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Zhao, Hui, Li, Zhihui, Wei, Hansheng, Shi, Jianqi, Huang, Yanhong.  2019.  SeqFuzzer: An Industrial Protocol Fuzzing Framework from a Deep Learning Perspective. 2019 12th IEEE Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification (ICST). :59—67.
Industrial networks are the cornerstone of modern industrial control systems. Performing security checks of industrial communication processes helps detect unknown risks and vulnerabilities. Fuzz testing is a widely used method for performing security checks that takes advantage of automation. However, there is a big challenge to carry out security checks on industrial network due to the increasing variety and complexity of industrial communication protocols. In this case, existing approaches usually take a long time to model the protocol for generating test cases, which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. This becomes even worse when the target protocol is stateful. To help in addressing this problem, we employed a deep learning model to learn the structures of protocol frames and deal with the temporal features of stateful protocols. We propose a fuzzing framework named SeqFuzzer which automatically learns the protocol frame structures from communication traffic and generates fake but plausible messages as test cases. For proving the usability of our approach, we applied SeqFuzzer to widely-used Ethernet for Control Automation Technology (EtherCAT) devices and successfully detected several security vulnerabilities.
Lipp, Benjamin, Blanchet, Bruno, Bhargavan, Karthikeyan.  2019.  A Mechanised Cryptographic Proof of the WireGuard Virtual Private Network Protocol. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :231—246.
WireGuard is a free and open source Virtual Private Network (VPN) that aims to replace IPsec and OpenVPN. It is based on a new cryptographic protocol derived from the Noise Protocol Framework. This paper presents the first mechanised cryptographic proof of the protocol underlying WireGuard, using the CryptoVerif proof assistant. We analyse the entire WireGuard protocol as it is, including transport data messages, in an ACCE-style model. We contribute proofs for correctness, message secrecy, forward secrecy, mutual authentication, session uniqueness, and resistance against key compromise impersonation, identity mis-binding, and replay attacks. We also discuss the strength of the identity hiding provided by WireGuard. Our work also provides novel theoretical contributions that are reusable beyond WireGuard. First, we extend CryptoVerif to account for the absence of public key validation in popular Diffie-Hellman groups like Curve25519, which is used in many modern protocols including WireGuard. To our knowledge, this is the first mechanised cryptographic proof for any protocol employing such a precise model. Second, we prove several indifferentiability lemmas that are useful to simplify the proofs for sequences of key derivations.
Aires Urquiza, Abraão, AlTurki, Musab A., Kanovich, Max, Ban Kirigin, Tajana, Nigam, Vivek, Scedrov, Andre, Talcott, Carolyn.  2019.  Resource-Bounded Intruders in Denial of Service Attacks. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :382—38214.
Denial of Service (DoS) attacks have been a serious security concern, as no service is, in principle, protected against them. Although a Dolev-Yao intruder with unlimited resources can trivially render any service unavailable, DoS attacks do not necessarily have to be carried out by such (extremely) powerful intruders. It is useful in practice and more challenging for formal protocol verification to determine whether a service is vulnerable even to resource-bounded intruders that cannot generate or intercept arbitrary large volumes of traffic. This paper proposes a novel, more refined intruder model where the intruder can only consume at most some specified amount of resources in any given time window. Additionally, we propose protocol theories that may contain timeouts and specify service resource usage during protocol execution. In contrast to the existing resource-conscious protocol verification models, our model allows finer and more subtle analysis of DoS problems. We illustrate the power of our approach by representing a number of classes of DoS attacks, such as, Slow, Asymmetric and Amplification DoS attacks, exhausting different types of resources of the target, such as, number of workers, processing power, memory, and network bandwidth. We show that the proposed DoS problem is undecidable in general and is PSPACE-complete for the class of resource-bounded, balanced systems. Finally, we implemented our formal verification model in the rewriting logic tool Maude and analyzed a number of DoS attacks in Maude using Rewriting Modulo SMT in an automated fashion.
Künnemann, Robert, Esiyok, Ilkan, Backes, Michael.  2019.  Automated Verification of Accountability in Security Protocols. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :397—39716.
