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Kumar, Rahul, Sethi, Kamalakanta, Prajapati, Nishant, Rout, Rashmi Ranjan, Bera, Padmalochan.  2020.  Machine Learning based Malware Detection in Cloud Environment using Clustering Approach. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.

Enforcing security and resilience in a cloud platform is an essential but challenging problem due to the presence of a large number of heterogeneous applications running on shared resources. A security analysis system that can detect threats or malware must exist inside the cloud infrastructure. Much research has been done on machine learning-driven malware analysis, but it is limited in computational complexity and detection accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, we proposed a new malware detection system based on the concept of clustering and trend micro locality sensitive hashing (TLSH). We used Cuckoo sandbox, which provides dynamic analysis reports of files by executing them in an isolated environment. We used a novel feature extraction algorithm to extract essential features from the malware reports obtained from the Cuckoo sandbox. Further, the most important features are selected using principal component analysis (PCA), random forest, and Chi-square feature selection methods. Subsequently, the experimental results are obtained for clustering and non-clustering approaches on three classifiers, including Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Logistic Regression. The model performance shows better classification accuracy and false positive rate (FPR) as compared to the state-of-the-art works and non-clustering approach at significantly lesser computation cost.

Kishore, Pushkar, Barisal, Swadhin Kumar, Prasad Mohapatra, Durga.  2020.  JavaScript malware behaviour analysis and detection using sandbox assisted ensemble model. 2020 IEEE REGION 10 CONFERENCE (TENCON). :864—869.

Whenever any internet user visits a website, a scripting language runs in the background known as JavaScript. The embedding of malicious activities within the script poses a great threat to the cyberworld. Attackers take advantage of the dynamic nature of the JavaScript and embed malicious code within the website to download malware and damage the host. JavaScript developers obfuscate the script to keep it shielded from getting detected by the malware detectors. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for analysing and detecting JavaScript using sandbox assisted ensemble model. We extract the payload using malware-jail sandbox to get the real script. Upon getting the extracted script, we analyse it to define the features that are needed for creating the dataset. We compute Pearson's r between every feature for feature extraction. An ensemble model consisting of Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO), Voted Perceptron and AdaBoost algorithm is used with voting technique to detect malicious JavaScript. Experimental results show that our proposed model can detect obfuscated and de-obfuscated malicious JavaScript with an accuracy of 99.6% and 0.03s detection time. Our model performs better than other state-of-the-art models in terms of accuracy and least training and detection time.

Himthani, P., Dubey, G. P., Sharma, B. M., Taneja, A..  2020.  Big Data Privacy and Challenges for Machine Learning. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :707—713.

The field of Big Data is expanding at an alarming rate since its inception in 2012. The excessive use of Social Networking Sites, collection of Data from Sensors for analysis and prediction of future events, improvement in Customer Satisfaction on Online S hopping portals by monitoring their past behavior and providing them information, items and offers of their interest instantaneously, etc had led to this rise in the field of Big Data. This huge amount of data, if analyzed and processed properly, can lead to decisions and outcomes that would be of great values and benefits to organizations and individuals. Security of Data and Privacy of User is of keen interest and high importance for individuals, industry and academia. Everyone ensure that their Sensitive information must be kept away from unauthorized access and their assets must be kept safe from security breaches. Privacy and Security are also equally important for Big Data and here, it is typical and complex to ensure the Privacy and Security, as the amount of data is enormous. One possible option to effectively and efficiently handle, process and analyze the Big Data is to make use of Machine Learning techniques. Machine Learning techniques are straightforward; applying them on Big Data requires resolution of various issues and is a challenging task, as the size of Data is too big. This paper provides a brief introduction to Big Data, the importance of Security and Privacy in Big Data and the various challenges that are required to overcome for applying the Machine Learning techniques on Big Data.

