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Staicu, C.-A., Torp, M. T., Schäfer, M., Møller, A., Pradel, M..  2020.  Extracting Taint Specifications for JavaScript Libraries. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :198—209.

Modern JavaScript applications extensively depend on third-party libraries. Especially for the Node.js platform, vulnerabilities can have severe consequences to the security of applications, resulting in, e.g., cross-site scripting and command injection attacks. Existing static analysis tools that have been developed to automatically detect such issues are either too coarse-grained, looking only at package dependency structure while ignoring dataflow, or rely on manually written taint specifications for the most popular libraries to ensure analysis scalability. In this work, we propose a technique for automatically extracting taint specifications for JavaScript libraries, based on a dynamic analysis that leverages the existing test suites of the libraries and their available clients in the npm repository. Due to the dynamic nature of JavaScript, mapping observations from dynamic analysis to taint specifications that fit into a static analysis is non-trivial. Our main insight is that this challenge can be addressed by a combination of an access path mechanism that identifies entry and exit points, and the use of membranes around the libraries of interest. We show that our approach is effective at inferring useful taint specifications at scale. Our prototype tool automatically extracts 146 additional taint sinks and 7 840 propagation summaries spanning 1 393 npm modules. By integrating the extracted specifications into a commercial, state-of-the-art static analysis, 136 new alerts are produced, many of which correspond to likely security vulnerabilities. Moreover, many important specifications that were originally manually written are among the ones that our tool can now extract automatically.

Wang, Y., Kjerstad, E., Belisario, B..  2020.  A Dynamic Analysis Security Testing Infrastructure for Internet of Things. 2020 Sixth International Conference on Mobile And Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1—6.
IoT devices such as Google Home and Amazon Echo provide great convenience to our lives. Many of these IoT devices collect data including Personal Identifiable Information such as names, phone numbers, and addresses and thus IoT security is important. However, conducting security analysis on IoT devices is challenging due to the variety, the volume of the devices, and the special skills required for hardware and software analysis. In this research, we create and demonstrate a dynamic analysis security testing infrastructure for capturing network traffic from IoT devices. The network traffic is automatically mirrored to a server for live traffic monitoring and offline data analysis. Using the dynamic analysis security testing infrastructure, we conduct extensive security analysis on network traffic from Google Home and Amazon Echo. Our testing results indicate that Google Home enforces tighter security controls than Amazon Echo while both Google and Amazon devices provide the desired security level to protect user data in general. The dynamic analysis security testing infrastructure presented in the paper can be utilized to conduct similar security analysis on any IoT devices.
Sun, P., Garcia, L., Salles-Loustau, G., Zonouz, S..  2020.  Hybrid Firmware Analysis for Known Mobile and IoT Security Vulnerabilities. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :373—384.

Mobile and IoT operating systems–and their ensuing software updates–are usually distributed as binary files. Given that these binary files are commonly closed source, users or businesses who want to assess the security of the software need to rely on reverse engineering. Further, verifying the correct application of the latest software patches in a given binary is an open problem. The regular application of software patches is a central pillar for improving mobile and IoT device security. This requires developers, integrators, and vendors to propagate patches to all affected devices in a timely and coordinated fashion. In practice, vendors follow different and sometimes improper security update agendas for both mobile and IoT products. Moreover, previous studies revealed the existence of a hidden patch gap: several vendors falsely reported that they patched vulnerabilities. Therefore, techniques to verify whether vulnerabilities have been patched or not in a given binary are essential. Deep learning approaches have shown to be promising for static binary analyses with respect to inferring binary similarity as well as vulnerability detection. However, these approaches fail to capture the dynamic behavior of these systems, and, as a result, they may inundate the analysis with false positives when performing vulnerability discovery in the wild. In particular, they cannot capture the fine-grained characteristics necessary to distinguish whether a vulnerability has been patched or not. In this paper, we present PATCHECKO, a vulnerability and patch presence detection framework for executable binaries. PATCHECKO relies on a hybrid, cross-platform binary code similarity analysis that combines deep learning-based static binary analysis with dynamic binary analysis. PATCHECKO does not require access to the source code of the target binary nor that of vulnerable functions. We evaluate PATCHECKO on the most recent Google Pixel 2 smartphone and the Android Things IoT firmware images, within which 25 known CVE vulnerabilities have been previously reported and patched. Our deep learning model shows a vulnerability detection accuracy of over 93%. We further prune the candidates found by the deep learning stage–which includes false positives–via dynamic binary analysis. Consequently, PATCHECKO successfully identifies the correct matches among the candidate functions in the top 3 ranked outcomes 100% of the time. Furthermore, PATCHECKO's differential engine distinguishes between functions that are still vulnerable and those that are patched with an accuracy of 96%.