Accountability is a recent paradigm in security protocol design which aims to eliminate traditional trust assumptions on parties and hold them accountable for their misbehavior. It is meant to establish trust in the first place and to recognize and react if this trust is violated. In this work, we discuss a protocol-agnostic definition of accountability: a protocol provides accountability (w.r.t. some security property) if it can identify all misbehaving parties, where misbehavior is defined as a deviation from the protocol that causes a security violation. We provide a mechanized method for the verification of accountability and demonstrate its use for verification and attack finding on various examples from the accountability and causality literature, including Certificate Transparency and Krollˆ\textbackslashtextbackslashprimes Accountable Algorithms protocol. We reach a high degree of automation by expressing accountability in terms of a set of trace properties and show their soundness and completeness.
Gerking, Christopher, Schubert, David.  2019.  Component-Based Refinement and Verification of Information-Flow Security Policies for Cyber-Physical Microservice Architectures. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA). :61—70.

Since cyber-physical systems are inherently vulnerable to information leaks, software architects need to reason about security policies to define desired and undesired information flow through a system. The microservice architectural style requires the architects to refine a macro-level security policy into micro-level policies for individual microservices. However, when policies are refined in an ill-formed way, information leaks can emerge on composition of microservices. Related approaches to prevent such leaks do not take into account characteristics of cyber-physical systems like real-time behavior or message passing communication. In this paper, we enable the refinement and verification of information-flow security policies for cyber-physical microservice architectures. We provide architects with a set of well-formedness rules for refining a macro-level policy in a way that enforces its security restrictions. Based on the resulting micro-level policies, we present a verification technique to check if the real-time message passing of microservices is secure. In combination, our contributions prevent information leaks from emerging on composition. We evaluate the accuracy of our approach using an extension of the CoCoME case study.

Luo, Xueting, Lu, Yueming.  2019.  A Method of Conflict Detection for Security Policy Based on B+ Tree. 2019 IEEE Fourth International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :466-472.
Security policy is widely used in network management systems to ensure network security. It is necessary to detect and resolve conflicts in security policies. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of existing security policy conflict detection methods and proposes a B+ tree-based security policy conflict detection method. First, the security policy is dimensioned to make each attribute corresponds to one dimension. Then, a layer of B+ tree index is constructed at each dimension level. Each rule will be uniquely mapped by multiple layers of nested indexes. This method can greatly improve the efficiency of conflict detection. The experimental results show that the method has very stable performance which can effectively prevent conflicts, the type of policy conflict can be detected quickly and accurately.
Vasiliu, Yevhen, Limar, Igor, Gancarczyk, Tomasz, Karpinski, Mikolaj.  2019.  New Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol Using Entangled Qutrits. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:324–329.
A new quantum secret sharing protocol based on the ping-pong protocol of quantum secure direct communication is proposed. The pairs of entangled qutrits are used in protocol, which allows an increase in the information capacity compared with protocols based on entangled qubits. The detection of channel eavesdropping used in the protocol is being implemented in random moments of time, thereby it is possible do not use the significant amount of quantum memory. The security of the proposed protocol to attacks is considered. A method for additional amplification of the security to an eavesdropping attack in communication channels for the developed protocol is proposed.
Hu, Zhengbing, Vasiliu, Yevhen, Smirnov, Oleksii, Sydorenko, Viktoriia, Polishchuk, Yuliia.  2019.  Abstract Model of Eavesdropper and Overview on Attacks in Quantum Cryptography Systems. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:399–405.
In today's world, it's almost impossible to find a sphere of human life in which information technologies would not be used. On the one hand, it simplifies human life - virtually everyone carries a mini-computer in his pocket and it allows to perform many operations, that took a lot of time, in minutes. In addition, IT has simplified and promptly developed areas such as medicine, banking, document circulation, military, and many other infrastructures of the state. Nevertheless, even today, privacy remains a major problem in many information transactions. One of the most important directions for ensuring the information confidentiality in open communication networks has been and remains its protection by cryptographic methods. Although it is known that traditional cryptography methods give reasons to doubt in their reliability, quantum cryptography has proven itself as a more reliable information security technology. As far is it quite new direction there is no sufficiently complete classification of attacks on quantum cryptography methods, in view of this new extended classification of attacks on quantum protocols and quantum cryptosystems is proposed in this work. Classification takes into account the newest attacks (which use devices loopholes) on quantum key distribution equipment. These attacks have been named \textbackslashtextless; \textbackslashtextless; quantum hacking\textbackslashtextgreater\textbackslashtextgreater. Such classification may be useful for choosing commercially available quantum key distribution system. Also abstract model of eavesdropper in quantum systems was created and it allows to determine a set of various nature measures that need to be further implemented to provide reliable security with the help of specific quantum systems.