Sidhu, H. J. Singh, Khanna, M. S..  2020.  Cloud's Transformative Involvement in Managing BIG-DATA ANALYTICS For Securing Data in Transit, Storage And Use: A Study. 2020 Sixth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC). :297—302.

with the advent of Cloud Computing a new era of computing has come into existence. No doubt, there are numerous advantages associated with the Cloud Computing but, there is other side of the picture too. The challenges associated with it need a more promising reply as far as the security of data that is stored, in process and in transit is concerned. This paper put forth a cloud computing model that tries to answer the data security queries; we are talking about, in terms of the four cryptographic techniques namely Homomorphic Encryption (HE), Verifiable Computation (VC), Secure Multi-Party Computation (SMPC), Functional Encryption (FE). This paper takes into account the various cryptographic techniques to undertake cloud computing security issues. It also surveys these important (existing) cryptographic tools/techniques through a proposed Cloud computation model that can be used for Big Data applications. Further, these cryptographic tools are also taken into account in terms of CIA triad. Then, these tools/techniques are analyzed by comparing them on the basis of certain parameters of concern.

Kotturu, P. K., Kumar, A..  2020.  Data Mining Visualization with the Impact of Nature Inspired Algorithms in Big Data. 2020 4th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI)(48184). :664—668.

Data mining visualization is an important aspect of big data visualization and analysis. The impact of the nature-inspired algorithm along with the impact of computing traditions for the complete visualization of the storage and data communication needs have been studied. This paper also explores the possibilities of the hybridization of data mining in terms of association of cloud computing. It also explores the data analytical view in the exploration of these approaches in terms of data storage in big data. Based on these aspects the methodological advancement along with the problem statements has been analyzed. This will help in the exploration of computational capability along with the new insights in this domain.

Hongyan, W., Zengliang, M., Yong, W., Enyu, Z..  2020.  The Model of Big Data Cloud Computing Based on Extended Subjective Logic. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS). :619—622.

This paper has firstly introduced big data services and cloud computing model based on different process forms, and analyzed the authentication technology and security services of the existing big data to understand their processing characteristics. Operation principles and complexity of the big data services and cloud computing have also been studied, and summary about their suitable environment and pros and cons have been made. Based on the Cloud Computing, the author has put forward the Model of Big Data Cloud Computing based on Extended Subjective Logic (MBDCC-ESL), which has introduced Jφsang's subjective logic to test the data credibility and expanded it to solve the problem of the trustworthiness of big data in the cloud computing environment. Simulation results show that the model works pretty well.

