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Li, T., Ma, J., Pei, Q., Shen, Y., Sun, C..  2018.  Log-based Anomalies Detection of MANETs Routing with Reasoning and Verification. 2018 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC). :240–246.

Routing security plays an important role in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Despite many attempts to improve its security, the routing procedure of MANETs remains vulnerable to attacks. Existing approaches offer support for detecting attacks or debugging in different routing phases, but many of them have not considered the privacy of the nodes during the anomalies detection, which depend on the central control program or a third party to supervise the whole network. In this paper, we present an approach called LAD which uses the raw logs of routers to construct control a flow graph and find the existing communication rules in MANETs. With the reasoning rules, LAD can detect both active and passive attacks launched during the routing phase. LAD can also protect the privacy of the nodes in the verification phase with the specific Merkle hash tree. Without deploying any special nodes to assist the verification, LAD can detect multiple malicious nodes by itself. To show that our approach can be used to guarantee the security of the MANETs, we deploy our experiment in NS3 as well as the practical router environment. LAD can improve the accuracy rate from 2.28% to 29.22%. The results show that LAD performs limited time and memory usages, high detection and low false positives.

Sahay, R., Geethakumari, G., Modugu, K..  2018.  Attack graph — Based vulnerability assessment of rank property in RPL-6LOWPAN in IoT. 2018 IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :308–313.

A significant segment of the Internet of Things (IoT) is the resource constrained Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs). The communication protocol used in LLNs is 6LOWPAN (IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Network) which makes use of RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol over Low power and Lossy network) as its routing protocol. In recent times, several security breaches in IoT networks occurred by targeting routers to instigate various DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks. Hence, routing security has become an important problem in securing the IoT environment. Though RPL meets all the routing requirements of LLNs, it is important to perform a holistic security assessment of RPL as it is susceptible to many security attacks. An important attribute of RPL is its rank property. The rank property defines the placement of sensor nodes in the RPL DODAG (Destination Oriented Directed Acyclic Graphs) based on an Objective Function. Examples of Objective Functions include Expected Transmission Count, Packet Delivery Rate etc. Rank property assists in routing path optimization, reducing control overhead and maintaining a loop free topology through rank based data path validation. In this paper, we investigate the vulnerabilities of the rank property of RPL by constructing an Attack Graph. For the construction of the Attack Graph we analyzed all the possible threats associated with rank property. Through our investigation we found that violation of protocols related to rank property results in several RPL attacks causing topological sub-optimization, topological isolation, resource consumption and traffic disruption. Routing security essentially comprises mechanisms to ensure correct implementation of the routing protocol. In this paper, we also present some observations which can be used to devise mechanisms to prevent the exploitation of the vulnerabilities of the rank property.

Yin, H., Yin, Z., Yang, Y., Sun, J..  2018.  Research on the Node Information Security of WSN Based on Multi-Party Data Fusion Algorithm. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :400–405.
Smart grid is the cornerstone of the modern urban construction, leading the development trend of the urban power industry. Wireless sensor network (WSN) is widely used in smart power grid. It mainly covers two routing methods, the plane routing protocol and the clustering routing protocol. Since the plane routing protocol needs to maintain a large routing table and works with a poor scalability, it will increase the overall cost of the system in practical use. Therefore, in this paper, the clustering routing protocol is selected to achieve a better operation performance of the wireless sensor network. In order to enhance the reliability of the routing security, the data fusion technology is also utilized. Based on this method, the rationality of the topology structure of the smart grid and the security of the node information can be effectively improved.
Li, T., Ma, J., Sun, C., Wei, D., Xi, N..  2017.  PVad: Privacy-Preserving Verification for Secure Routing in Ad Hoc Networks. 2017 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :5–10.

Routing security has a great importance to the security of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). There are various kinds of attacks when establishing routing path between source and destination. The adversaries attempt to deceive the source node and get the privilege of data transmission. Then they try to launch the malicious behaviors such as passive or active attacks. Due to the characteristics of the MANETs, e.g. dynamic topology, open medium, distributed cooperation, and constrained capability, it is difficult to verify the behavior of nodes and detect malicious nodes without revealing any privacy. In this paper, we present PVad, an approach conducting privacy-preserving verification in the routing discovery phase of MANETs. PVad tries to find the existing communication rules by association rules instead of making the rules. PVad consists of two phases, a reasoning phase deducing the expected log data of the peers, and a verification phase using Merkle Hash Tree to verify the correctness of derived information without revealing any privacy of nodes on expected routing paths. Without deploying any special nodes to assist the verification, PVad can detect multiple malicious nodes by itself. To show our approach can be used to guarantee the security of the MANETs, we conduct our experiments in NS3 as well as the real router environment, and we improved the detection accuracy by 4% on average compared to our former work.

Medjek, F., Tandjaoui, D., Romdhani, I., Djedjig, N..  2017.  Performance Evaluation of RPL Protocol under Mobile Sybil Attacks. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :1049–1055.