Brito, J. P., López, D. R., Aguado, A., Abellán, C., López, V., Pastor-Perales, A., la Iglesia, F. de, Martín, V..  2019.  Quantum Services Architecture in Softwarized Infrastructures. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–4.
Quantum computing is posing new threats on our security infrastructure. This has triggered a new research field on quantum-safe methods, and those that rely on the application of quantum principles are commonly referred as quantum cryptography. The most mature development in the field of quantum cryptography is called Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). QKD is a key exchange primitive that can replace existing mechanisms that can become obsolete in the near future. Although QKD has reached a high level of maturity, there is still a long path for a mass market implementation. QKD shall overcome issues such as miniaturization, network integration and the reduction of production costs to make the technology affordable. In this direction, we foresee that QKD systems will evolve following the same path as other networking technologies, where systems will run on specific network cards, integrable in commodity chassis. This work describes part of our activity in the EU H2020 project CiViQ in which quantum technologies, as QKD systems or quantum random number generators (QRNG), will become a single network element that we define as Quantum Switch. This allows for quantum resources (keys or random numbers) to be provided as a service, while the different components are integrated to cooperate for providing the most random and secure bit streams. Furthermore, with the purpose of making our proposal closer to current networking technology, this work also proposes an abstraction logic for making our Quantum Switch suitable to become part of software-defined networking (SDN) architectures. The model fits in the architecture of the SDN quantum node architecture, that is being under standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. It permits to operate an entire quantum network using a logically centralized SDN controller, and quantum switches to generate and to forward key material and random numbers across the entire network. This scheme, demonstrated for the first time at the Madrid Quantum Network, will allow for a faster and seamless integration of quantum technologies in the telecommunications infrastructure.
Diamanti, Eleni.  2019.  Demonstrating Quantum Advantage in Security and Efficiency with Practical Photonic Systems. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–2.
We discuss the current landscape in quantum communication and cryptography, and focus in particular on recent photonic implementations, using encoding in discrete or continuous properties of light, of central quantum network protocols, enabling secret key distribution, verification of entangled resources and transactions of quantum money, with maximal security guarantees. We also describe current challenges in this field and our efforts towards the miniaturization of the developed photonic systems, their integration into telecommunication network infrastructures, including with satellite links, as well as the practical demonstration of novel protocols featuring a quantum advantage in communication efficiency for a wide range of useful tasks in a network environment. These advances enrich the resources and applications of the emerging quantum networks that will play a central role in the context of future quantum-safe communications.
Lai, Chengzhe, Ding, Yuhan.  2019.  A Secure Blockchain-Based Group Mobility Management Scheme in VANETs. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :340–345.
Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) can provide vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications for efficient and safe transportation. The vehicles features high mobility, thus undergoing frequent handovers when they are moving, which introduces the significant overload on the network entities. To address the problem, the distributed mobility management (DMM) protocol for next generation mobile network has been proposed, which can be well combined with VANETs. Although the existing DMM solutions can guarantee the smooth handovers of vehicles, the security has not been fully considered in the mobility management. Moreover, the most of existing schemes cannot support group communication scenario. In this paper, we propose an efficient and secure group mobility management scheme based on the blockchain. Specifically, to reduce the handover latency and signaling cost during authentication, aggregate message authentication code (AMAC) and one-time password (OTP) are adopted. The security analysis and the performance evaluation results show that the proposed scheme can not only enhance the security functionalities but also support fast handover authentication.
Hiller, Jens, Pennekamp, Jan, Dahlmanns, Markus, Henze, Martin, Panchenko, Andriy, Wehrle, Klaus.  2019.  Tailoring Onion Routing to the Internet of Things: Security and Privacy in Untrusted Environments. 2019 IEEE 27th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1–12.