Jaiswal, M., Malik, Y., Jaafar, F..  2018.  Android gaming malware detection using system call analysis. 2018 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1—5.
Android operating systems have become a prime target for attackers as most of the market is currently dominated by Android users. The situation gets worse when users unknowingly download or sideload cloning applications, especially gaming applications that look like benign games. In this paper, we present, a dynamic Android gaming malware detection system based on system call analysis to classify malicious and legitimate games. We performed the dynamic system call analysis on normal and malicious gaming applications while applications are in execution state. Our analysis reveals the similarities and differences between benign and malware game system calls and shows how dynamically analyzing the behavior of malicious activity through system calls during runtime makes it easier and is more effective to detect malicious applications. Experimental analysis and results shows the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach.
Sethi, Kamalakanta, Kumar, Rahul, Sethi, Lingaraj, Bera, Padmalochan, Patra, Prashanta Kumar.  2019.  A Novel Machine Learning Based Malware Detection and Classification Framework. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–4.
As time progresses, new and complex malware types are being generated which causes a serious threat to computer systems. Due to this drastic increase in the number of malware samples, the signature-based malware detection techniques cannot provide accurate results. Different studies have demonstrated the proficiency of machine learning for the detection and classification of malware files. Further, the accuracy of these machine learning models can be improved by using feature selection algorithms to select the most essential features and reducing the size of the dataset which leads to lesser computations. In this paper, we have developed a machine learning based malware analysis framework for efficient and accurate malware detection and classification. We used Cuckoo sandbox for dynamic analysis which executes malware in an isolated environment and generates an analysis report based on the system activities during execution. Further, we propose a feature extraction and selection module which extracts features from the report and selects the most important features for ensuring high accuracy at minimum computation cost. Then, we employ different machine learning algorithms for accurate detection and fine-grained classification. Experimental results show that we got high detection and classification accuracy in comparison to the state-of-the-art approaches.
Walker, Aaron, Sengupta, Shamik.  2019.  Insights into Malware Detection via Behavioral Frequency Analysis Using Machine Learning. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1–6.
The most common defenses against malware threats involves the use of signatures derived from instances of known malware. However, the constant evolution of the malware threat landscape necessitates defense against unknown malware, making a signature catalog of known threats insufficient to prevent zero-day vulnerabilities from being exploited. Recent research has applied machine learning approaches to identify malware through artifacts of malicious activity as observed through dynamic behavioral analysis. We have seen that these approaches mimic common malware defenses by simply offering a method of detecting known malware. We contribute a new method of identifying software as malicious or benign through analysis of the frequency of Windows API system function calls. We show that this is a powerful technique for malware detection because it generates learning models which understand the difference between malicious and benign software, rather than producing a malware signature classifier. We contribute a method of systematically comparing machine learning models against different datasets to determine their efficacy in accurately distinguishing the difference between malicious and benign software.
Chen, Cheng-Yu, Hsiao, Shun-Wen.  2019.  IoT Malware Dynamic Analysis Profiling System and Family Behavior Analysis. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :6013–6015.
Not only the number of deployed IoT devices increases but also that of IoT malware increases. We eager to understand the threat made by IoT malware but we lack tools to observe, analyze and detect them. We design and implement an automatic, virtual machine-based profiling system to collect valuable IoT malware behavior, such as API call invocation, system call execution, etc. In addition to conventional profiling methods (e.g., strace and packet capture), the proposed profiling system adapts virtual machine introspection based API hooking technique to intercept API call invocation by malware, so that our introspection would not be detected by IoT malware. We then propose a method to convert the multiple sequential data (API calls) to a family behavior graph for further analysis.
Criswell, John, Zhou, Jie, Gravani, Spyridoula, Hu, Xiaoyu.  2019.  PrivAnalyzer: Measuring the Efficacy of Linux Privilege Use. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :593–604.
Operating systems such as Linux break the power of the root user into separate privileges (which Linux calls capabilities) and give processes the ability to enable privileges only when needed and to discard them permanently when the program no longer needs them. However, there is no method of measuring how well the use of such facilities reduces the risk of privilege escalation attacks if the program has a vulnerability. This paper presents PrivAnalyzer, an automated tool that measures how effectively programs use Linux privileges. PrivAnalyzer consists of three components: 1) AutoPriv, an existing LLVM-based C/C++ compiler which uses static analysis to transform a program that uses Linux privileges into a program that safely removes them when no longer needed, 2) ChronoPriv, a new LLVM C/C++ compiler pass that performs dynamic analysis to determine for how long a program retains various privileges, and 3) ROSA, a new bounded model checker that can model the damage a program can do at each program point if an attacker can exploit the program and abuse its privileges. We use PrivAnalyzer to determine how long five privileged open source programs retain the ability to cause serious damage to a system and find that merely transforming a program to drop privileges does not significantly improve security. However, we find that simple refactoring can considerably increase the efficacy of Linux privileges. In two programs that we refactored, we reduced the percentage of execution in which a device file can be read and written from 97% and 88% to 4% and 1%, respectively.
Faghihi, Farnood, Abadi, Mahdi, Tajoddin, Asghar.  2018.  SMSBotHunter: A Novel Anomaly Detection Technique to Detect SMS Botnets. 2018 15th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :1–6.
Over the past few years, botnets have emerged as one of the most serious cybersecurity threats faced by individuals and organizations. After infecting millions of servers and workstations worldwide, botmasters have started to develop botnets for mobile devices. Mobile botnets use different mediums to communicate with their botmasters. Although significant research has been done to detect mobile botnets that use the Internet as their command and control (C&C) channel, little research has investigated SMS botnets per se. In order to fill this gap, in this paper, we first divide SMS botnets based on their characteristics into three families, namely, info stealer, SMS stealer, and SMS spammer. Then, we propose SMSBotHunter, a novel anomaly detection technique that detects SMS botnets using textual and behavioral features and one-class classification. We experimentally evaluate the detection performance of SMSBotHunter by simulating the behavior of human users and SMS botnets. The experimental results demonstrate that most of the SMS messages sent or received by info stealer and SMS spammer botnets can be detected using textual features exclusively. It is also revealed that behavioral features are crucial for the detection of SMS stealer botnets and will improve the overall detection performance.
Takahashi, Hironao, Lakhani, Uzair.  2019.  Multiple Layered Security Analyses Method for Cryptocurrency Exchange Servicers. 2019 IEEE 8th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE). :71–73.
Internet is a common method of trading business today. The usage of cryptocurrencies has increased these days and it has become a trend to utilize them. Cryptocurrency exchange servicers provide different smartphone apps that unfortunately may become the target of malicious attacks. This paper focuses on how it achieves highest security and proposes the multiple layered security analyses method for cryptocurrency exchange servicers.
Liu, Donglan, Zhang, Hao, Yu, Hao, Liu, Xin, Zhao, Yong, Lv, Guodong.  2019.  Research and Application of APT Attack Defense and Detection Technology Based on Big Data Technology. 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication (ICEIEC). :1—4.
In order to excavate security threats in power grid by making full use of heterogeneous data sources in power information system, this paper proposes APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) attack detection sandbox technology and active defense system based on big data analysis technology. First, the file is restored from the mirror traffic and executed statically. Then, sandbox execution was carried out to introduce analysis samples into controllable virtual environment, and dynamic analysis and operation samples were conducted. Through analyzing the dynamic processing process of samples, various known and unknown malicious code, APT attacks, high-risk Trojan horses and other network security risks were comprehensively detected. Finally, the threat assessment of malicious samples is carried out and visualized through the big data platform. The results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively warn of unknown threats, improve the security level of system data, have a certain active defense ability. And it can effectively improve the speed and accuracy of power information system security situation prediction.
Nahmias, Daniel, Cohen, Aviad, Nissim, Nir, Elovici, Yuval.  2019.  TrustSign: Trusted Malware Signature Generation in Private Clouds Using Deep Feature Transfer Learning. 2019 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1—8.

