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2021-06-02
Quigley, Kevin, Enslin, Johan H., Nazir, Moazzam, Greenwood, Austin.  2020.  Microgrid Design and Control of a Hybrid Building Complex. 2020 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG). :51—56.
Microgrids are a promising alternative to the traditional distribution systems due to their highly desirable features, such as, reliability, resiliency, and efficiency. This paper covers the design, simulation, and economic analysis of a theoretically designed modern, mixed-use commercial and residential building on a feeder in Charleston, SC, USA. The designed system is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC. The system combines a natural gas CHP turbine and generator block set, solar photovoltaics (PV), and a battery energy storage system (BESS). It is planned to provide power through a DC lighting bus and an AC to several different commercial load profiles as well as 40 apartments of varying sizes. Additionally, a comprehensive economic analysis is completed with available or estimated pricing to prove the feasibility of such a project.
Scarabaggio, Paolo, Carli, Raffaele, Dotoli, Mariagrazia.  2020.  A game-theoretic control approach for the optimal energy storage under power flow constraints in distribution networks. 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE). :1281—1286.
Traditionally, the management of power distribution networks relies on the centralized implementation of the optimal power flow and, in particular, the minimization of the generation cost and transmission losses. Nevertheless, the increasing penetration of both renewable energy sources and independent players such as ancillary service providers in modern networks have made this centralized framework inadequate. Against this background, we propose a noncooperative game-theoretic framework for optimally controlling energy storage systems (ESSs) in power distribution networks. Specifically, in this paper we address a power grid model that comprehends traditional loads, distributed generation sources and several independent energy storage providers, each owning an individual ESS. Through a rolling-horizon approach, the latter participate in the grid optimization process, aiming both at increasing the penetration of distributed generation and leveling the power injection from the transmission grid. Our framework incorporates not only economic factors but also grid stability aspects, including the power flow constraints. The paper fully describes the distribution grid model as well as the underlying market hypotheses and policies needed to force the energy storage providers to find a feasible equilibrium for the network. Numerical experiments based on the IEEE 33-bus system confirm the effectiveness and resiliency of the proposed framework.
2021-04-08
Nguyen, Q. N., Lopez, J., Tsuda, T., Sato, T., Nguyen, K., Ariffuzzaman, M., Safitri, C., Thanh, N. H..  2020.  Adaptive Caching for Beneficial Content Distribution in Information-Centric Networking. 2020 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :535–540.
Currently, little attention has been carried out to address the feasibility of in-network caching in Information-Centric Networking (ICN) for the design and real-world deployment of future networks. Towards this line, in this paper, we propose a beneficial caching scheme in ICN by storing no more than a specific number of replicas for each content. Particularly, to realize an optimal content distribution for deploying caches in ICN, a content can be cached either partially or as a full-object corresponding to its request arrival rate and data traffic. Also, we employ a utility-based replacement in each content node to keep the most recent and popular content items in the ICN interconnections. The evaluation results show that the proposal improves the cache hit rate and cache diversity considerably, and acts as a beneficial caching approach for network and service providers in ICN. Specifically, the proposed caching mechanism is easy to deploy, robust, and relevant for the content-based providers by enabling them to offer users high Quality of Service (QoS) and gain benefits at the same time.
2021-03-29
Dai, Q., Shi, L..  2020.  A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Cyber Attack-Mitigation in Centralized Feeder Automation System. 2020 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1–5.
The intelligent electronic devices widely deployed across the distribution network are inevitably making the feeder automation (FA) system more vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which would lead to disastrous socio-economic impacts. This paper proposes a three-stage game-theoretic framework that the defender allocates limited security resources to minimize the economic impacts on FA system while the attacker deploys limited attack resources to maximize the corresponding impacts. Meanwhile, the probability of successful attack is calculated based on the Bayesian attack graph, and a fault-tolerant location technique for centralized FA system is elaborately considered during analysis. The proposed game-theoretic framework is converted into a two-level zero-sum game model and solved by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with a generalized reduced gradient algorithm. Finally, the proposed model is validated on distribution network for RBTS bus 2.
2021-03-01
Said, S., Bouloiz, H., Gallab, M..  2020.  Identification and Assessment of Risks Affecting Sociotechnical Systems Resilience. 2020 IEEE 6th International Conference on Optimization and Applications (ICOA). :1–10.
Resilience is regarded nowadays as the ideal solution that can be envisaged by sociotechnical systems for coping with potential threats and crises. This being said, gaining and maintaining this ability is not always easy, given the multitude of risks driving the adverse and challenging events. This paper aims to propose a method consecrated to the assessment of risks directly affecting resilience. This work is conducted within the framework of risk assessment and resilience engineering approaches. A 5×5 matrix, dedicated to the identification and assessment of risk factors that constitute threats to the system resilience, has been elaborated. This matrix consists of two axes, namely, the impact on resilience metrics and the availability and effectiveness of resilience planning. Checklists serving to collect information about these two attributes are established and a case study is undertaken. In this paper, a new method for identifying and assessing risk factors menacing directly the resilience of a given system is presented. The analysis of these risks must be given priority to make the system more resilient to shocks.
2021-02-23
Mukhametov, D. R..  2020.  Self-organization of Network Communities via Blockchain Technology: Reputation Systems and Limits of Digital Democracy. 2020 Systems of Signal Synchronization, Generating and Processing in Telecommunications (SYNCHROINFO). :1—7.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the use of blockchain technology for self-organization of network communities. Network communities are characterized by the key role of trust in personal interactions, the need for repeated interactions, strong and weak ties within the network, social learning as the mechanism of self-organization. Therefore, in network communities reputation is the central component of social action, assessment of the situation, and formation of the expectations. The current proliferation of virtual network communities requires the development of appropriate technical infrastructure in the form of reputation systems - programs that provide calculation of network members reputation and organization of their cooperation and interaction. Traditional reputation systems have vulnerabilities in the field of information security and prevention of abusive behavior of agents. Overcoming these restrictions is possible through integration of reputation systems and blockchain technology that allows to increase transparency of reputation assessment system and prevent attempts of manipulation the system and social engineering. At the same time, the most promising is the use of blockchain-oracles to ensure communication between the algorithms of blockchain-based reputation system and the external information environment. The popularization of blockchain technology and its implementation in various spheres of social management, production control, economic exchange actualizes the problems of using digital technologies in political processes and their impact on the formation of digital authoritarianism, digital democracy and digital anarchism. The paper emphasizes that blockchain technology and reputation systems can equally benefit both the resources of government control and tools of democratization and public accountability to civil society or even practices of avoiding government. Therefore, it is important to take into account the problems of political institutionalization, path dependence and the creation of differentiated incentives as well as the technological aspects.

