Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is Payloads  [Clear All Filters]
2019-07-01
Perez, R. Lopez, Adamsky, F., Soua, R., Engel, T..  2018.  Machine Learning for Reliable Network Attack Detection in SCADA Systems. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :633–638.

Critical Infrastructures (CIs) use Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems for remote control and monitoring. Sophisticated security measures are needed to address malicious intrusions, which are steadily increasing in number and variety due to the massive spread of connectivity and standardisation of open SCADA protocols. Traditional Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) cannot detect attacks that are not already present in their databases. Therefore, in this paper, we assess Machine Learning (ML) for intrusion detection in SCADA systems using a real data set collected from a gas pipeline system and provided by the Mississippi State University (MSU). The contribution of this paper is two-fold: 1) The evaluation of four techniques for missing data estimation and two techniques for data normalization, 2) The performances of Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) are assessed in terms of accuracy, precision, recall and F1score for intrusion detection. Two cases are differentiated: binary and categorical classifications. Our experiments reveal that RF detect intrusions effectively, with an F1score of respectively \textbackslashtextgreater 99%.

2019-06-10
Jiang, J., Yin, Q., Shi, Z., Li, M..  2018.  Comprehensive Behavior Profiling Model for Malware Classification. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :00129-00135.

In view of the great threat posed by malware and the rapid growing trend about malware variants, it is necessary to determine the category of new samples accurately for further analysis and taking appropriate countermeasures. The network behavior based classification methods have become more popular now. However, the behavior profiling models they used usually only depict partial network behavior of samples or require specific traffic selection in advance, which may lead to adverse effects on categorizing advanced malware with complex activities. In this paper, to overcome the shortages of traditional models, we raise a comprehensive behavior model for profiling the behavior of malware network activities. And we also propose a corresponding malware classification method which can extract and compare the major behavior of samples. The experimental and comparison results not only demonstrate our method can categorize samples accurately in both criteria, but also prove the advantage of our profiling model to two other approaches in accuracy performance, especially under scenario based criteria.

2019-04-05
Bapat, R., Mandya, A., Liu, X., Abraham, B., Brown, D. E., Kang, H., Veeraraghavan, M..  2018.  Identifying Malicious Botnet Traffic Using Logistic Regression. 2018 Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium (SIEDS). :266-271.

An important source of cyber-attacks is malware, which proliferates in different forms such as botnets. The botnet malware typically looks for vulnerable devices across the Internet, rather than targeting specific individuals, companies or industries. It attempts to infect as many connected devices as possible, using their resources for automated tasks that may cause significant economic and social harm while being hidden to the user and device. Thus, it becomes very difficult to detect such activity. A considerable amount of research has been conducted to detect and prevent botnet infestation. In this paper, we attempt to create a foundation for an anomaly-based intrusion detection system using a statistical learning method to improve network security and reduce human involvement in botnet detection. We focus on identifying the best features to detect botnet activity within network traffic using a lightweight logistic regression model. The network traffic is processed by Bro, a popular network monitoring framework which provides aggregate statistics about the packets exchanged between a source and destination over a certain time interval. These statistics serve as features to a logistic regression model responsible for classifying malicious and benign traffic. Our model is easy to implement and simple to interpret. We characterized and modeled 8 different botnet families separately and as a mixed dataset. Finally, we measured the performance of our model on multiple parameters using F1 score, accuracy and Area Under Curve (AUC).

Chen, S., Chen, Y., Tzeng, W..  2018.  Effective Botnet Detection Through Neural Networks on Convolutional Features. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :372-378.

Botnet is one of the major threats on the Internet for committing cybercrimes, such as DDoS attacks, stealing sensitive information, spreading spams, etc. It is a challenging issue to detect modern botnets that are continuously improving for evading detection. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based botnet detection system that is shown to be effective in identifying P2P botnets. Our approach extracts convolutional version of effective flow-based features, and trains a classification model by using a feed-forward artificial neural network. The experimental results show that the accuracy of detection using the convolutional features is better than the ones using the traditional features. It can achieve 94.7% of detection accuracy and 2.2% of false positive rate on the known P2P botnet datasets. Furthermore, our system provides an additional confidence testing for enhancing performance of botnet detection. It further classifies the network traffic of insufficient confidence in the neural network. The experiment shows that this stage can increase the detection accuracy up to 98.6% and decrease the false positive rate up to 0.5%.