This paper presents TrustSign, a novel, trusted automatic malware signature generation method based on high-level deep features transferred from a VGG-19 neural network model pre-trained on the ImageNet dataset. While traditional automatic malware signature generation techniques rely on static or dynamic analysis of the malware's executable, our method overcomes the limitations associated with these techniques by producing signatures based on the presence of the malicious process in the volatile memory. Signatures generated using TrustSign well represent the real malware behavior during runtime. By leveraging the cloud's virtualization technology, TrustSign analyzes the malicious process in a trusted manner, since the malware is unaware and cannot interfere with the inspection procedure. Additionally, by removing the dependency on the malware's executable, our method is capable of signing fileless malware. Thus, we focus our research on in-browser cryptojacking attacks, which current antivirus solutions have difficulty to detect. However, TrustSign is not limited to cryptojacking attacks, as our evaluation included various ransomware samples. TrustSign's signature generation process does not require feature engineering or any additional model training, and it is done in a completely unsupervised manner, obviating the need for a human expert. Therefore, our method has the advantage of dramatically reducing signature generation and distribution time. The results of our experimental evaluation demonstrate TrustSign's ability to generate signatures invariant to the process state over time. By using the signatures generated by TrustSign as input for various supervised classifiers, we achieved 99.5% classification accuracy.