2020-12-01
Kathiravelu, P., Chiesa, M., Marcos, P., Canini, M., Veiga, L..  2018.  Moving Bits with a Fleet of Shared Virtual Routers. 2018 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops. :1—9.

The steady decline of IP transit prices in the past two decades has helped fuel the growth of traffic demands in the Internet ecosystem. Despite the declining unit pricing, bandwidth costs remain significant due to ever-increasing scale and reach of the Internet, combined with the price disparity between the Internet's core hubs versus remote regions. In the meantime, cloud providers have been auctioning underutilized computing resources in their marketplace as spot instances for a much lower price, compared to their on-demand instances. This state of affairs has led the networking community to devote extensive efforts to cloud-assisted networks - the idea of offloading network functionality to cloud platforms, ultimately leading to more flexible and highly composable network service chains.We initiate a critical discussion on the economic and technological aspects of leveraging cloud-assisted networks for Internet-scale interconnections and data transfers. Namely, we investigate the prospect of constructing a large-scale virtualized network provider that does not own any fixed or dedicated resources and runs atop several spot instances. We construct a cloud-assisted overlay as a virtual network provider, by leveraging third-party cloud spot instances. We identify three use case scenarios where such approach will not only be economically and technologically viable but also provide performance benefits compared to current commercial offerings of connectivity and transit providers.