2019-03-15
Crouch, A., Hunter, E., Levin, P. L..  2018.  Enabling Hardware Trojan Detection and Prevention through Emulation. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1-5.

Hardware Trojans, implantable at a myriad of points within the supply chain, are difficult to detect and identify. By emulating systems on programmable hardware, the authors have created a tool from which to create and evaluate Trojan attack signatures and therefore enable better Trojan detection (for in-service systems) and prevention (for in-design systems).

2019-02-22
Liao, X., Yu, Y., Li, B., Li, Z., Qin, Z..  2019.  A New Payload Partition Strategy in Color Image Steganography. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. :1-1.
In traditional steganographic schemes, RGB three channels payloads are assigned equally in a true color image. In fact, the security of color image steganography relates not only to data-embedding algorithms but also to different payload partition. How to exploit inter-channel correlations to allocate payload for performance enhancement is still an open issue in color image steganography. In this paper, a novel channel-dependent payload partition strategy based on amplifying channel modification probabilities is proposed, so as to adaptively assign the embedding capacity among RGB channels. The modification probabilities of three corresponding pixels in RGB channels are simultaneously increased, and thus the embedding impacts could be clustered, in order to improve the empirical steganographic security against the channel co-occurrences detection. Experimental results show that the new color image steganographic schemes incorporated with the proposed strategy can effectively make the embedding changes concentrated mainly in textured regions, and achieve better performance on resisting the modern color image steganalysis.
2019-02-08
Park, W., Hwang, D., Kim, K..  2018.  A TOTP-Based Two Factor Authentication Scheme for Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain. 2018 Tenth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :817-819.

In this paper, we propose a new authentication method to prevent authentication vulnerability of Claim Token method of Membership Service provide in Private BlockChain. We chose Hyperledger Fabric v1.0 using JWT authentication method of membership service. TOTP, which generate OTP tokens and user authentication codes that generate additional time-based password on existing authentication servers, has been applied to enforce security and two-factor authentication method to provide more secure services.

2019-01-21
Nicho, M., Oluwasegun, A., Kamoun, F..  2018.  Identifying Vulnerabilities in APT Attacks: A Simulated Approach. 2018 9th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1–4.
This research aims to identify some vulnerabilities of advanced persistent threat (APT) attacks using multiple simulated attacks in a virtualized environment. Our experimental study shows that while updating the antivirus software and the operating system with the latest patches may help in mitigating APTs, APT threat vectors could still infiltrate the strongest defenses. Accordingly, we highlight some critical areas of security concern that need to be addressed.
2018-09-12
Domínguez, A., Carballo, P. P., Núñez, A..  2017.  Programmable SoC platform for deep packet inspection using enhanced Boyer-Moore algorithm. 2017 12th International Symposium on Reconfigurable Communication-centric Systems-on-Chip (ReCoSoC). :1–8.

This paper describes the work done to design a SoC platform for real-time on-line pattern search in TCP packets for Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) applications. The platform is based on a Xilinx Zynq programmable SoC and includes an accelerator that implements a pattern search engine that extends the original Boyer-Moore algorithm with timing and logical rules, that produces a very complex set of rules. Also, the platform implements different modes of operation, including SIMD and MISD parallelism, which can be configured on-line. The platform is scalable depending of the analysis requirement up to 8 Gbps. High-Level synthesis and platform based design methodologies have been used to reduce the time to market of the completed system.

2018-07-06
Liu, T., Wen, W., Jin, Y..  2018.  SIN2: Stealth infection on neural network \#x2014; A low-cost agile neural Trojan attack methodology. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :227–230.

Deep Neural Network (DNN) has recently become the “de facto” technique to drive the artificial intelligence (AI) industry. However, there also emerges many security issues as the DNN based intelligent systems are being increasingly prevalent. Existing DNN security studies, such as adversarial attacks and poisoning attacks, are usually narrowly conducted at the software algorithm level, with the misclassification as their primary goal. The more realistic system-level attacks introduced by the emerging intelligent service supply chain, e.g. the third-party cloud based machine learning as a service (MLaaS) along with the portable DNN computing engine, have never been discussed. In this work, we propose a low-cost modular methodology-Stealth Infection on Neural Network, namely “SIN2”, to demonstrate the novel and practical intelligent supply chain triggered neural Trojan attacks. Our “SIN2” well leverages the attacking opportunities built upon the static neural network model and the underlying dynamic runtime system of neural computing framework through a bunch of neural Trojaning techniques. We implement a variety of neural Trojan attacks in Linux sandbox by following proposed “SIN2”. Experimental results show that our modular design can rapidly produce and trigger various Trojan attacks that can easily evade the existing defenses.

