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2019-12-05
Campioni, Lorenzo, Hauge, Mariann, Landmark, Lars, Suri, Niranjan, Tortonesi, Mauro.  2019.  Considerations on the Adoption of Named Data Networking (NDN) in Tactical Environments. 2019 International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1-8.

Mobile military networks are uniquely challenging to build and maintain, because of their wireless nature and the unfriendliness of the environment, resulting in unreliable and capacity limited performance. Currently, most tactical networks implement TCP/IP, which was designed for fairly stable, infrastructure-based environments, and requires sophisticated and often application-specific extensions to address the challenges of the communication scenario. Information Centric Networking (ICN) is a clean slate networking approach that does not depend on stable connections to retrieve information and naturally provides support for node mobility and delay/disruption tolerant communications - as a result it is particularly interesting for tactical applications. However, despite ICN seems to offer some structural benefits for tactical environments over TCP/IP, a number of challenges including naming, security, performance tuning, etc., still need to be addressed for practical adoption. This document, prepared within NATO IST-161 RTG, evaluates the effectiveness of Named Data Networking (NDN), the de facto standard implementation of ICN, in the context of tactical edge networks and its potential for adoption.

2019-11-26
Khan, JavedAkhtar.  2019.  2019 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). 2019 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :619-623.
This paper proposes the implementation of progressive authentication service in smart android mobile phone. In this digital era, massive amount of work can be done in the digital form using the smart devices like smart phone , laptop, Tablets, etc. The number of smartphone users approx. reach to 299.24 million, as per the recent survey report [1] in 2019 this count will reach 2.7 billion and after 3 years, this count will increase up to 442.5 million. This article includes a cluster based progressive smart lock with a dependent combination that is short and more secure in nature. Android provides smart lock facilities with the combination of 9 dot, 6dot, 5dot, 4dot and 1-9 number. By using this mobile phone user will be able to generate pattern lock or number password for authentication. This is a single authentication system, this research paper includes a more secured multiple cluster based pattern match system.
Pulungan, Farid Fajriana, Sudiharto, Dodi Wisaksono, Brotoharsono, Tri.  2018.  Easy Secure Login Implementation Using Pattern Locking and Environmental Context Recognition. 2018 International Conference on Applied Engineering (ICAE). :1-6.
Smartphone has become the tool which is used daily in modern human life. Some activities in human life, according to the usage of the smartphone can be related to the information which has a high privilege and needs a privacy. It causes the owners of the smartphone needs a system which can protect their privacy. Unfortunately, the secure the system, the unease of the usage. Hence, the system which has an invulnerable environment but also gives the ease of use is very needful. The aspect which is related to the ease of use is an authentication mechanism. Sometimes, this aspect correspondence to the effectiveness and the efficiency. This study is going to analyze the application related to this aspect which is a lock screen application. This lock screen application uses the context data based on the environment condition around the user. The context data used are GPS location and Mac Address of Wi-Fi. The system is going to detect the context and is going to determine if the smartphone needs to run the authentication mechanism or to bypass it based on the analysis of the context data. Hopefully, the smartphone application which is developed still can provide mobility and usability features, and also can protect the user privacy even though it is located in the environment which its context data is unknown.
Aiken, William, Kim, Hyoungshick, Ryoo, Jungwoo, Rosson, Mary Beth.  2018.  An Implementation and Evaluation of Progressive Authentication Using Multiple Level Pattern Locks. 2018 16th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1-6.
This paper presents a possible implementation of progressive authentication using the Android pattern lock. Our key idea is to use one pattern for two access levels to the device; an abridged pattern is used to access generic applications and a second, extended and higher-complexity pattern is used less frequently to access more sensitive applications. We conducted a user study of 89 participants and a consecutive user survey on those participants to investigate the usability of such a pattern scheme. Data from our prototype showed that for unlocking lowsecurity applications the median unlock times for users of the multiple pattern scheme and conventional pattern scheme were 2824 ms and 5589 ms respectively, and the distributions in the two groups differed significantly (Mann-Whitney U test, p-value less than 0.05, two-tailed). From our user survey, we did not find statistically significant differences between the two groups for their qualitative responses regarding usability and security (t-test, p-value greater than 0.05, two-tailed), but the groups did not differ by more than one satisfaction rating at 90% confidence.
2019-11-25
Chowdhury, Rajdeep, Mitra, Paromita, Kumar, Sukhwant, Singh, Satyam, Singh, Aditya Narayan.  2018.  Design and Implementation of Hormonal Cycle Based Cryptographic Modus Operandi and Android Application Development for Cosseted Transmission. 2018 Second International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT). :32–37.