Ogawa, R., Park, S., Umemuro, H..  2019.  How Humans Develop Trust in Communication Robots: A Phased Model Based on Interpersonal Trust. 2019 14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). :606—607.

The purpose of this study was to propose a model of development of trust in social robots. Insights in interpersonal trust were adopted from social psychology and a novel model was proposed. In addition, this study aimed to investigate the relationship among trust development and self-esteem. To validate the proposed model, an experiment using a communication robot NAO was conducted and changes in categories of trust as well as self-esteem were measured. Results showed that general and category trust have been developed in the early phase. Self-esteem is also increased along the interactions with the robot.

2020-11-09
Zhu, L., Zhang, Z., Xia, G., Jiang, C..  2019.  Research on Vulnerability Ontology Model. 2019 IEEE 8th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). :657–661.
In order to standardize and describe vulnerability information in detail as far as possible and realize knowledge sharing, reuse and extension at the semantic level, a vulnerability ontology is constructed based on the information security public databases such as CVE, CWE and CAPEC and industry public standards like CVSS. By analyzing the relationship between vulnerability class and weakness class, inference rules are defined to realize knowledge inference from vulnerability instance to its consequence and from one vulnerability instance to another vulnerability instance. The experimental results show that this model can analyze the causal and congeneric relationships between vulnerability instances, which is helpful to repair vulnerabilities and predict attacks.
2020-11-02
Fedosova, Tatyana V., Masych, Marina A., Afanasyev, Anton A., Borovskaya, Marina A., Liabakh, Nikolay N..  2018.  Development of Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Intellectual Resources in the Digital Economy. 2018 IEEE International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :629—634.

The paper outlines the concept of the Digital economy, defines the role and types of intellectual resources in the context of digitalization of the economy, reviews existing approaches and methods to intellectual property valuation and analyzes drawbacks of quantitative evaluation of intellectual resources (based intellectual property valuation) related to: uncertainty, noisy data, heterogeneity of resources, nonformalizability, lack of reliable tools for measuring the parameters of intellectual resources and non-stationary development of intellectual resources. The results of the study offer the ways of further development of methods for quantitative evaluation of intellectual resources (inter alia aimed at their capitalization).

Fedosova, Tatyana V., Masych, Marina A., Afanasvev, Anton A., Liabakh, Nikolay N..  2019.  Development of a Decision Support System for Intellectual Property Utilization. 2019 International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :482—485.
This paper outlines the concept of intellectual property utilization and develops a framework for the targeted generation of intellectual property for the benefit of various economic entities. The study proposes two types of the decision support system: (i) based on deterministic logic, and (ii) based on multi-agent systems. The results of the study offer the development of a mathematical approach to the interaction process of agents in multi-agent systems, inter alia related to the targeted generation of intellectual property.
Carvalho, Martha R, Bezerra, Bernardo, Dall'Orto, Celso, Carlos, Luiz, Rosenblatt, Jose, Veiga, Mario.  2018.  Methodology for determining the energy deficit penalty function for hydrothermal dispatch. 2018 Simposio Brasileiro de Sistemas Eletricos (SBSE). :1—6.
The penalization of the objective function due to energy deficits is a key element for determining the operational policy of hydroelectric reservoirs. Its definition impacts not only operations, but also system expansion. Brazil historically defined these penalties with basis on a proxy of the economic deficit cost, a value in \$/MWh obtained with aid of the Input-Output Matrix. We propose an approach where these penalties are obtained in order to minimize the operation cost and cost of rationing of the system, considering a criterion of security of supply. A case study with data from the Brazilian System illustrates its application.
2020-10-12
Chung, Wingyan, Liu, Jinwei, Tang, Xinlin, Lai, Vincent S. K..  2018.  Extracting Textual Features of Financial Social Media to Detect Cognitive Hacking. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :244–246.
Social media are increasingly reflecting and influencing the behavior of human and financial market. Cognitive hacking leverages the influence of social media to spread deceptive information with an intent to gain abnormal profits illegally or to cause losses. Measuring the information content in financial social media can be useful for identifying these attacks. In this paper, we developed an approach to identifying social media features that correlate with abnormal returns of the stocks of companies vulnerable to be targets of cognitive hacking. To test the approach, we collected price data and 865,289 social media messages on four technology companies from July 2017 to June 2018, and extracted features that contributed to abnormal stock movements. Preliminary results show that terms that are simple, motivate actions, incite emotion, and uses exaggeration are ranked high in the features of messages associated with abnormal price movements. We also provide selected messages to illustrate the use of these features in potential cognitive hacking attacks.
2020-10-06
Li, Zhiyi, Shahidehpour, Mohammad, Galvin, Robert W., Li, Yang.  2018.  Collaborative Cyber-Physical Restoration for Enhancing the Resilience of Power Distribution Systems. 2018 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1—5.