2018-06-07
Bresch, C., Michelet, A., Amato, L., Meyer, T., Hély, D..  2017.  A red team blue team approach towards a secure processor design with hardware shadow stack. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :57–62.

Software attacks are commonly performed against embedded systems in order to access private data or to run restricted services. In this work, we demonstrate some vulnerabilities of commonly use processor which can be leveraged by hackers to attack a system. The targeted devices are based on open processor architectures OpenRISC and RISC-V. Several software exploits are discussed and demonstrated while a hardware countermeasure is proposed and validated on OpenRISC against Return Oriented Programming attack.

2018-05-09
Andy, S., Rahardjo, B., Hanindhito, B..  2017.  Attack scenarios and security analysis of MQTT communication protocol in IoT system. 2017 4th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Informatics (EECSI). :1–6.
Various communication protocols are currently used in the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. One of the protocols that are already standardized by ISO is MQTT protocol (ISO / IEC 20922: 2016). Many IoT developers use this protocol because of its minimal bandwidth requirement and low memory consumption. Sometimes, IoT device sends confidential data that should only be accessed by authorized people or devices. Unfortunately, the MQTT protocol only provides authentication for the security mechanism which, by default, does not encrypt the data in transit thus data privacy, authentication, and data integrity become problems in MQTT implementation. This paper discusses several reasons on why there are many IoT system that does not implement adequate security mechanism. Next, it also demonstrates and analyzes how we can attack this protocol easily using several attack scenarios. Finally, after the vulnerabilities of this protocol have been examined, we can improve our security awareness especially in MQTT protocol and then implement security mechanism in our MQTT system to prevent such attack.
2018-05-01
Cogranne, R., Sedighi, V., Fridrich, J..  2017.  Practical Strategies for Content-Adaptive Batch Steganography and Pooled Steganalysis. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2122–2126.

This paper investigates practical strategies for distributing payload across images with content-adaptive steganography and for pooling outputs of a single-image detector for steganalysis. Adopting a statistical model for the detector's output, the steganographer minimizes the power of the most powerful detector of an omniscient Warden, while the Warden, informed by the payload spreading strategy, detects with the likelihood ratio test in the form of a matched filter. Experimental results with state-of-the-art content-adaptive additive embedding schemes and rich models are included to show the relevance of the results.

2018-04-11
Cornell, N., Nepal, K..  2017.  Combinational Hardware Trojan Detection Using Logic Implications. 2017 IEEE 60th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :571–574.

This paper provides a proof-of-concept demonstration of the potential benefit of using logical implications for detection of combinational hardware trojans. Using logic simulation, valid logic implications are selected and added to to the checker circuitry to detect payload delivery by a combinational hardware trojan. Using combinational circuits from the ISCAS benchmark suite, and a modest hardware budget for the checker, simulation results show that the probability of a trojan escaping detection using our approach was only 16%.

Nahiyan, A., Sadi, M., Vittal, R., Contreras, G., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M..  2017.  Hardware Trojan Detection through Information Flow Security Verification. 2017 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC). :1–10.

Semiconductor design houses are increasingly becoming dependent on third party vendors to procure intellectual property (IP) and meet time-to-market constraints. However, these third party IPs cannot be trusted as hardware Trojans can be maliciously inserted into them by untrusted vendors. While different approaches have been proposed to detect Trojans in third party IPs, their limitations have not been extensively studied. In this paper, we analyze the limitations of the state-of-the-art Trojan detection techniques and demonstrate with experimental results how to defeat these detection mechanisms. We then propose a Trojan detection framework based on information flow security (IFS) verification. Our framework detects violation of IFS policies caused by Trojans without the need of white-box knowledge of the IP. We experimentally validate the efficacy of our proposed technique by accurately identifying Trojans in the trust-hub benchmarks. We also demonstrate that our technique does not share the limitations of the previously proposed Trojan detection techniques.

2018-04-02
Schürmann, D., Zengen, G. V., Priedigkeit, M., Wolf, L..  2017.  \#x003BC;DTNSec: A Security Layer for Disruption-Tolerant Networks on Microcontrollers. 2017 16th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net). :1–7.