Android Applications have become an integral fraction of entwined contemporary subsistence. The entire sphere is employing diverse assortment of applications for distinguished intention. Among all the flamboyant assortment of applications, some applications have engrossed apiece individual and are unanimously accepted. With apiece fleeting instant, numerous applications are emerging in the market and are contending amid the contemporary applications in use. The proposed work is a pioneering approach to develop an application for message transference in a cosseted manner. The eminence of the work lies in ensuring that the messages send are in a coded structure, more precisely in encrypted form, formulated from the proposed Cryptographic modus operandi. The focal intention of the proposed work is to augment the status of safekeeping in data transference. The work is a multidisciplinary work and includes Biological principles in devising the Cryptographic modus operandi. Hormonal system is one of the most decisive fractions of human well-being and fundamental structure. There are numerous hormones meant for diverse purposes in human anatomy, more precisely, they are exclusively distinct for male and female. Although, the numeral quotient of hormones is colossal, but in the work, preferred male and female hormones have been employed. The hormones employed, their operational cycle and their way of illustration in the proposed work opens a unique mode to encrypt data and augment the safekeeping echelon. The augmented safekeeping could unearth its employment in numerous modes and in countless places, not only for personal purposes but could also be employed for organizational purpose. The Android Application for the said Cryptographic modus operandi is an initiative for safekeeping of apiece individual employing the Application as well as a universal mold for societal impact on the whole.

2019-11-11
Wang, Xiaoyin, Qin, Xue, Bokaei Hosseini, Mitra, Slavin, Rocky, Breaux, Travis D., Niu, Jianwei.  2018.  GUILeak: Tracing Privacy Policy Claims on User Input Data for Android Applications. 2018 IEEE/ACM 40th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :37–47.
The Android mobile platform supports billions of devices across more than 190 countries around the world. This popularity coupled with user data collection by Android apps has made privacy protection a well-known challenge in the Android ecosystem. In practice, app producers provide privacy policies disclosing what information is collected and processed by the app. However, it is difficult to trace such claims to the corresponding app code to verify whether the implementation is consistent with the policy. Existing approaches for privacy policy alignment focus on information directly accessed through the Android platform (e.g., location and device ID), but are unable to handle user input, a major source of private information. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that automatically detects privacy leaks of user-entered data for a given Android app and determines whether such leakage may violate the app's privacy policy claims. For evaluation, we applied our approach to 120 popular apps from three privacy-relevant app categories: finance, health, and dating. The results show that our approach was able to detect 21 strong violations and 18 weak violations from the studied apps.
Subahi, Alanoud, Theodorakopoulos, George.  2018.  Ensuring Compliance of IoT Devices with Their Privacy Policy Agreement. 2018 IEEE 6th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). :100–107.
In the past few years, Internet of Things (IoT) devices have emerged and spread everywhere. Many researchers have been motivated to study the security issues of IoT devices due to the sensitive information they carry about their owners. Privacy is not simply about encryption and access authorization, but also about what kind of information is transmitted, how it used and to whom it will be shared with. Thus, IoT manufacturers should be compelled to issue Privacy Policy Agreements for their respective devices as well as ensure that the actual behavior of the IoT device complies with the issued privacy policy. In this paper, we implement a test bed for ensuring compliance of Internet of Things data disclosure to the corresponding privacy policy. The fundamental approach used in the test bed is to capture the data traffic between the IoT device and the cloud, between the IoT device and its application on the smart-phone, and between the IoT application and the cloud and analyze those packets for various features. We test 11 IoT manufacturers and the results reveal that half of those IoT manufacturers do not have an adequate privacy policy specifically for their IoT devices. In addition, we prove that the action of two IoT devices does not comply with what they stated in their privacy policy agreement.
2019-11-04
Vegda, Hiral, Modi, Nimesh.  2018.  Secure and Efficient Approach to Prevent Ad Hoc Network Attacks Using Intrusion Detection System. 2018 Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS). :129-133.