This paper sheds light on the collaborative efforts in restoring cyber and physical subsystems of a modern power distribution system after the occurrence of an extreme weather event. The extensive cyber-physical interdependencies in the operation of power distribution systems are first introduced for investigating the functionality loss of each subsystem when the dependent subsystem suffers disruptions. A resilience index is then proposed for measuring the effectiveness of restoration activities in terms of restoration rapidity. After modeling operators' decision making for economic dispatch as a second-order cone programming problem, this paper proposes a heuristic approach for prioritizing the activities for restoring both cyber and physical subsystems. In particular, the proposed heuristic approach takes into consideration of cyber-physical interdependencies for improving the operation performance. Case studies are also conducted to validate the collaborative restoration model in the 33-bus power distribution system.

2020-09-28
Li, Jing, Liu, Tingting, Niyato, Dusit, Wang, Ping, Li, Jun, Han, Zhu.  2019.  Contract-Based Approach for Security Deposit in Blockchain Networks with Shards. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :75–82.
As a decentralized ledger technology, blockchain is considered to be a potential solution for applications with highly concentrated management mechanism. However, most of the existing blockchain networks are employed with the hash-puzzle-solving consensus protocol, known as proof-of-work. The competition of solving the puzzle introduces high latency, which directly leads to a long transaction-processing time. One solution of this dilemma is to establish a blockchain network with shards. In this paper, we focus on the blockchain network with shards and adopt the security-deposit based consensus protocol, studying the problem of how to balance the security incentive and the economic incentive. Also, the inherent features of the blockchain, i.e., anonymity and decentralization, introduce the information asymmetric issue between the beacon chain and the participants. The contract theory is utilized to formulate the problem between them. As such, the optimal rewards related to the different types of validators can be obtained, as well as the reasonable deposits accordingly. Compared with the fixed deposits, the flexible deposits can provide enough economic incentive for the participants without losing the security incentives. Besides, the simulation results demonstrate that the contract theory approach is capable of maximizing the beacon chain's utility and satisfying the incentive compatibility and individual rationality of the participants.
2020-07-30
TÎTU, Mihail Aurel, POP, Alina Bianca, ŢÎŢU, Ştefan.  2018.  The correlation between intellectual property management and quality management in the modern knowledge-based economy. 2018 10th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI). :1—6.
The aim of this research paper is to highlight the intellectual property place and role within an industrial knowledge-based organization which performs design activities. The research begins by presenting the importance of integrating intellectual property policy implementation with quality policy. The research is based on the setting of objectives in the intellectual property field. This research also establishes some intellectual property strategies, and improvement measures for intellectual property protection management. The basis for these activities is correlation of the quality policy with an intellectual property policy, as well as the point of strength identified in the studied organization. The issues discussed in this scientific paper conclude on the possibility of the implementation of standards in the intellectual property field.
2020-04-13
Horne, Benjamin D., Gruppi, Mauricio, Adali, Sibel.  2019.  Trustworthy Misinformation Mitigation with Soft Information Nudging. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :245–254.