We introduce $μ$DTNSec, the first fully-implemented security layer for Delay/Disruption-Tolerant Networks (DTN) on microcontrollers. It provides protection against eavesdropping and Man-in-the-Middle attacks that are especially easy in these networks. Following the Store-Carry-Forward principle of DTNs, an attacker can simply place itself on the route between source and destination. Our design consists of asymmetric encryption and signatures with Elliptic Curve Cryptography and hardware-backed symmetric encryption with the Advanced Encryption Standard. $μ$DTNSec has been fully implemented as an extension to $μ$DTN on Contiki OS and is based on the Bundle Protocol specification. Our performance evaluation shows that the choice of the curve (secp128r1, secp192r1, secp256r1) dominates the influence of the payload size. We also provide energy measurements for all operations to show the feasibility of our security layer on energy-constrained devices.

2018-03-19
McLaren, P., Russell, G., Buchanan, B..  2017.  Mining Malware Command and Control Traces. 2017 Computing Conference. :788–794.

Detecting botnets and advanced persistent threats is a major challenge for network administrators. An important component of such malware is the command and control channel, which enables the malware to respond to controller commands. The detection of malware command and control channels could help prevent further malicious activity by cyber criminals using the malware. Detection of malware in network traffic is traditionally carried out by identifying specific patterns in packet payloads. Now bot writers encrypt the command and control payloads, making pattern recognition a less effective form of detection. This paper focuses instead on an effective anomaly based detection technique for bot and advanced persistent threats using a data mining approach combined with applied classification algorithms. After additional tuning, the final test on an unseen dataset, false positive rates of 0% with malware detection rates of 100% were achieved on two examined malware threats, with promising results on a number of other threats.

2018-03-05
Zimba, A., Wang, Z., Chen, H..  2017.  Reasoning Crypto Ransomware Infection Vectors with Bayesian Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :149–151.

Ransomware techniques have evolved over time with the most resilient attacks making data recovery practically impossible. This has driven countermeasures to shift towards recovery against prevention but in this paper, we model ransomware attacks from an infection vector point of view. We follow the basic infection chain of crypto ransomware and use Bayesian network statistics to infer some of the most common ransomware infection vectors. We also employ the use of attack and sensor nodes to capture uncertainty in the Bayesian network.

Gonzalez, D., Hayajneh, T..  2017.  Detection and Prevention of Crypto-Ransomware. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :472–478.

Crypto-ransomware is a challenging threat that ciphers a user's files while hiding the decryption key until a ransom is paid by the victim. This type of malware is a lucrative business for cybercriminals, generating millions of dollars annually. The spread of ransomware is increasing as traditional detection-based protection, such as antivirus and anti-malware, has proven ineffective at preventing attacks. Additionally, this form of malware is incorporating advanced encryption algorithms and expanding the number of file types it targets. Cybercriminals have found a lucrative market and no one is safe from being the next victim. Encrypting ransomware targets business small and large as well as the regular home user. This paper discusses ransomware methods of infection, technology behind it and what can be done to help prevent becoming the next victim. The paper investigates the most common types of crypto-ransomware, various payload methods of infection, typical behavior of crypto ransomware, its tactics, how an attack is ordinarily carried out, what files are most commonly targeted on a victim's computer, and recommendations for prevention and safeguards are listed as well.

Khan, J..  2017.  Vehicle Network Security Testing. 2017 Third International Conference on Sensing, Signal Processing and Security (ICSSS). :119–123.

In-vehicle networks like Controller Area Network, FlexRay, Ethernet are now subjected to huge security threats where unauthorized entities can take control of the whole vehicle. This can pose very serious threats including accidents. Security features like encryption, message authentication are getting implemented in vehicle networks to counteract these issues. This paper is proposing a set of novel validation techniques to ensure that vehicle network security is fool proof. Security validation against requirements, security validation using white box approach, black box approach and grey box approaches are put forward. Test system architecture, validation of message authentication, decoding the patterns from vehicle network data, using diagnostics as a security loophole, V2V V2X loopholes, gateway module security testing are considered in detail. Aim of this research paper is to put forward a set of tools and methods for finding and reporting any security loopholes in the in-vehicle network security implementation.

2018-02-28
Hendriks, L., Velan, P., Schmidt, R. d O., Boer, P. T. de, Pras, A..  2017.  Threats and surprises behind IPv6 extension headers. 2017 Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference (TMA). :1–9.