Saad, Muhammad, Khormali, Aminollah, Mohaisen, Aziz.  2019.  Dine and Dash: Static, Dynamic, and Economic Analysis of In-Browser Cryptojacking. 2019 APWG Symposium on Electronic Crime Research (eCrime). :1—12.

Cryptojacking is the permissionless use of a target device to covertly mine cryptocurrencies. With cryptojacking attackers use malicious JavaScript codes to force web browsers into solving proof-of-work puzzles, thus making money by exploiting resources of the website visitors. To understand and counter such attacks, we systematically analyze the static, dynamic, and economic aspects of in-browser cryptojacking. For static analysis, we perform content-, currency-, and code-based categorization of cryptojacking samples to 1) measure their distribution across websites, 2) highlight their platform affinities, and 3) study their code complexities. We apply unsupervised learning to distinguish cryptojacking scripts from benign and other malicious JavaScript samples with 96.4% accuracy. For dynamic analysis, we analyze the effect of cryptojacking on critical system resources, such as CPU and battery usage. Additionally, we perform web browser fingerprinting to analyze the information exchange between the victim node and the dropzone cryptojacking server. We also build an analytical model to empirically evaluate the feasibility of cryptojacking as an alternative to online advertisement. Our results show a large negative profit and loss gap, indicating that the model is economically impractical. Finally, by leveraging insights from our analyses, we build countermeasures for in-browser cryptojacking that improve upon the existing remedies.

Walker, Aaron, Amjad, Muhammad Faisal, Sengupta, Shamik.  2019.  Cuckoo’s Malware Threat Scoring and Classification: Friend or Foe? 2019 IEEE 9th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0678–0684.
Malware threat classification involves understanding the behavior of the malicious software and how it affects a victim host system. Classifying threats allows for measured response appropriate to the risk involved. Malware incident response depends on many automated tools for the classification of threat to help identify the appropriate reaction to a threat alert. Cuckoo Sandbox is one such tool which can be used for automated analysis of malware and one method of threat classification provided is a threat score. A security analyst might submit a suspicious file to Cuckoo for analysis to determine whether or not the file contains malware or performs potentially malicious behavior on a system. Cuckoo is capable of producing a report of this behavior and ranks the severity of the observed actions as a score from one to ten, with ten being the most severe. As such, a malware sample classified as an 8 would likely take priority over a sample classified as a 3. Unfortunately, this scoring classification can be misleading due to the underlying methodology of severity classification. In this paper we demonstrate why the current methodology of threat scoring is flawed and therefore we believe it can be improved with greater emphasis on analyzing the behavior of the malware. This allows for a threat classification rating which scales with the risk involved in the malware behavior.
Huang, Shiyou, Guo, Jianmei, Li, Sanhong, Li, Xiang, Qi, Yumin, Chow, Kingsum, Huang, Jeff.  2019.  SafeCheck: Safety Enhancement of Java Unsafe API. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :889–899.