Research in combating misinformation reports many negative results: facts may not change minds, especially if they come from sources that are not trusted. Individuals can disregard and justify lies told by trusted sources. This problem is made even worse by social recommendation algorithms which help amplify conspiracy theories and information confirming one's own biases due to companies' efforts to optimize for clicks and watch time over individuals' own values and public good. As a result, more nuanced voices and facts are drowned out by a continuous erosion of trust in better information sources. Most misinformation mitigation techniques assume that discrediting, filtering, or demoting low veracity information will help news consumers make better information decisions. However, these negative results indicate that some news consumers, particularly extreme or conspiracy news consumers will not be helped. We argue that, given this background, technology solutions to combating misinformation should not simply seek facts or discredit bad news sources, but instead use more subtle nudges towards better information consumption. Repeated exposure to such nudges can help promote trust in better information sources and also improve societal outcomes in the long run. In this article, we will talk about technological solutions that can help us in developing such an approach, and introduce one such model called Trust Nudging.

2020-04-03
Garigipati, Nagababu, Krishna, Reddy V.  2019.  A Study on Data Security and Query privacy in Cloud. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :337—341.

A lot of organizations need effective resolutions to record and evaluate the existing enormous volume of information. Cloud computing as a facilitator offers scalable resources and noteworthy economic assistances as the decreased operational expenditures. This model increases a wide set of security and privacy problems that have to be taken into reflexion. Multi-occupancy, loss of control, and confidence are the key issues in cloud computing situations. This paper considers the present know-hows and a comprehensive assortment of both previous and high-tech tasks on cloud security and confidentiality. The paradigm shift that supplements the usage of cloud computing is progressively enabling augmentation to safety and privacy contemplations linked with the different facades of cloud computing like multi-tenancy, reliance, loss of control and responsibility. So, cloud platforms that deal with big data that have sensitive information are necessary to use technical methods and structural precautions to circumvent data defence failures that might lead to vast and costly harms.

2020-02-17
Stoykov, Stoyko.  2019.  Risk Management as a Strategic Management Element in the Security System. 2019 International Conference on Creative Business for Smart and Sustainable Growth (CREBUS). :1–4.
Strategic management and security risk management are part of the general government of the country, and therefore it is not possible to examine it separately and even if it was, one separate examination would not have give us a complete idea of how to implement this process. A modern understanding of the strategic security management requires not only continuous efforts to improve security policy formation and implementation but also new approaches and particular solutions to modernize the security system by making it adequate to the requirements of the dynamic security environment.
2020-02-10
Fedyanin, Denis, Giliazova, Albina.  2019.  Influence of Deactivated Agents in Social Networks: Switching Between French-De Groot Models and Friedkin-Johnsen Model. 2019 Twelfth International Conference "Management of large-scale system development" (MLSD). :1–5.
The paper shows the influence of deactivated agents in social networks: switching between French-De Groot models and Friedkin-Johnsen model.
2020-01-20
Waqar, Ali, Hu, Junjie, Mushtaq, Muhammad Rizwan, Hussain, Hadi, Qazi, Hassaan Aziz.  2019.  Energy Management in an Islanded Microgrid: A Consensus Theory Approach. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies (iCoMET). :1–6.

This article presents a consensus based distributed energy management optimization algorithm for an islanded microgrid. With the rapid development of renewable energy and distributed generation (DG) energy management is becoming more and more distributed. To solve this problem a multi-agent system based distributed solution is designed in this work which uses lambda-iteration method to solve optimization problem. Moreover, the algorithm is fully distributed and transmission losses are also considered in the modeling process which enhanced the practicality of proposed work. Simulations are performed for different cases on 8-bus microgrid to show the effectiveness of algorithm. Moreover, a scalability test is performed at the end to further justify the expandability performance of algorithm for more advanced networks.

2019-12-30
Yakymenko, I. Z., Kasianchuk, M. M., Ivasiev, S. V., Melnyk, A. M., Nykolaichuk, Ya. M..  2018.  Realization of RSA Cryptographic Algorithm Based on Vector-Module Method of Modular Exponention. 2018 14th International Conference on Advanced Trends in Radioelecrtronics, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering (TCSET). :550-554.