Uthayashangar, S., Abinaya, J., Harshini, V., Jayavardhani, R..  2020.  Image And Text Encrypted Data With Authorized Deduplication In Cloud. 2020 International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). :1—5.
In this paper, the role re-encryption is used to avoid the privacy data lekage and also to avoid the deduplication in a secure role re-encryption system(SRRS). And also it checks for the proof of ownership for to identify whether the user is authorized user or not. This is for the efficiency. Role re-encrytion method is to share the access key for the corresponding authorized user for accessing the particular file without the leakage of privacy data. In our project we are using both the avoidance of text and digital images. For example we have the personal images in our mobile, handheld devices, and in the desktop etc., So, as these images have to keep secure and so we are using the encryption for to increase the high security. The text file also important for the users now-a-days. It has to keep secure in a cloud server. Digital images have to be protected over the communication, however generally personal identification details like copies of pan card, Passport, ATM, etc., to store on one's own pc. So, we are protecting the text file and image data for avoiding the duplication in our proposed system.
Ravikumar, G., Singh, A., Babu, J. R., A, A. Moataz, Govindarasu, M..  2020.  D-IDS for Cyber-Physical DER Modbus System - Architecture, Modeling, Testbed-based Evaluation. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :153—159.
Increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution networks expands the cyberattack surface. Moreover, the widely used standard protocols for communicating DER inverters such as Modbus is more vulnerable to data-integrity attacks and denial of service (DoS) attacks because of its native clear-text packet format. This paper proposes a distributed intrusion detection system (D-IDS) architecture and algorithms for detecting anomalies on the DER Modbus communication. We devised a model-based approach to define physics-based threshold bands for analog data points and transaction-based threshold bands for both the analog and discrete data points. The proposed IDS algorithm uses the model- based approach to develop Modbus-specific IDS rule sets, which can enhance the detection accuracy of the anomalies either by data-integrity attacks or maloperation on cyber-physical DER Modbus devices. Further, the IDS algorithm autogenerates the Modbus-specific IDS rulesets in compliance with various open- source IDS rule syntax formats, such as Snort and Suricata, for seamless integration and mitigation of semantic/syntax errors in the development and production environment. We considered the IEEE 13-bus distribution grid, including DERs, as a case study. We conducted various DoS type attacks and data-integrity attacks on the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) CPS DER testbed at ISU to evaluate the proposed D-IDS. Consequently, we computed the performance metrics such as IDS detection accuracy, IDS detection rate, and end-to-end latency. The results demonstrated that 100% detection accuracy, 100% detection rate for 60k DoS packets, 99.96% detection rate for 80k DoS packets, and 0.25 ms end-to-end latency between DERs to Control Center.
Roy, P., Mazumdar, C..  2018.  Modeling of Insider Threat using Enterprise Automaton. 2018 Fifth International Conference on Emerging Applications of Information Technology (EAIT). :1—4.
Substantial portions of attacks on the security of enterprises are perpetrated by Insiders having authorized privileges. Thus insider threat and attack detection is an important aspect of Security management. In the published literature, efforts are on to model the insider threats based on the behavioral traits of employees. The psycho-social behaviors are hard to encode in the software systems. Also, in some cases, there are privacy issues involved. In this paper, the human and non-human agents in a system are described in a novel unified model. The enterprise is described as an automaton and its states are classified secure, safe, unsafe and compromised. The insider agents and threats are modeled on the basis of the automaton and the model is validated using a case study.
Ameer, S., Benson, J., Sandhu, R..  2020.  The EGRBAC Model for Smart Home IoT. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :457–462.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is enabling smart houses, where multiple users with complex social relationships interact with smart devices. This requires sophisticated access control specification and enforcement models, that are currently lacking. In this paper, we introduce the extended generalized role based access control (EGRBAC) model for smart home IoT. We provide a formal definition for EGRBAC and illustrate its features with a use case. A proof-of-concept demonstration utilizing AWS-IoT Greengrass is discussed in the appendix. EGRBAC is a first step in developing a comprehensive family of access control models for smart home IoT.
Lin, T.-H., Jiang, J.-R..  2020.  Anomaly Detection with Autoencoder and Random Forest. 2020 International Computer Symposium (ICS). :96—99.

This paper proposes AERFAD, an anomaly detection method based on the autoencoder and the random forest, for solving the credit card fraud detection problem. The proposed AERFAD first utilizes the autoencoder to reduce the dimensionality of data and then uses the random forest to classify data as anomalous or normal. Large numbers of credit card transaction data of European cardholders are applied to AEFRAD to detect possible frauds for the sake of performance evaluation. When compared with related methods, AERFAD has relatively excellent performance in terms of the accuracy, true positive rate, true negative rate, and Matthews correlation coefficient.

Malek, Z. S., Trivedi, B., Shah, A..  2020.  User behavior Pattern -Signature based Intrusion Detection. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :549—552.

Technology advancement also increases the risk of a computer's security. As we can have various mechanisms to ensure safety but still there have flaws. The main concerned area is user authentication. For authentication, various biometric applications are used but once authentication is done in the begging there was no guarantee that the computer system is used by the authentic user or not. The intrusion detection system (IDS) is a particular procedure that is used to identify intruders by analyzing user behavior in the system after the user logged in. Host-based IDS monitors user behavior in the computer and identify user suspicious behavior as an intrusion or normal behavior. This paper discusses how an expert system detects intrusions using a set of rules as a pattern recognized engine. We propose a PIDE (Pattern Based Intrusion Detection) model, which is verified previously implemented SBID (Statistical Based Intrusion Detection) model. Experiment results indicate that integration of SBID and PBID approach provides an extensive system to detect intrusion.

Pranav, E., Kamal, S., Chandran, C. Satheesh, Supriya, M. H..  2020.  Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :317—320.

