C, which defines a set of C++ header files providing support for hardware design, including the peculiar bit widths utilized in that discipline, and enables compilation to both hardware and software platforms. The Russinoff-O'Leary Restricted Algorithmic C (RAC) toolchain translates Algorithmic C source to the Common Lisp subset supported by the ACL2 theorem prover; once in ACL2, filter behavior can be mathematically verified. We describe how we utilize RAC to translate our JSON filter to ACL2, present proofs of correctness for its associated data types, and describe validation and performance results obtained through the use of concrete test vectors.
2021-08-02
Billah, Mohammad Masum, Khan, Niaz Ahmed, Ullah, Mohammad Woli, Shahriar, Faisal, Rashid, Syed Zahidur, Ahmed, Md Razu.  2020.  Developing a Secured and Reliable Vehicular Communication System and Its Performance Evaluation. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :60–65.
The Ad-hoc Vehicular networks (VANET) was developed through the implementation of the concepts of ad-hoc mobile networks(MANET), which is swiftly maturing, promising, emerging wireless communication technology nowadays. Vehicular communication enables us to communicate with other vehicles and Roadside Infrastructure Units (RSU) to share information pertaining to the safety system, traffic analysis, Authentication, privacy, etc. As VANETs operate in an open wireless connectivity system, it increases permeable of variant type's security issues. Security concerns, however, which are either generally seen in ad-hoc networks or utterly unique to VANET, present significant challenges. Access Control List (ACL) can be an efficient feature to solve such security issues by permitting statements to access registered specific IP addresses in the network and deny statement unregistered IP addresses in the system. To establish such secured VANETs, the License number of the vehicle will be the Identity Number, which will be assigned via a DNS server by the Traffic Certification Authority (TCA). TCA allows registered vehicles to access the nearest two or more regions. For special vehicles, public access should be restricted by configuring ACL on a specific IP. Smart-card given by TCA can be used to authenticate a subscriber by checking previous records during entry to a new network area. After in-depth analysis of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Packet Loss Ratio (PLR), Average Delay, and Handover Delay, this research offers more secure and reliable communication in VANETs.
2021-07-08
Su, Yishan, Zhang, Ting, Jin, Zhigang, Guo, Lei.  2020.  An Anti-Attack Trust Mechanism Based on Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—5.
The main method for long-distance underwater communication is underwater acoustic communication(UAC). The bandwidth of UAC channel is narrow and the frequency band resources are scarce. Therefore, it is important to improve the frequency band utilization of UAC system. Cognitive underwater acoustic (CUA) technology is an important method. CUA network can share spectrum resources with the primary network. Spectrum sensing (SS) technology is the premise of realizing CUA. Therefore, improving the accuracy of spectral sensing is the main purpose of this paper. However, the realization of underwater SS technology still faces many difficulties. First, underwater energy supplies are scarce, making it difficult to apply complex algorithms. Second, and more seriously, CUA network can sometimes be attacked and exploited by hostile forces, which will not only lead to data leakage, but also greatly affect the accuracy of SS. In order to improve the utilization of underwater spectrum and avoid attack, an underwater spectrum sensing model based on the two-threshold energy detection method and K of M fusion decision method is established. Then, the trust mechanism based on beta function and XOR operation are proposed to combat individual attack and multi-user joint attack (MUJA) respectively. Finally, simulation result shows the effectiveness of these methods.
2021-06-30
Solomon Doss, J. Kingsleen, Kamalakkannan, S..  2020.  IoT System Accomplishment using BlockChain in Validating and Data Security with Cloud. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :60—64.
In a block channel IoT system, sensitive details can be leaked by means of the proof of work or address check, as data or application Validation data is applied on the blockchain. In this, the zero-knowledge evidence is applied to a smart metering system to show how to improve the anonymity of the blockchain for privacy safety without disclosing information as a public key. Within this article, a blockchain has been implemented to deter security risks such as data counterfeiting by utilizing intelligent meters. Zero-Knowledge Proof, an anonymity blockchain technology, has been implemented through block inquiry to prevent threats to security like personal information infringement. It was suggested that intelligent contracts would be used to avoid falsification of intelligent meter data and abuse of personal details.