An increasing number of IoT scenarios involve mobile, resource-constrained IoT devices that rely on untrusted networks for Internet connectivity. In such environments, attackers can derive sensitive private information of IoT device owners, e.g., daily routines or secret supply chain procedures, when sniffing on IoT communication and linking IoT devices and owner. Furthermore, untrusted networks do not provide IoT devices with any protection against attacks from the Internet. Anonymous communication using onion routing provides a well-proven mechanism to keep the relationship between communication partners secret and (optionally) protect against network attacks. However, the application of onion routing is challenged by protocol incompatibilities and demanding cryptographic processing on constrained IoT devices, rendering its use infeasible. To close this gap, we tailor onion routing to the IoT by bridging protocol incompatibilities and offloading expensive cryptographic processing to a router or web server of the IoT device owner. Thus, we realize resource-conserving access control and end-to-end security for IoT devices. To prove applicability, we deploy onion routing for the IoT within the well-established Tor network enabling IoT devices to leverage its resources to achieve the same grade of anonymity as readily available to traditional devices.
Triantopoulou, Stamatia, Papanikas, Dimitrios, Kotzanikolaou, Panayiotis.  2019.  An Experimental Analysis of Current DDoS attacks Based on a Provider Edge Router Honeynet. 2019 10th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications (IISA). :1–5.
This paper presents an experimental analysis of current Distributed Denial of Service attacks. Our analysis is based on real data collected by a honeynet system that was installed on an ISP edge router, for a four-month period. In the examined scenario, we identify and analyze malicious activities based on packets captured and analyzed by a network protocol sniffer and signature-based attack analysis tools. Our analysis shows that IoT-based DDoS attacks are one of the latest and most proliferating attack trends in network security. Based on the analysis of the attacks, we describe some mitigation techniques that can be applied at the providers' network to mitigate the trending attack vectors.
Camera, Giancarlo, Baglietto, Pierpaolo, Maresca, Massimo.  2019.  A Platform for Private and Controlled Spreadsheet Objects Sharing. 2019 IEEE 23rd International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC). :67–76.
Spreadsheets are widely used in industries for tabular data analysis, visualization and storage. Users often exchange spreadsheets' semi-structured data to collaborative analyze them. Recently, office suites integrated a software module that enables collaborative authoring of office files, including spreadsheets, to facilitate the sharing process. Typically spreadsheets collaborative authoring applications, like Google Sheets or Excel online, need to delocalize the entire file in public cloud storage servers. This choice is not secure for enterprise use because it exposes shared content to the risk of third party access. Moreover, available platforms usually provide coarse grained spreadsheet file sharing, where collaborators have access to all data stored inside a workbook and to all the spreadsheets' formulas used to manipulate those data. This approach limits users' possibilities to disclose only a small portion of tabular data and integrate data coming from different sources (spreadsheets or software platforms). For these reasons enterprise users prefer to control fine grained confidential data exchange and their updates manually through copy, paste, attach-to-email, extract-from-email operations. However unsupervised data sharing and circulation often leads to errors or, at the very least, to inconsistencies, data losses, and proliferation of multiple copies. We propose a model that gives business users a different level of spreadsheet data sharing control, privacy and management. Our approach enables collaborative analytics of tabular data focusing on fine grained spreadsheet data sharing instead of coarse grained file sharing. This solution works with a platform that implements an end to end encrypted protocol for sensitive data sharing that prevents third party access to confidential content. Data are never shared into public clouds but they are transferred encrypted among the administrative domains of collaborators. In this paper we describe the model and the implemented system that enable our solution. We focus on two enterprise use cases we implemented describing how we deployed our platform to speed up and optimize industry processes that involve spreadsheet usage.
Mei, Lei, Tong, Haojie, Liu, Tong, Tian, Ye.  2019.  PSA: An Architecture for Proactively Securing Protocol-Oblivious SDN Networks. 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication (ICEIEC). :1–6.