The rapid growth of artificial intelligence has contributed a lot to the technology world. As the traditional algorithms failed to meet the human needs in real time, Machine learning and deep learning algorithms have gained great success in different applications such as classification systems, recommendation systems, pattern recognition etc. Emotion plays a vital role in determining the thoughts, behaviour and feeling of a human. An emotion recognition system can be built by utilizing the benefits of deep learning and different applications such as feedback analysis, face unlocking etc. can be implemented with good accuracy. The main focus of this work is to create a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) model that classifies 5 different human facial emotions. The model is trained, tested and validated using the manually collected image dataset.

Moti, Z., Hashemi, S., Jahromi, A. N..  2020.  A Deep Learning-based Malware Hunting Technique to Handle Imbalanced Data. 2020 17th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :48–53.
Nowadays, with the increasing use of computers and the Internet, more people are exposed to cyber-security dangers. According to antivirus companies, malware is one of the most common threats of using the Internet. Therefore, providing a practical solution is critical. Current methods use machine learning approaches to classify malware samples automatically. Despite the success of these approaches, the accuracy and efficiency of these techniques are still inadequate, especially for multiple class classification problems and imbalanced training data sets. To mitigate this problem, we use deep learning-based algorithms for classification and generation of new malware samples. Our model is based on the opcode sequences, which are given to the model without any pre-processing. Besides, we use a novel generative adversarial network to generate new opcode sequences for oversampling minority classes. Also, we propose the model that is a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to classify malware samples. CNN is used to consider short-term dependency between features; while, LSTM is used to consider longer-term dependence. The experiment results show our method could classify malware to their corresponding family effectively. Our model achieves 98.99% validation accuracy.
Larasati, H. T., Kim, H..  2020.  Simulation of Modular Exponentiation Circuit for Shor's Algorithm in Qiskit. 2020 14th International Conference on Telecommunication Systems, Services, and Applications (TSSA. :1–7.
This paper discusses and demonstrates the construction of a quantum modular exponentiation circuit in the Qiskit simulator for use in Shor's Algorithm for integer factorization problem (IFP), which is deemed to be able to crack RSA cryptosystems when a large-qubit quantum computer exists. We base our implementation on Vedral, Barenco, and Ekert (VBE) proposal of quantum modular exponentiation, one of the firsts to explicitly provide the aforementioned circuit. Furthermore, we present an example simulation of how to construct a 7xmod 15 circuit in a step-by-step manner, giving clear and detailed information and consideration that currently not provided in the existing literature, and present the whole circuit for use in Shor's Algorithm. Our present simulation shows that the 4-bit VBE quantum modular exponentiation circuit can be constructed, simulated, and measured in Qiskit, while the Shor's Algorithm incorporating this VBE approach itself can be constructed but not yet simulated due to an overly large number of QASM instructions.
Cui, W., Li, X., Huang, J., Wang, W., Wang, S., Chen, J..  2020.  Substitute Model Generation for Black-Box Adversarial Attack Based on Knowledge Distillation. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :648–652.
Although deep convolutional neural network (CNN) performs well in many computer vision tasks, its classification mechanism is very vulnerable when it is exposed to the perturbation of adversarial attacks. In this paper, we proposed a new algorithm to generate the substitute model of black-box CNN models by using knowledge distillation. The proposed algorithm distills multiple CNN teacher models to a compact student model as the substitution of other black-box CNN models to be attacked. The black-box adversarial samples can be consequently generated on this substitute model by using various white-box attacking methods. According to our experiments on ResNet18 and DenseNet121, our algorithm boosts the attacking success rate (ASR) by 20% by training the substitute model based on knowledge distillation.
Sun, H., Liu, L., Feng, L., Gu, Y. X..  2014.  Introducing Code Assets of a New White-Box Security Modeling Language. 2014 IEEE 38th International Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops. :116—121.