Asyaev, G. D., Antyasov, I. S..  2020.  Model for Providing Information Security of APCS Based on Predictive Maintenance Technology. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :287—290.
In article the basic criteria of quality of work of the automated control system of technological process (APCS) are considered, the analysis of critical moments and level of information safety of APCS is spent. The model of maintenance of information safety of APCS on the basis of technology of predictive maintenance with application of intellectual methods of data processing is offered. The model allows to generate the list of actions at detection of new kinds of the threats connected with destructive influences on object, proceeding from acceptability of predicted consequences of work of APCS. In article with use of the system analysis the complex model of the technical object of automation is developed, allowing to estimate consequences from realization of threats of information safety at various system levels of APCS.
2021-05-20
Sunehra, Dhiraj, Sreshta, V. Sai, Shashank, V., Kumar Goud, B. Uday.  2020.  Raspberry Pi Based Smart Wearable Device for Women Safety using GPS and GSM Technology. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1—5.
Security has become a major concern for women, children and even elders in every walk of their life. Women are getting assaulted and molested, children are getting kidnapped, elder citizens are also facing many problems like robbery, etc. In this paper, a smart security solution called smart wearable device system is implemented using the Raspberry Pi3 for enhancing the safety and security of women/children. It works as an alert as well as a security system. It provides a buzzer alert alert to the people who are nearby to the user (wearing the smart device). The system uses Global Positioning System (GPS) to locate the user, sends the location of the user through SMS to the emergency contact and police using the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) / General Radio Packet Service (GPRS) technology. The device also captures the image of the assault and surroundings of the user or victim using USB Web Camera interfaced to the device and sends it as an E-mail alert to the emergency contact soon after the user presses the panic button present on Smart wearable device system.
2021-05-18
Wei, Hanlin, Bai, Guangdong, Luo, Zongwei.  2020.  Foggy: A New Anonymous Communication Architecture Based on Microservices. 2020 25th International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS). :135–144.
This paper presents Foggy, an anonymous communication system focusing on providing users with anonymous web browsing. Foggy provides a microservice-based proxy for web browsing and other low-latency network activities without exposing users' metadata and browsed content to adversaries. It is designed with decentralized information management, web caching, and configurable service selection. Although Foggy seems to be more centralized compared with Tor, it gains an advantage in manageability while retaining anonymity. Foggy can be deployed by several agencies to become more decentralized. We prototype Foggy and test its performance. Our experiments show Foggy's low latency and deployability, demonstrating its potential to be a commercial solution for real-world deployment.
2021-05-05
Konwar, Kishori M., Kumar, Saptaparni, Tseng, Lewis.  2020.  Semi-Fast Byzantine-tolerant Shared Register without Reliable Broadcast. 2020 IEEE 40th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :743—753.
Shared register emulations on top of message-passing systems provide an illusion of a simpler shared memory system which can make the task of a system designer easier. Numerous shared register applications have a considerably high read-to-write ratio. Thus, having algorithms that make reads more efficient than writes is a fair trade-off.Typically, such algorithms for reads and writes are asymmetric and sacrifice the stringent consistency condition atomicity, as it is impossible to have fast reads for multi-writer atomicity. Safety is a consistency condition that has has gathered interest from both the systems and theory community as it is weaker than atomicity yet provides strong enough guarantees like "strong consistency" or read-my-write consistency. One requirement that is assumed by many researchers is that of the reliable broadcast (RB) primitive, which ensures the "all or none" property during a broadcast. One drawback is that such a primitive takes 1.5 rounds to complete and requires server-to-server communication.This paper implements an efficient multi-writer multi-reader safe register without using a reliable broadcast primitive. Moreover, we provide fast reads or one-shot reads – our read operations can be completed in one round of client-to-server communication. Of course, this comes with the price of requiring more servers when compared to prior solutions assuming reliable broadcast. However, we show that this increased number of servers is indeed necessary as we prove a tight bound on the number of servers required to implement Byzantine-fault tolerant safe registers in a system without reliable broadcast.We extend our results to data stored using erasure coding as well. We present an emulation of single-writer multi-reader safe register based on MDS codes. The usage of MDS codes reduces storage and communication costs. On the negative side, we also show that to use MDS codes and at the same time achieve one-shot reads, we need even more servers.