In Ad hoc networks the main purpose is communication without infrastructure and there are many implementations already done on that. There is little effort done for security to prevent threats in ad hoc networks (like MANETs). It is already proven that; there is no any centralized mechanism for defence against threats, such as a firewall, an intrusion detection system, or a proxy in ad hoc networks. Ad hoc networks are very convenient due to its features like self-maintenance, self-organizing and providing wireless communication. In Ad hoc networks there is no fixed infrastructure in which every node works like simply a router which stores and forwards packet to final destination. Due to these dynamic topology features, Ad hoc networks are anywhere, anytime. Therefore, it is necessary to make a secure mechanism for the ad hoc components so that with flexibility they have that security also. This paper shows the secure and flexible implementation about to protect any ad hoc networks. This proposed system design is perfect solution to provide security with flexibility by providing a hybrid system which combines ECC and MAES to detect and prevent Ad hoc network attacks using Intrusion detection system. The complete proposed system designed on NS 2.35 software using Ubuntu (Linux) OS.

Alomari, Mohammad Ahmed, Hafiz Yusoff, M., Samsudin, Khairulmizam, Ahmad, R. Badlishah.  2019.  Light Database Encryption Design Utilizing Multicore Processors for Mobile Devices. 2019 IEEE 15th International Colloquium on Signal Processing Its Applications (CSPA). :254–259.
The confidentiality of data stored in embedded and handheld devices has become an urgent necessity more than ever before. Encryption of sensitive data is a well-known technique to preserve their confidentiality, however it comes with certain costs that can heavily impact the device processing resources. Utilizing multicore processors, which are equipped with current embedded devices, has brought a new era to enhance data confidentiality while maintaining suitable device performance. Encrypting the complete storage area, also known as Full Disk Encryption (FDE) can still be challenging, especially with newly emerging massive storage systems. Alternatively, since the most user sensitive data are residing inside persisting databases, it will be more efficient to focus on securing SQLite databases, through encryption, where SQLite is the most common RDBMS in handheld and embedded systems. This paper addresses the problem of ensuring data protection in embedded and mobile devices while maintaining suitable device performance by mitigating the impact of encryption. We presented here a proposed design for a parallel database encryption system, called SQLite-XTS. The proposed system encrypts data stored in databases transparently on-the-fly without the need for any user intervention. To maintain a proper device performance, the system takes advantage of the commodity multicore processors available with most embedded and mobile devices.
2019-09-09
Tonane, P., Deshpande, S..  2018.  Trust Based Certificate Revocation and Attacks in MANETs. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :1089-1093.

Due to the changing nature of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) security is an important concern and hence in this paper, we carryout vector-based trust mechanism, which is established on the behavior of nodes in forwarding and dropping the data packets determines the trust on each node and we are using the Enhanced Certificate Revocation scheme (ECR), which avoid the attacker by blacklisting the blackhole attacker. To enhance more security for node and network, we assign a unique key for every individual node which can avoid most of the attacks in MANET

Abdel-Fattah, F., Farhan, K. A., Al-Tarawneh, F. H., AlTamimi, F..  2019.  Security Challenges and Attacks in Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks MANETs. 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). :28-33.

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET for short) is a new art of wireless technology that connect a group of mobile nodes in a dynamically decentralized fashion without the need of a base station, or a centralized administration, whereas each mobile node can work as a router. MANET topology changes frequently, because of the MANET dynamically formation nature, and freely to move randomly. MANET can function as standalone or can be connected to external networks. Mobile nodes are characterized with minimal human interaction, weight, less memory, and power. Despite all the pros of MANET and the widely spreading in many and critical industries, MANET has some cons and suffers from severe security issues. In this survey we emphasize on the different types of attacks at MANET protocol stack, and show how MANET is vulnerable to those attacks.