Up to now, Software-defined network (SDN) has been developing for many years and various controller implementations have appeared. Most of these controllers contain the normal business logic as well as security defense function. This makes the business logic on the controller tightly coupled with the security function, which increases the burden of the controller and is not conducive to the evolution of the controller. To address this problem, we propose a proactive security framework PSA, which decouples the business logic and security function of the controller, and deploys the security function in the proactive security layer which lies between the data plane and the control plane, so as to provide a unified security defense framework for different controller implementations. Based on PSA, we design a security defense application for the data-to-control plane saturation attack, which overloads the infrastructure of SDN networks. We evaluate the prototype implementation of PSA in the software environments. The results show that PSA is effective with adding only minor overhead into the entire SDN infrastructure.

White, Ruffin, Caiazza, Gianluca, Jiang, Chenxu, Ou, Xinyue, Yang, Zhiyue, Cortesi, Agostino, Christensen, Henrik.  2019.  Network Reconnaissance and Vulnerability Excavation of Secure DDS Systems. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :57–66.
Data Distribution Service (DDS) is a realtime peer-to-peer protocol that serves as a scalable middleware between distributed networked systems found in many Industrial IoT domains such as automotive, medical, energy, and defense. Since the initial ratification of the standard, specifications have introduced a Security Model and Service Plugin Interface (SPI) architecture, facilitating authenticated encryption and data centric access control while preserving interoperable data exchange. However, as Secure DDS v1.1, the default plugin specifications presently exchanges digitally signed capability lists of both participants in the clear during the crypto handshake for permission attestation; thus breaching confidentiality of the context of the connection. In this work, we present an attacker model that makes use of network reconnaissance afforded by this leaked context in conjunction with formal verification and model checking to arbitrarily reason about the underlying topology and reachability of information flow, enabling targeted attacks such as selective denial of service, adversarial partitioning of the data bus, or vulnerability excavation of vendor implementations.
Goli, Mehran, Drechsler, Rolf.  2019.  Scalable Simulation-Based Verification of SystemC-Based Virtual Prototypes. 2019 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :522–529.
Virtual Prototypes (VPs) at the Electronic System Level (ESL) written in SystemC language using its Transaction Level Modeling (TLM) framework are increasingly adopted by the semiconductor industry. The main reason is that VPs are much earlier available, and their simulation is orders of magnitude faster in comparison to the hardware models implemented at lower levels of abstraction (e.g. RTL). This leads designers to use VPs as reference models for an early design verification. Hence, the correctness assurance of these reference models (VPs) is critical as undetected faults may propagate to less abstract levels in the design process, increasing the fixing cost and effort. In this paper, we propose a novel simulation-based verification approach to automatically validate the simulation behavior of a given SystemC VP against both the TLM-2.0 rules and its specifications (i.e. functional and timing behavior of communications in the VP). The scalability and the efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated using an extensive set of experiments including a real-word VP.
Babay, Amy, Schultz, John, Tantillo, Thomas, Beckley, Samuel, Jordan, Eamon, Ruddell, Kevin, Jordan, Kevin, Amir, Yair.  2019.  Deploying Intrusion-Tolerant SCADA for the Power Grid. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :328–335.
While there has been considerable research on making power grid Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems resilient to attacks, the problem of transitioning these technologies into deployed SCADA systems remains largely unaddressed. We describe our experience and lessons learned in deploying an intrusion-tolerant SCADA system in two realistic environments: a red team experiment in 2017 and a power plant test deployment in 2018. These experiences resulted in technical lessons related to developing an intrusion-tolerant system with a real deployable application, preparing a system for deployment in a hostile environment, and supporting protocol assumptions in that hostile environment. We also discuss some meta-lessons regarding the cultural aspects of transitioning academic research into practice in the power industry.
Al Ghazo, Alaa T., Kumar, Ratnesh.  2019.  ICS/SCADA Device Recognition: A Hybrid Communication-Patterns and Passive-Fingerprinting Approach. 2019 IFIP/IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network and Service Management (IM). :19–24.