In Sybil attacks, a physical adversary takes multiple fabricated or stolen identities to maliciously manipulate the network. These attacks are very harmful for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In this paper we implemented and evaluated the performance of RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) routing protocol under mobile sybil attacks, namely SybM, with respect to control overhead, packet delivery and energy consumption. In SybM attacks, Sybil nodes take the advantage of their mobility and the weakness of RPL to handle identity and mobility, to flood the network with fake control messages from different locations. To counter these type of attacks we propose a trust-based intrusion detection system based on RPL.

Medjek, F., Tandjaoui, D., Romdhani, I., Djedjig, N..  2017.  A Trust-Based Intrusion Detection System for Mobile RPL Based Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :735–742.

Successful deployment of Low power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) requires self-organising, self-configuring, security, and mobility support. However, these characteristics can be exploited to perform security attacks against the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). In this paper, we address the lack of strong identity and security mechanisms in RPL. We first demonstrate by simulation the impact of Sybil-Mobile attack, namely SybM, on RPL with respect to control overhead, packet delivery and energy consumption. Then, we introduce a new Intrusion Detection System (IDS) scheme for RPL, named Trust-based IDS (T-IDS). T-IDS is a distributed, cooperative and hierarchical trust-based IDS, which can detect novel intrusions by comparing network behavior deviations. In T-IDS, each node is considered as monitoring node and collaborates with his peers to detect intrusions and report them to a 6LoWPAN Border Router (6BR). In our solution, we introduced a new timer and minor extensions to RPL messages format to deal with mobility, identity and multicast issues. In addition, each node is equipped with a Trusted Platform Module co-processor to handle identification and off-load security related computation and storage.

Benton, Kevin, Camp, L. Jean.  2016.  Firewalling Scenic Routes: Preventing Data Exfiltration via Political and Geographic Routing Policies. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Automated Decision Making for Active Cyber Defense. :31–36.

In this paper we describe a system that allows the real time creation of firewall rules in response to geographic and political changes in the control-plane. This allows an organization to mitigate data exfiltration threats by analyzing Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) updates and blocking packets from being routed through problematic jurisdictions. By inspecting the autonomous system paths and referencing external data sources about the autonomous systems, a BGP participant can infer the countries that traffic to a particular destination address will traverse. Based on this information, an organization can then define constraints on its egress traffic to prevent sensitive data from being sent via an untrusted region. In light of the many route leaks and BGP hijacks that occur today, this offers a new option to organizations willing to accept reduced availability over the risk to confidentiality. Similar to firewalls that allow organizations to block traffic originating from specific countries, our approach allows blocking outbound traffic from transiting specific jurisdictions. To illustrate the efficacy of this approach, we provide an analysis of paths to various financial services IP addresses over the course of a month from a single BGP vantage point that quantifies the frequency of path alterations resulting in the traversal of new countries. We conclude with an argument for the utility of country-based egress policies that do not require the cooperation of upstream providers.

Perrey, Heiner, Landsmann, Martin, Ugus, Osman, Wählisch, Matthias, Schmidt, Thomas C..  2016.  TRAIL: Topology Authentication in RPL. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Embedded Wireless Systems and Networks. :59–64.

The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks was recently introduced as the new routing standard for the Internet of Things. Although RPL defines basic security modes, it remains vulnerable to topological attacks which facilitate blackholing, interception, and resource exhaustion. We are concerned with analyzing the corresponding threats and protecting future RPL deployments from such attacks. Our contributions are twofold. First, we analyze the state of the art, in particular the protective scheme VeRA and present two new rank order attacks as well as extensions to mitigate them. Second, we derive and evaluate TRAIL, a generic scheme for topology authentication in RPL. TRAIL solely relies on the basic assumptions of RPL that (1) the root node serves as a trust anchor and (2) each node interconnects to the root in a straight hierarchy. Using proper reachability tests, TRAIL scalably and reliably identifies any topological attacker without strong cryptographic efforts.

Talawar, S.H., Maity, S., Hansdah, R.C..  2014.  Secure Routing with an Integrated Localized Key Management Protocol in MANETs. Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on. :605-612.

A routing protocol in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) should be secure against both the outside attackers which do not hold valid security credentials and the inside attackers which are the compromised nodes in the network. The outside attackers can be prevented with the help of an efficient key management protocol and cryptography. However, to prevent inside attackers, it should be accompanied with an intrusion detection system (IDS). In this paper, we propose a novel secure routing with an integrated localized key management (SR-LKM) protocol, which is aimed to prevent both inside and outside attackers. The localized key management mechanism is not dependent on any routing protocol. Thus, unlike many other existing schemes, the protocol does not suffer from the key management - secure routing interdependency problem. The key management mechanism is lightweight as it optimizes the use of public key cryptography with the help of a novel neighbor based handshaking and Least Common Multiple (LCM) based broadcast key distribution mechanism. The protocol is storage scalable and its efficiency is confirmed by the results obtained from simulation experiments.