2021-05-03
Naik, Nikhil, Nuzzo, Pierluigi.  2020.  Robustness Contracts for Scalable Verification of Neural Network-Enabled Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 18th ACM-IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for System Design (MEMOCODE). :1–12.
The proliferation of artificial intelligence based systems in all walks of life raises concerns about their safety and robustness, especially for cyber-physical systems including multiple machine learning components. In this paper, we introduce robustness contracts as a framework for compositional specification and reasoning about the robustness of cyber-physical systems based on neural network (NN) components. Robustness contracts can encompass and generalize a variety of notions of robustness which were previously proposed in the literature. They can seamlessly apply to NN-based perception as well as deep reinforcement learning (RL)-enabled control applications. We present a sound and complete algorithm that can efficiently verify the satisfaction of a class of robustness contracts on NNs by leveraging notions from Lagrangian duality to identify system configurations that violate the contracts. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach on the verification of NN-based perception systems and deep RL-based control systems.
2021-04-27
Altarawneh, A., Skjellum, A..  2020.  The Security Ingredients for Correct and Byzantine Fault-tolerant Blockchain Consensus Algorithms. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—9.

The blockchain technology revolution and the use of blockchains in various applications have resulted in many companies and programmers developing and customizing specific fit-for-purpose consensus algorithms. Security and performance are determined by the chosen consensus algorithm; hence, the reliability and security of these algorithms must be assured and tested, which requires an understanding of all the security assumptions that make such algorithms correct and byzantine fault-tolerant.This paper studies the "security ingredients" that enable a given consensus algorithm to achieve safety, liveness, and byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) in both permissioned and permissionless blockchain systems. The key contributions of this paper are the organization of these requirements and a new taxonomy that describes the requirements for security. The CAP Theorem is utilized to explain important tradeoffs between consistency and availability in consensus algorithm design, which are crucial depending on the specific application of a given algorithm. This topic has also been explored previously by De Angelis. However, this paper expands that prior explanation and dilemma of consistency vs. availability and then combines this with Buterin's Trilemma to complete the overall exposition of tradeoffs.

Agirre, I., Onaindia, P., Poggi, T., Yarza, I., Cazorla, F. J., Kosmidis, L., Grüttner, K., Abuteir, M., Loewe, J., Orbegozo, J. M. et al..  2020.  UP2DATE: Safe and secure over-the-air software updates on high-performance mixed-criticality systems. 2020 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :344–351.
Following the same trend of consumer electronics, safety-critical industries are starting to adopt Over-The-Air Software Updates (OTASU) on their embedded systems. The motivation behind this trend is twofold. On the one hand, OTASU offer several benefits to the product makers and users by improving or adding new functionality and services to the product without a complete redesign. On the other hand, the increasing connectivity trend makes OTASU a crucial cyber-security demand to download latest security patches. However, the application of OTASU in the safety-critical domain is not free of challenges, specially when considering the dramatic increase of software complexity and the resulting high computing performance demands. This is the mission of UP2DATE, a recently launched project funded within the European H2020 programme focused on new software update architectures for heterogeneous high-performance mixed-criticality systems. This paper gives an overview of UP2DATE and its foundations, which seeks to improve existing OTASU solutions by considering safety, security and availability from the ground up in an architecture that builds around composability and modularity.