2019-09-05
Liu, T., Wen, Y..  2018.  Studied on Application of Double Encryption Algorithm in Covert Channel Transmission. 2018 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data Smart City (ICITBS). :210-213.
In the process of mobile intelligent terminal for file transfer, ensure the safety of data transmission is significant. It is necessary to prevent the file from being eavesdropped and tampered during transmission. The method of using double encryption on covert channel is proposed in this paper based on the analysis of encryption algorithms and covert channel, which uses asymmetric encryption algorithm to encrypt the key of symmetric encryption, to form hidden information, and to carry out covert transmission through covert channels to enhance the security of mobile terminal data transmission. By simulating the above scenarios in intelligent mobile terminal, the confidentiality and concealment of important information are realized in the transmission process.
2019-09-04
Paiker, N., Ding, X., Curtmola, R., Borcea, C..  2018.  Context-Aware File Discovery System for Distributed Mobile-Cloud Apps. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom). :198–203.
Recent research has proposed middleware to enable efficient distributed apps over mobile-cloud platforms. This paper presents a Context-Aware File Discovery Service (CAFDS) that allows distributed mobile-cloud applications to find and access files of interest shared by collaborating users. CAFDS enables programmers to search for files defined by context and content features, such as location, creation time, or the presence of certain object types within an image file. CAFDS provides low-latency through a cloud-based metadata server, which uses a decision tree to locate the nearest files that satisfy the context and content features requested by applications. We implemented CAFDS in Android and Linux. Experimental results show CAFDS achieves substantially lower latency than peer-to-peer solutions that cannot leverage context information.
2019-08-05
Xia, S., Li, N., Xiaofeng, T., Fang, C..  2018.  Multiple Attributes Based Spoofing Detection Using an Improved Clustering Algorithm in Mobile Edge Network. 2018 1st IEEE International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :242–243.

Information centric network (ICN) based Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) network has drawn growing attentions in recent years. The distributed network architecture brings new security problems, especially the identity security problem. Because of the cloud platform deployed on the edge of the MEC network, multiple channel attributes can be easily obtained and processed. Thus this paper proposes a multiple channel attributes based spoofing detection mechanism. To further reduce the complexity, we also propose an improved clustering algorithm. The simulation results indicate that the proposed spoofing detection method can provide near-optimal performance with extremely low complexity.

2019-06-10
Kim, H. M., Song, H. M., Seo, J. W., Kim, H. K..  2018.  Andro-Simnet: Android Malware Family Classification Using Social Network Analysis. 2018 16th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1-8.

While the rapid adaptation of mobile devices changes our daily life more conveniently, the threat derived from malware is also increased. There are lots of research to detect malware to protect mobile devices, but most of them adopt only signature-based malware detection method that can be easily bypassed by polymorphic and metamorphic malware. To detect malware and its variants, it is essential to adopt behavior-based detection for efficient malware classification. This paper presents a system that classifies malware by using common behavioral characteristics along with malware families. We measure the similarity between malware families with carefully chosen features commonly appeared in the same family. With the proposed similarity measure, we can classify malware by malware's attack behavior pattern and tactical characteristics. Also, we apply community detection algorithm to increase the modularity within each malware family network aggregation. To maintain high classification accuracy, we propose a process to derive the optimal weights of the selected features in the proposed similarity measure. During this process, we find out which features are significant for representing the similarity between malware samples. Finally, we provide an intuitive graph visualization of malware samples which is helpful to understand the distribution and likeness of the malware networks. In the experiment, the proposed system achieved 97% accuracy for malware classification and 95% accuracy for prediction by K-fold cross-validation using the real malware dataset.

Xue, S., Zhang, L., Li, A., Li, X., Ruan, C., Huang, W..  2018.  AppDNA: App Behavior Profiling via Graph-Based Deep Learning. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1475-1483.

Better understanding of mobile applications' behaviors would lead to better malware detection/classification and better app recommendation for users. In this work, we design a framework AppDNA to automatically generate a compact representation for each app to comprehensively profile its behaviors. The behavior difference between two apps can be measured by the distance between their representations. As a result, the versatile representation can be generated once for each app, and then be used for a wide variety of objectives, including malware detection, app categorizing, plagiarism detection, etc. Based on a systematic and deep understanding of an app's behavior, we propose to perform a function-call-graph-based app profiling. We carefully design a graph-encoding method to convert a typically extremely large call-graph to a 64-dimension fix-size vector to achieve robust app profiling. Our extensive evaluations based on 86,332 benign and malicious apps demonstrate that our system performs app profiling (thus malware detection, classification, and app recommendation) to a high accuracy with extremely low computation cost: it classifies 4024 (benign/malware) apps using around 5.06 second with accuracy about 93.07%; it classifies 570 malware's family (total 21 families) using around 0.83 second with accuracy 82.3%; it classifies 9,730 apps' functionality with accuracy 33.3% for a total of 7 categories and accuracy of 88.1 % for 2 categories.

Jain, D., Khemani, S., Prasad, G..  2018.  Identification of Distributed Malware. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Communication and Information Systems (ICCIS). :242-246.