This paper argues about a new conceptual modeling language for the White-Box (WB) security analysis. In the WB security domain, an attacker may have access to the inner structure of an application or even the entire binary code. It becomes pretty easy for attackers to inspect, reverse engineer, and tamper the application with the information they steal. The basis of this paper is the 14 patterns developed by a leading provider of software protection technologies and solutions. We provide a part of a new modeling language named i-WBS (White-Box Security) to describe problems of WB security better. The essence of White-Box security problem is code security. We made the new modeling language focus on code more than ever before. In this way, developers who are not security experts can easily understand what they need to really protect.

Crescenzo, G. D., Bahler, L., McIntosh, A..  2020.  Encrypted-Input Program Obfuscation: Simultaneous Security Against White-Box and Black-Box Attacks. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.

We consider the problem of protecting cloud services from simultaneous white-box and black-box attacks. Recent research in cryptographic program obfuscation considers the problem of protecting the confidentiality of programs and any secrets in them. In this model, a provable program obfuscation solution makes white-box attacks to the program not more useful than black-box attacks. Motivated by very recent results showing successful black-box attacks to machine learning programs run by cloud servers, we propose and study the approach of augmenting the program obfuscation solution model so to achieve, in at least some class of application scenarios, program confidentiality in the presence of both white-box and black-box attacks.We propose and formally define encrypted-input program obfuscation, where a key is shared between the entity obfuscating the program and the entity encrypting the program's inputs. We believe this model might be of interest in practical scenarios where cloud programs operate over encrypted data received by associated sensors (e.g., Internet of Things, Smart Grid).Under standard intractability assumptions, we show various results that are not known in the traditional cryptographic program obfuscation model; most notably: Yao's garbled circuit technique implies encrypted-input program obfuscation hiding all gates of an arbitrary polynomial circuit; and very efficient encrypted-input program obfuscation for range membership programs and a class of machine learning programs (i.e., decision trees). The performance of the latter solutions has only a small constant overhead over the equivalent unobfuscated program.

Taylor, E., Shekhar, S., Taylor, G. W..  2020.  Response Time Analysis for Explainability of Visual Processing in CNNs. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW). :1555–1558.
Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) methods rely on access to model architecture and parameters that is not always feasible for most users, practitioners, and regulators. Inspired by cognitive psychology, we present a case for response times (RTs) as a technique for XAI. RTs are observable without access to the model. Moreover, dynamic inference models performing conditional computation generate variable RTs for visual learning tasks depending on hierarchical representations. We show that MSDNet, a conditional computation model with early-exit architecture, exhibits slower RT for images with more complex features in the ObjectNet test set, as well as the human phenomenon of scene grammar, where object recognition depends on intrascene object-object relationships. These results cast light on MSDNet's feature space without opening the black box and illustrate the promise of RT methods for XAI.
Davis, B., Glenski, M., Sealy, W., Arendt, D..  2020.  Measure Utility, Gain Trust: Practical Advice for XAI Researchers. 2020 IEEE Workshop on TRust and EXpertise in Visual Analytics (TREX). :1–8.
Research into the explanation of machine learning models, i.e., explainable AI (XAI), has seen a commensurate exponential growth alongside deep artificial neural networks throughout the past decade. For historical reasons, explanation and trust have been intertwined. However, the focus on trust is too narrow, and has led the research community astray from tried and true empirical methods that produced more defensible scientific knowledge about people and explanations. To address this, we contribute a practical path forward for researchers in the XAI field. We recommend researchers focus on the utility of machine learning explanations instead of trust. We outline five broad use cases where explanations are useful and, for each, we describe pseudo-experiments that rely on objective empirical measurements and falsifiable hypotheses. We believe that this experimental rigor is necessary to contribute to scientific knowledge in the field of XAI.
Shi, W., Liu, S., Zhang, J., Zhang, R..  2020.  A Location-aware Computation Offloading Policy for MEC-assisted Wireless Mesh Network. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC Workshops). :53–58.
Mobile edge computing (MEC), an emerging technology, has the characteristics of low latency, mobile energy savings, and context-awareness. As a type of access network, wireless mesh network (WMN) has gained wide attention due to its flexible network architecture, low deployment cost, and self-organization. The combination of MEC and WMN can solve the shortcomings of traditional wireless communication such as storage capacity, privacy, and security. In this paper, we propose a location-aware (LA) algorithm to cognize the location and a location-aware offloading policy (LAOP) algorithm considering the energy consumption and time delay. Simulation results show that the proposed LAOP algorithm can obtain a higher completion rate and lower average processing delay compared with the other two methods.
Liao, D., Huang, S., Tan, Y., Bai, G..  2020.  Network Intrusion Detection Method Based on GAN Model. 2020 International Conference on Computer Communication and Network Security (CCNS). :153—156.