The concept of Extension Headers, newly introduced with IPv6, is elusive and enables new types of threats in the Internet. Simply dropping all traffic containing any Extension Header - a current practice by operators-seemingly is an effective solution, but at the cost of possibly dropping legitimate traffic as well. To determine whether threats indeed occur, and evaluate the actual nature of the traffic, measurement solutions need to be adapted. By implementing these specific parsing capabilities in flow exporters and performing measurements on two different production networks, we show it is feasible to quantify the metrics directly related to these threats, and thus allow for monitoring and detection. Analysing the traffic that is hidden behind Extension Headers, we find mostly benign traffic that directly affects end-user QoE: simply dropping all traffic containing Extension Headers is thus a bad practice with more consequences than operators might be aware of.

2018-02-21
Fotiou, N., Siris, V. A., Xylomenos, G., Polyzos, G. C., Katsaros, K. V., Petropoulos, G..  2017.  Edge-ICN and its application to the Internet of Things. 2017 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops. :1–6.

While research on Information-Centric Networking (ICN) flourishes, its adoption seems to be an elusive goal. In this paper we propose Edge-ICN: a novel approach for deploying ICN in a single large network, such as the network of an Internet Service Provider. Although Edge-ICN requires nothing beyond an SDN-based network supporting the OpenFlow protocol, with ICN-aware nodes only at the edges of the network, it still offers the same benefits as a clean-slate ICN architecture but without the deployment hassles. Moreover, by proxying legacy traffic and transparently forwarding it through the Edge-ICN nodes, all existing applications can operate smoothly, while offering significant advantages to applications such as native support for scalable anycast, multicast, and multi-source forwarding. In this context, we show how the proposed functionality at the edge of the network can specifically benefit CoAP-based IoT applications. Our measurements show that Edge-ICN induces on average the same control plane overhead for name resolution as a centralized approach, while also enabling IoT applications to build on anycast, multicast, and multi-source forwarding primitives.

Priya, S. R., Swetha, P., Srigayathri, D., Sumedha, N., Priyatharishini, M..  2017.  Hardware malicious circuit identification using self referencing approach. 2017 International conference on Microelectronic Devices, Circuits and Systems (ICMDCS). :1–5.

Robust Trojans are inserted in outsourced products resulting in security vulnerabilities. Post-silicon testing is done mandatorily to detect such malicious inclusions. Logic testing becomes obsolete for larger circuits with sequential Trojans. For such cases, side channel analysis is an effective approach. The major challenge with the side channel analysis is reduction in hardware Trojan detection sensitivity due to process variation (process variation could lead to false positives and false negatives and it is unavoidable during a manufacturing stage). In this paper Self Referencing method is proposed that measures leakage power of the circuit at four different time windows that hammers the Trojan into triggering and also help to identify/eliminate false positives/false negatives due to process variation.

2018-02-15
Zalbina, M. R., Septian, T. W., Stiawan, D., Idris, M. Y., Heryanto, A., Budiarto, R..  2017.  Payload recognition and detection of Cross Site Scripting attack. 2017 2nd International Conference on Anti-Cyber Crimes (ICACC). :172–176.

Web Application becomes the leading solution for the utilization of systems that need access globally, distributed, cost-effective, as well as the diversity of the content that can run on this technology. At the same time web application security have always been a major issue that must be considered due to the fact that 60% of Internet attacks targeting web application platform. One of the biggest impacts on this technology is Cross Site Scripting (XSS) attack, the most frequently occurred and are always in the TOP 10 list of Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP). Vulnerabilities in this attack occur in the absence of checking, testing, and the attention about secure coding practices. There are several alternatives to prevent the attacks that associated with this threat. Network Intrusion Detection System can be used as one solution to prevent the influence of XSS Attack. This paper investigates the XSS attack recognition and detection using regular expression pattern matching and a preprocessing method. Experiments are conducted on a testbed with the aim to reveal the behaviour of the attack.

2017-11-03
Weckstén, M., Frick, J., Sjöström, A., Järpe, E..  2016.  A novel method for recovery from Crypto Ransomware infections. 2016 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1354–1358.

Extortion using digital platforms is an increasing form of crime. A commonly seen problem is extortion in the form of an infection of a Crypto Ransomware that encrypts the files of the target and demands a ransom to recover the locked data. By analyzing the four most common Crypto Ransomwares, at writing, a clear vulnerability is identified; all infections rely on tools available on the target system to be able to prevent a simple recovery after the attack has been detected. By renaming the system tool that handles shadow copies it is possible to recover from infections from all four of the most common Crypto Ransomwares. The solution is packaged in a single, easy to use script.