Smartphones have evolved over the years from simple devices to communicate with each other to fully functional portable computers although with comparatively less computational power but inholding multiple applications within. With the smartphone revolution, the value of personal data has increased. As technological complexities increase, so do the vulnerabilities in the system. Smartphones are the latest target for attacks. Android being an open source platform and also the most widely used smartphone OS draws the attention of many malware writers to exploit the vulnerabilities of it. Attackers try to take advantage of these vulnerabilities and fool the user and misuse their data. Malwares have come a long way from simple worms to sophisticated DDOS using Botnets, the latest trends in computer malware tend to go in the distributed direction, to evade the multiple anti-virus apps developed to counter generic viruses and Trojans. However, the recent trend in android system is to have a combination of applications which acts as malware. The applications are benign individually but when grouped, these may result into a malicious activity. This paper proposes a new category of distributed malware in android system, how it can be used to evade the current security, and how it can be detected with the help of graph matching algorithm.

Vaseer, G., Ghai, G., Ghai, D..  2018.  Distributed Trust-Based Multiple Attack Prevention for Secure MANETs. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :108–113.

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring, dynamic networks in which nodes are free to move. These nodes are susceptible to various malicious attacks. In this paper, we propose a distributed trust-based security scheme to prevent multiple attacks such as Probe, Denial-of-Service (DoS), Vampire, User-to-Root (U2R) occurring simultaneously. We report above 95% accuracy in data transmission and reception by applying the proposed scheme. The simulation has been carried out using network simulator ns-2 in a AODV routing protocol environment. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work reporting a distributed trust-based prevention scheme for preventing multiple attacks. We also check the scalability of the technique using variable node densities in the network.

Hu, Y., Li, X., Liu, J., Ding, H., Gong, Y., Fang, Y..  2018.  Mitigating Traffic Analysis Attack in Smartphones with Edge Network Assistance. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

With the growth of smartphone sales and app usage, fingerprinting and identification of smartphone apps have become a considerable threat to user security and privacy. Traffic analysis is one of the most common methods for identifying apps. Traditional countermeasures towards traffic analysis includes traffic morphing and multipath routing. The basic idea of multipath routing is to increase the difficulty for adversary to eavesdrop all traffic by splitting traffic into several subflows and transmitting them through different routes. Previous works in multipath routing mainly focus on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) or Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). In this paper, we propose a multipath routing scheme for smartphones with edge network assistance to mitigate traffic analysis attack. We consider an adversary with limited capability, that is, he can only intercept the traffic of one node following certain attack probability, and try to minimize the traffic an adversary can intercept. We formulate our design as a flow routing optimization problem. Then a heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. Finally, we present the simulation results for our scheme and justify that our scheme can effectively protect smartphones from traffic analysis attack.

Arsalan, A., Rehman, R. A..  2018.  Prevention of Timing Attack in Software Defined Named Data Network with VANETs. 2018 International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT). :247–252.

Software Defined Network (SDN) is getting popularity both from academic and industry. Lot of researches have been made to combine SDN with future Internet paradigms to manage and control networks efficiently. SDN provides better management and control in a network through decoupling of data and control plane. Named Data Networking (NDN) is a future Internet technique with aim to replace IPv4 addressing problems. In NDN, communication between different nodes done on the basis of content names rather than IP addresses. Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a subtype of MANET which is also considered as a hot area for future applications. Different vehicles communicate with each other to form a network known as VANET. Communication between VANET can be done in two ways (i) Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) (ii) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I). Combination of SDN and NDN techniques in future Internet can solve lot of problems which were hard to answer by considering a single technique. Security in VANET is always challenging due to unstable topology of VANET. In this paper, we merge future Internet techniques and propose a new scheme to answer timing attack problem in VANETs named as Timing Attack Prevention (TAP) protocol. Proposed scheme is evaluated through simulations which shows the superiority of proposed protocol regarding detection and mitigation of attacker vehicles as compared to normal timing attack scenario in NDN based VANET.

Hmouda, E., Li, W..  2018.  Detection and Prevention of Attacks in MANETs by Improving the EAACK Protocol. SoutheastCon 2018. :1–7.

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks are dynamic in nature and have no rigid or reliable network infrastructure by their very definition. They are expected to be self-governed and have dynamic wireless links which are not entirely reliable in terms of connectivity and security. Several factors could cause their degradation, such as attacks by malicious and selfish nodes which result in data carrying packets being dropped which in turn could cause breaks in communication between nodes in the network. This paper aims to address the issue of remedy and mitigation of the damage caused by packet drops. We proposed an improvement on the EAACK protocol to reduce the network overhead packet delivery ratio by using hybrid cryptography techniques DES due to its higher efficiency in block encryption, and RSA due to its management in key cipher. Comparing to the existing approaches, our simulated results show that hybrid cryptography techniques provide higher malicious behavior detection rates, and improve the performance. This research can also lead to more future efforts in using hybrid encryption based authentication techniques for attack detection/prevention in MANETs.