Xie, J., She, H., Chen, X., Zhang, H., Niu, Y..  2020.  Test Method for Automatic Detection Capability of Civil Aviation Security Equipment Using Bayesian Estimation. 2020 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Civil Aviation Safety and Information Technology (ICCASIT. :831–835.
There are a lot of emerging security equipment required to be tested on detection rate (DR) and false alarm rate (FAR) for prohibited items. This article imports Bayesian approach to accept or reject DR and FAR. The detailed quantitative predictions can be made through the posterior distribution obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Based on this, HDI + ROPE decision rule is established. For the tests that need to make early decision, HDI + ROPE stopping rule is presented with biased estimate value, and criterial precision rule is presented with unbiased estimate value. Choosing the stopping rule according to the test purpose can achieve the balance of efficiency and accuracy.
2021-04-09
Fourastier, Y., Baron, C., Thomas, C., Esteban, P..  2020.  Assurance levels for decision making in autonomous intelligent systems and their safety. 2020 IEEE 11th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :475—483.
The autonomy of intelligent systems and their safety rely on their ability for local decision making based on collected environmental information. This is even more for cyber-physical systems running safety critical activities. While this intelligence is partial and fragmented, and cognitive techniques are of limited maturity, the decision function must produce results whose validity and scope must be weighted in light of the underlying assumptions, unavoidable uncertainty and hypothetical safety limitation. Besides the cognitive techniques dependability, it is about the assurance level of the decision self-making. Beyond the pure decision-making capabilities of the autonomous intelligent system, we need techniques that guarantee the system assurance required for the intended use. Security mechanisms for cognitive systems may be consequently tightly intricated. We propose a trustworthiness module which is part of the system and its resulting safety. In this paper, we briefly review the state of the art regarding the dependability of cognitive techniques, the assurance level definition in this context, and related engineering practices. We elaborate regarding the design of autonomous intelligent systems safety, then we discuss its security design and approaches for the mitigation of safety violations by the cognitive functions.
2021-03-29
Papakonstantinou, N., Linnosmaa, J., Bashir, A. Z., Malm, T., Bossuyt, D. L. V..  2020.  Early Combined Safety - Security Defense in Depth Assessment of Complex Systems. 2020 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS). :1—7.

Safety and security of complex critical infrastructures is very important for economic, environmental and social reasons. The interdisciplinary and inter-system dependencies within these infrastructures introduce difficulties in the safety and security design. Late discovery of safety and security design weaknesses can lead to increased costs, additional system complexity, ineffective mitigation measures and delays to the deployment of the systems. Traditionally, safety and security assessments are handled using different methods and tools, although some concepts are very similar, by specialized experts in different disciplines and are performed at different system design life-cycle phases.The methodology proposed in this paper supports a concurrent safety and security Defense in Depth (DiD) assessment at an early design phase and it is designed to handle safety and security at a high level and not focus on specific practical technologies. It is assumed that regardless of the perceived level of security defenses in place, a determined (motivated, capable and/or well-funded) attacker can find a way to penetrate a layer of defense. While traditional security research focuses on removing vulnerabilities and increasing the difficulty to exploit weaknesses, our higher-level approach focuses on how the attacker's reach can be limited and to increase the system's capability for detection, identification, mitigation and tracking. The proposed method can assess basic safety and security DiD design principles like Redundancy, Physical separation, Functional isolation, Facility functions, Diversity, Defense lines/Facility and Computer Security zones, Safety classes/Security Levels, Safety divisions and physical gates/conduits (as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and international standards) concurrently and provide early feedback to the system engineer. A prototype tool is developed that can parse the exported project file of the interdisciplinary model. Based on a set of safety and security attributes, the tool is able to assess aspects of the safety and security DiD capabilities of the design. Its results can be used to identify errors, improve the design and cut costs before a formal human expert inspection. The tool is demonstrated on a case study of an early conceptual design of a complex system of a nuclear power plant.