Java is a safe programming language by providing bytecode verification and enforcing memory protection. For instance, programmers cannot directly access the memory but have to use object references. Yet, the Java runtime provides an Unsafe API as a backdoor for the developers to access the low- level system code. Whereas the Unsafe API is designed to be used by the Java core library, a growing community of third-party libraries use it to achieve high performance. The Unsafe API is powerful, but dangerous, which leads to data corruption, resource leaks and difficult-to-diagnose JVM crash if used improperly. In this work, we study the Unsafe crash patterns and propose a memory checker to enforce memory safety, thus avoiding the JVM crash caused by the misuse of the Unsafe API at the bytecode level. We evaluate our technique on real crash cases from the openJDK bug system and real-world applications from AJDK. Our tool reduces the efforts from several days to a few minutes for the developers to diagnose the Unsafe related crashes. We also evaluate the runtime overhead of our tool on projects using intensive Unsafe operations, and the result shows that our tool causes a negligible perturbation to the execution of the applications.

Hirano, Manabu, Kobayashi, Ryotaro.  2019.  Machine Learning Based Ransomware Detection Using Storage Access Patterns Obtained From Live-forensic Hypervisor. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1–6.
With the rapid increase in the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, mobile devices, cloud services, and cyber-physical systems, the large-scale cyber attacks on enterprises and public sectors have increased. In particular, ransomware attacks damaged UK's National Health Service and many enterprises around the world in 2017. Therefore, researchers have proposed ransomware detection and prevention systems. However, manual inspection in static and dynamic ransomware analysis is time-consuming and it cannot cope with the rapid increase in variants of ransomware family. Recently, machine learning has been used to automate ransomware analysis by creating a behavioral model of same ransomware family. To create effective behavioral models of ransomware, we first obtained storage access patterns of live ransomware samples and of a benign application by using a live-forensic hypervisor called WaybackVisor. To distinguish ransomware from a benign application that has similar behavior to ransomware, we carefully selected five dimensional features that were extracted both from actual ransomware's Input and Output (I/O) logs and from a benign program's I/O logs. We created and evaluated machine learning models by using Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and K-Nearest Neighbors. Our experiments using the proposed five features of storage access patterns achieved F-measure rate of 98%.
Naik, Nitin, Jenkins, Paul, Savage, Nick, Yang, Longzhi.  2019.  Cyberthreat Hunting - Part 1: Triaging Ransomware using Fuzzy Hashing, Import Hashing and YARA Rules. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–6.

Ransomware is currently one of the most significant cyberthreats to both national infrastructure and the individual, often requiring severe treatment as an antidote. Triaging ran-somware based on its similarity with well-known ransomware samples is an imperative preliminary step in preventing a ransomware pandemic. Selecting the most appropriate triaging method can improve the precision of further static and dynamic analysis in addition to saving significant t ime a nd e ffort. Currently, the most popular and proven triaging methods are fuzzy hashing, import hashing and YARA rules, which can ascertain whether, or to what degree, two ransomware samples are similar to each other. However, the mechanisms of these three methods are quite different and their comparative assessment is difficult. Therefore, this paper presents an evaluation of these three methods for triaging the four most pertinent ransomware categories WannaCry, Locky, Cerber and CryptoWall. It evaluates their triaging performance and run-time system performance, highlighting the limitations of each method.