Basomingera, R., Choi, Y..  2019.  Route Cache Based SVM Classifier for Intrusion Detection of Control Packet Attacks in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :31–36.

For the security of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), a group of wireless mobile nodes needs to cooperate by forwarding packets, to implement an intrusion detection system (IDS). Some of the current IDS implementations in a clustered MANET have designed mobile nodes to wait until the cluster head is elected before scanning the network and thus nodes may be, unfortunately, exposed to several control packet attacks by which nodes identify falsified routes to reach other nodes. In order to detect control packet attacks such as route falsification, we design a route cache sharing mechanism for a non-clustered network where all one-hop routing data are collected by each node for a cooperative host-based detection. The cooperative host-based detection system uses a Support Vector Machine classifier and achieves a detection rate of around 95%. By successfully detecting the route falsification attacks, nodes are given the capability to avoid other attacks such as black-hole and gray-hole, which are in many cases a result of a successful route falsification attack.

Rmayti, M., Begriche, Y., Khatoun, R., Khoukhi, L., Mammeri, A..  2018.  Graph-based wormhole attack detection in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). 2018 Fourth International Conference on Mobile and Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–6.

A Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of nodes that communicate together in a cooperative way using the wireless medium, and without any central administration. Due to its inherent open nature and the lack of infrastructure, security is a complicated issue compared to other networks. That is, these networks are vulnerable to a a wide range of attacks at different network layers. At the network level, malicious nodes can perform several attacks ranging from passive eavesdropping to active interfering. Wormhole is an example of severe attack that has attracted much attention recently. It involves the redirection of traffic between two end-nodes through a Wormhole tunnel, and manipulates the routing algorithm to give illusion that nodes located far from each other are neighbors. To handle with this issue, we propose a novel detection model to allow a node to check whether a presumed shortest path contains a Wormhole tunnel or not. Our approach is based on the fact that the Wormhole tunnel reduces significantly the length of the paths passing through it.

Li, T., Ma, J., Pei, Q., Shen, Y., Sun, C..  2018.  Log-based Anomalies Detection of MANETs Routing with Reasoning and Verification. 2018 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC). :240–246.

Routing security plays an important role in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Despite many attempts to improve its security, the routing procedure of MANETs remains vulnerable to attacks. Existing approaches offer support for detecting attacks or debugging in different routing phases, but many of them have not considered the privacy of the nodes during the anomalies detection, which depend on the central control program or a third party to supervise the whole network. In this paper, we present an approach called LAD which uses the raw logs of routers to construct control a flow graph and find the existing communication rules in MANETs. With the reasoning rules, LAD can detect both active and passive attacks launched during the routing phase. LAD can also protect the privacy of the nodes in the verification phase with the specific Merkle hash tree. Without deploying any special nodes to assist the verification, LAD can detect multiple malicious nodes by itself. To show that our approach can be used to guarantee the security of the MANETs, we deploy our experiment in NS3 as well as the practical router environment. LAD can improve the accuracy rate from 2.28% to 29.22%. The results show that LAD performs limited time and memory usages, high detection and low false positives.

Alsumayt, A., Haggerty, J., Lotfi, A..  2018.  Evaluation of Detection Method to Mitigate DoS Attacks in MANETs. 2018 1st International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–5.

A Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configure, dynamic, and non-fixed infrastructure that consists of many nodes. These nodes communicate with each other without an administrative point. However, due to its nature MANET becomes prone to many attacks such as DoS attacks. DoS attack is a severe as it prevents legitimate users from accessing to their authorised services. Monitoring, Detection, and rehabilitation (MrDR) method is proposed to detect DoS attacks. MrDR method is based on calculating different trust values as nodes can be trusted or not. In this paper, we evaluate the MrDR method which detect DoS attacks in MANET and compare it with existing method Trust Enhanced Anonymous on-demand routing Protocol (TEAP) which is also based on trust concept. We consider two factors to compare the performance of the proposed method to TEAP method: packet delivery ratio and network overhead. The results confirm that the MrDR method performs better in network performance compared to TEAP method.