The improvement of the implementation of the RSA cryptographic algorithm for encrypting / decoding information flows based on the use of the vector-modular method of modular exponential is presented in this paper. This makes it possible to replace the complex operation of modular multiplication with the addition operation, which increases the speed of the RSA cryptosystem. The scheme of algorithms of modular multiplication and modular exponentiation is presented. The analytical and graphical comparison of the time complexities of the proposed and known approaches shows that the use of the vector-modular method reduces the temporal complexity of the modular exponential compared to the classical one.

2019-12-18
Alperovitch, Dmitri.  2011.  Towards establishment of cyberspace deterrence strategy. 2011 3rd International Conference on Cyber Conflict. :1–8.
The question of whether strategic deterrence in cyberspace is achievable given the challenges of detection, attribution and credible retaliation is a topic of contention among military and civilian defense strategists. This paper examines the traditional strategic deterrence theory and its application to deterrence in cyberspace (the newly defined 5th battlespace domain, following land, air, sea and space domains), which is being used increasingly by nation-states and their proxies to achieve information dominance and to gain tactical and strategic economic and military advantage. It presents a taxonomy of cyberattacks that identifies which types of threats in the confidentiality, integrity, availability cybersecurity model triad present the greatest risk to nation-state economic and military security, including their political and social facets. The argument is presented that attacks on confidentiality cannot be subject to deterrence in the current international legal framework and that the focus of strategy needs to be applied to integrity and availability attacks. A potential cyberdeterrence strategy is put forth that can enhance national security against devastating cyberattacks through a credible declaratory retaliation capability that establishes red lines which may trigger a counter-strike against all identifiable responsible parties. The author believes such strategy can credibly influence nation-state threat actors who themselves exhibit serious vulnerabilities to cyber attacks from launching a devastating cyber first strike.
Kania, Elsa B..  2016.  Cyber deterrence in times of cyber anarchy - evaluating the divergences in U.S. and Chinese strategic thinking. 2016 International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon U.S.). :1–17.
The advent of the cyber domain has introduced a new dimension into warfare and complicated existing strategic concepts, provoking divergent responses within different national contexts and strategic cultures. Although current theories regarding cyber deterrence remain relatively nascent, a comparison of U.S. and Chinese strategic thinking highlights notable asymmetries between their respective approaches. While U.S. debates on cyber deterrence have primarily focused on the deterrence of cyber threats, Chinese theorists have also emphasized the potential importance of cyber capabilities to enhance strategic deterrence. Whereas the U.S. government has maintained a consistent declaratory policy for response, Beijing has yet to progress toward transparency regarding its cyber strategy or capabilities. However, certain PLA strategists, informed by a conceptualization of deterrence as integrated with warfighting, have advocated for the actualization of deterrence through engaging in cyber attacks. Regardless of whether these major cyber powers' evolving strategic thinking on cyber deterrence will prove logically consistent or feasibly operational, their respective perspectives will certainly shape their attempts to achieve cyber deterrence. Ultimately, cyber deterrence may continue to be "what states make of it," given conditions of "cyber anarchy" and prevailing uncertainties regarding cyber conflict. Looking forward, future strategic stability in Sino-U.S. cyber interactions will require mitigation of the misperceptions and heightened risks of escalation that could be exacerbated by these divergent strategic approaches.
Chen, Jim Q..  2017.  Take the rein of cyber deterrence. 2017 International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon U.S.). :29–35.
Deterrence is badly needed in the cyber domain but it is hard to be achieved. Why is conventional deterrence not working effectively in the cyber domain? What specific characteristics should be considered when deterrence strategies are developed in this man-made domain? These are the questions that this paper intends to address. The research conducted helps to reveal what cyber deterrence can do and what it cannot do so that focus can be put on the enhancement of what it can do. To include varied perspectives, literature review is conducted. Some research works are specifically examined. Based on these studies, this research proposes a holistic approach in cyber deterrence that is empowered by artificial intelligence and machine learning. This approach is capable of making sudden, dynamic, stealthy, and random changes initiated by different contexts. It is able to catch attackers by surprise. The surprising and changing impact inflicts a cost on attackers and makes them to re-calculate the benefits that they might gain through further attacks, thus discouraging or defeating adversaries both mentally and virtually, and eventually controlling escalation of cyber conflicts.