Nilizadeh, Shirin, Noller, Yannic, Pasareanu, Corina S..  2019.  DifFuzz: Differential Fuzzing for Side-Channel Analysis. 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :176–187.
Side-channel attacks allow an adversary to uncover secret program data by observing the behavior of a program with respect to a resource, such as execution time, consumed memory or response size. Side-channel vulnerabilities are difficult to reason about as they involve analyzing the correlations between resource usage over multiple program paths. We present DifFuzz, a fuzzing-based approach for detecting side-channel vulnerabilities related to time and space. DifFuzz automatically detects these vulnerabilities by analyzing two versions of the program and using resource-guided heuristics to find inputs that maximize the difference in resource consumption between secret-dependent paths. The methodology of DifFuzz is general and can be applied to programs written in any language. For this paper, we present an implementation that targets analysis of Java programs, and uses and extends the Kelinci and AFL fuzzers. We evaluate DifFuzz on a large number of Java programs and demonstrate that it can reveal unknown side-channel vulnerabilities in popular applications. We also show that DifFuzz compares favorably against Blazer and Themis, two state-of-the-art analysis tools for finding side-channels in Java programs.
Goncharov, Nikita, Dushkin, Alexander, Goncharov, Igor.  2019.  Mathematical Modeling of the Security Management Process of an Information System in Conditions of Unauthorized External Influences. 2019 1st International Conference on Control Systems, Mathematical Modelling, Automation and Energy Efficiency (SUMMA). :77–82.

In this paper, we consider one of the approaches to the study of the characteristics of an information system that is under the influence of various factors, and their management using neural networks and wavelet transforms based on determining the relationship between the modified state of the information system and the possibility of dynamic analysis of effects. At the same time, the process of influencing the information system includes the following components: impact on the components providing the functions of the information system; determination of the result of exposure; analysis of the result of exposure; response to the result of exposure. As an input signal, the characteristics of the means that affect are taken. The system includes an adaptive response unit, the input of which receives signals about the prerequisites for changes, and at the output, this unit generates signals for the inclusion of appropriate means to eliminate or compensate for these prerequisites or directly the changes in the information system.

Altamimi, Abdulaziz, Clarke, Nathan, Furnell, Steven, Li, Fudong.  2019.  Multi-Platform Authorship Verification. Proceedings of the Third Central European Cybersecurity Conference. :1–7.
At the present time, there has been a rapid increase in the variety and popularity of messaging systems such as social network messaging, text messages, email and Twitter, with users frequently exchanging messages across various platforms. Unfortunately, in amongst the legitimate messages, there is a host of illegitimate and inappropriate content - with cyber stalking, trolling and computerassisted crime all taking place. Therefore, there is a need to identify individuals using messaging systems. Stylometry is the study of linguistic features in a text which consists of verifying an author based on his writing style that consists of checking whether a target text was written or not by a specific individual author. Whilst much research has taken place within authorship verification, studies have focused upon singular platforms, often had limited datasets and restricted methodologies that have meant it is difficult to appreciate the real-world value of the approach. This paper seeks to overcome these limitations through providing an analysis of authorship verification across four common messaging systems. This approach enables a direct comparison of recognition performance and provides a basis for analyzing the feature vectors across platforms to better understand what aspects each capitalize upon in order to achieve good classification. The experiments also include an investigation into the feature vector creation, utilizing population and user-based techniques to compare and contrast performance. The experiment involved 50 participants across four common platforms with a total 13,617; 106,359; 4,539; and 6,540 samples for Twitter, SMS, Facebook, and Email achieving an Equal Error Rate (EER) of 20.16%, 7.97%, 25% and 13.11% respectively.
Li, Zhangtan, Cheng, Liang, Zhang, Yang.  2019.  Tracking Sensitive Information and Operations in Integrated Clinical Environment. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :192–199.
Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) is a standardized framework for achieving device interoperability in medical cyber-physical systems. The ICE utilizes high-level supervisory apps and a low-level communication middleware to coordinate medical devices. The need to design complex ICE systems that are both safe and effective has presented numerous challenges, including interoperability, context-aware intelligence, security and privacy. In this paper, we present a data flow analysis framework for the ICE systems. The framework performs the combination of static and dynamic analysis for the sensitive data and operations in the ICE systems. Our experiments demonstrate that the data flow analysis framework can record how the medical devices transmit sensitive data and perform misuse detection by tracing the runtime context of the sensitive operations.
Wilcox, James R., Flanagan, Cormac, Freund, Stephen N..  2018.  VerifiedFT: A Verified, High-Performance Precise Dynamic Race Detector. Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming. :354-367.