The existing network intrusion detection methods have less label samples in the training process, and the detection accuracy is not high. In order to solve this problem, this paper designs a network intrusion detection method based on the GAN model by using the adversarial idea contained in the GAN. The model enhances the original training set by continuously generating samples, which expanding the label sample set. In order to realize the multi-classification of samples, this paper transforms the previous binary classification model of the generated adversarial network into a supervised learning multi-classification model. The loss function of training is redefined, so that the corresponding training method and parameter setting are obtained. Under the same experimental conditions, several performance indicators are used to compare the detection ability of the proposed method, the original classification model and other models. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper is more stable, robust, accurate detection rate, has good generalization ability, and can effectively realize network intrusion detection.

Shah, A., Clachar, S., Minimair, M., Cook, D..  2020.  Building Multiclass Classification Baselines for Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems. 2020 IEEE 7th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA). :759—760.
This paper showcases multiclass classification baselines using different machine learning algorithms and neural networks for distinguishing legitimate network traffic from direct and obfuscated network intrusions. This research derives its baselines from Advanced Security Network Metrics & Tunneling Obfuscations dataset. The dataset captured legitimate and obfuscated malicious TCP communications on selected vulnerable network services. The multiclass classification NIDS is able to distinguish obfuscated and direct network intrusion with up to 95% accuracy.
Alzakari, N., Dris, A. B., Alahmadi, S..  2020.  Randomized Least Frequently Used Cache Replacement Strategy for Named Data Networking. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.
To accommodate the rapidly changing Internet requirements, Information-Centric Networking (ICN) was recently introduced as a promising architecture for the future Internet. One of the ICN primary features is `in-network caching'; due to its ability to minimize network traffic and respond faster to users' requests. Therefore, various caching algorithms have been presented that aim to enhance the network performance using different measures, such as cache hit ratio and cache hit distance. Choosing a caching strategy is critical, and an adequate replacement strategy is also required to decide which content should be dropped. Thus, in this paper, we propose a content replacement scheme for ICN, called Randomized LFU that is implemented with respect to content popularity taking the time complexity into account. We use Abilene and Tree network topologies in our simulation models. The proposed replacement achieves encouraging results in terms of the cache hit ratio, inner hit, and hit distance and it outperforms FIFO, LRU, and Random replacement strategies.
Haque, M. A., Shetty, S., Kamhoua, C. A., Gold, K..  2020.  Integrating Mission-Centric Impact Assessment to Operational Resiliency in Cyber-Physical Systems. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–7.
Developing mission-centric impact assessment techniques to address cyber resiliency in the cyber-physical systems (CPSs) requires integrating system inter-dependencies to the risk and resilience analysis process. Generally, network administrators utilize attack graphs to estimate possible consequences in a networked environment. Attack graphs lack to incorporate the operations-specific dependencies. Localizing the dependencies among operational missions, tasks, and the hosting devices in a large-scale CPS is also challenging. In this work, we offer a graphical modeling technique to integrate the mission-centric impact assessment of cyberattacks by relating the effect to the operational resiliency by utilizing a combination of the logical attack graph and mission impact propagation graph. We propose formal techniques to compute cyberattacks’ impact on the operational mission and offer an optimization process to minimize the same, having budgetary restrictions. We also relate the effect to the system functional operability. We illustrate our modeling techniques using a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) case study for the cyber-physical power systems. We believe our proposed method would help evaluate and minimize the impact of cyber attacks on CPS’s operational missions and, thus, enhance cyber resiliency.