Dynamic data race detectors are valuable tools for testing and validating concurrent software, but to achieve good performance they are typically implemented using sophisticated concurrent algorithms. Thus, they are ironically prone to the exact same kind of concurrency bugs they are designed to detect. To address these problems, we have developed VerifiedFT, a clean slate redesign of the FastTrack race detector [19]. The VerifiedFT analysis provides the same precision guarantee as FastTrack, but is simpler to implement correctly and efficiently, enabling us to mechanically verify an implementation of its core algorithm using CIVL [27]. Moreover, VerifiedFT provides these correctness guarantees without sacrificing any performance over current state-of-the-art (but complex and unverified) FastTrack implementations for Java.

Ijaz, M., Durad, M. H., Ismail, M..  2019.  Static and Dynamic Malware Analysis Using Machine Learning. 2019 16th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). :687–691.

Malware detection is an indispensable factor in security of internet oriented machines. The combinations of different features are used for dynamic malware analysis. The different combinations are generated from APIs, Summary Information, DLLs and Registry Keys Changed. Cuckoo sandbox is used for dynamic malware analysis, which is customizable, and provide good accuracy. More than 2300 features are extracted from dynamic analysis of malware and 92 features are extracted statically from binary malware using PEFILE. Static features are extracted from 39000 malicious binaries and 10000 benign files. Dynamically 800 benign files and 2200 malware files are analyzed in Cuckoo Sandbox and 2300 features are extracted. The accuracy of dynamic malware analysis is 94.64% while static analysis accuracy is 99.36%. The dynamic malware analysis is not effective due to tricky and intelligent behaviours of malwares. The dynamic analysis has some limitations due to controlled network behavior and it cannot be analyzed completely due to limited access of network.

Kargaard, J., Drange, T., Kor, A., Twafik, H., Butterfield, E..  2018.  Defending IT Systems against Intelligent Malware. 2018 IEEE 9th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :411-417.

The increasing amount of malware variants seen in the wild is causing problems for Antivirus Software vendors, unable to keep up by creating signatures for each. The methods used to develop a signature, static and dynamic analysis, have various limitations. Machine learning has been used by Antivirus vendors to detect malware based on the information gathered from the analysis process. However, adversarial examples can cause machine learning algorithms to miss-classify new data. In this paper we describe a method for malware analysis by converting malware binaries to images and then preparing those images for training within a Generative Adversarial Network. These unsupervised deep neural networks are not susceptible to adversarial examples. The conversion to images from malware binaries should be faster than using dynamic analysis and it would still be possible to link malware families together. Using the Generative Adversarial Network, malware detection could be much more effective and reliable.

Wang, Ningfei, Ji, Shouling, Wang, Ting.  2018.  Integration of Static and Dynamic Code Stylometry Analysis for Programmer De-Anonymization. Proceedings of the 11th ACM Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Security. :74–84.

De-anonymizing the authors of anonymous code (i.e., code stylometry) entails significant privacy and security implications. Most existing code stylometry methods solely rely on static (e.g., lexical, layout, and syntactic) features extracted from source code, while neglecting its key difference from regular text – it is executable! In this paper, we present Sundae, a novel code de-anonymization framework that integrates both static and dynamic stylometry analysis. Compared with the existing solutions, Sundae departs in significant ways: (i) it requires much less number of static, hand-crafted features; (ii) it requires much less labeled data for training; and (iii) it can be readily extended to new programmers once their stylometry information becomes available Through extensive evaluation on benchmark datasets, we demonstrate that Sundae delivers strong empirical performance. For example, under the setting of 229 programmers and 9 problems, it outperforms the state-of-art method by a margin of 45.65% on Python code de-anonymization. The empirical results highlight the integration of static and dynamic analysis as a promising direction for code stylometry research.