The Industrial Control System (ICS) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are the backbones for monitoring and supervising factories, power grids, water distribution systems, nuclear plants, and other critical infrastructures. These systems are installed by third party contractors, maintained by site engineers, and operate for a long time. This makes tracing the documentation of the systems' changes and updates challenging since some of their components' information (type, manufacturer, model, etc.) may not be up-to-date, leading to possibly unaccounted security vulnerabilities in the systems. Device recognition is useful first step in vulnerability identification and defense augmentation, but due to the lack of full traceability in case of legacy ICS/SCADA systems, the typical device recognition based on document inspection is not applicable. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach involving the mix of communication-patterns and passive-fingerprinting to identify the unknown devices' types, manufacturers, and models. The algorithm uses the ICS/SCADA devices's communication-patterns to recognize the control hierarchy levels of the devices. In conjunction, certain distinguishable features in the communication-packets are used to recognize the device manufacturer, and model. We have implemented this hybrid approach in Python, and tested on traffic data from a water treatment SCADA testbed in Singapore (iTrust).
Radoglou-Grammatikis, Panagiotis, Sarigiannidis, Panagiotis, Giannoulakis, Ioannis, Kafetzakis, Emmanouil, Panaousis, Emmanouil.  2019.  Attacking IEC-60870-5-104 SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:41–46.
The rapid evolution of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) services transforms the conventional electrical grid into a new paradigm called Smart Grid (SG). Even though SG brings significant improvements, such as increased reliability and better energy management, it also introduces multiple security challenges. One of the main reasons for this is that SG combines a wide range of heterogeneous technologies, including Internet of Things (IoT) devices as well as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. The latter are responsible for monitoring and controlling the automatic procedures of energy transmission and distribution. Nevertheless, the presence of these systems introduces multiple vulnerabilities because their protocols do not implement essential security mechanisms such as authentication and access control. In this paper, we focus our attention on the security issues of the IEC 60870-5-104 (IEC-104) protocol, which is widely utilized in the European energy sector. In particular, we provide a SCADA threat model based on a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) and emulate four different types of cyber attacks against IEC-104. Last, we used AlienVault's risk assessment model to evaluate the risk level that each of these cyber attacks introduces to our system to confirm our intuition about their severity.
Salmani, Hassan, Hoque, Tamzidul, Bhunia, Swarup, Yasin, Muhammad, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan JV, Karimi, Naghmeh.  2019.  Special Session: Countering IP Security Threats in Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE 37th VLSI Test Symposium (VTS). :1–9.

The continuing decrease in feature size of integrated circuits, and the increase of the complexity and cost of design and fabrication has led to outsourcing the design and fabrication of integrated circuits to third parties across the globe, and in turn has introduced several security vulnerabilities. The adversaries in the supply chain can pirate integrated circuits, overproduce these circuits, perform reverse engineering, and/or insert hardware Trojans in these circuits. Developing countermeasures against such security threats is highly crucial. Accordingly, this paper first develops a learning-based trust verification framework to detect hardware Trojans. To tackle Trojan insertion, IP piracy and overproduction, logic locking schemes and in particular stripped functionality logic locking is discussed and its resiliency against the state-of-the-art attacks is investigated.

Vieira, Leandro, Santos, Leonel, Gon\c calves, Ramiro, Rabadão, Carlos.  2019.  Identifying Attack Signatures for the Internet of Things: An IP Flow Based Approach. 2019 14th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI). :1–7.

At the time of more and more devices being connected to the internet, personal and sensitive information is going around the network more than ever. Thus, security and privacy regarding IoT communications, devices, and data are a concern due to the diversity of the devices and protocols used. Since traditional security mechanisms cannot always be adequate due to the heterogeneity and resource limitations of IoT devices, we conclude that there are still several improvements to be made to the 2nd line of defense mechanisms like Intrusion Detection Systems. Using a collection of IP flows, we can monitor the network and identify properties of the data that goes in and out. Since network flows collection have a smaller footprint than packet capturing, it makes it a better choice towards the Internet of Things networks. This paper aims to study IP flow properties of certain network attacks, with the goal of identifying an attack signature only by observing those properties.

Yi, Zhuo, Du, Xuehui, Liao, Ying, Lu, Xin.  2019.  An Access Authentication Algorithm Based on a Hierarchical Identity-Based Signature over Lattice for the Space-Ground Integrated Network. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1–9.

Access authentication is a key technology to identify the legitimacy of mobile users when accessing the space-ground integrated networks (SGIN). A hierarchical identity-based signature over lattice (L-HIBS) based mobile access authentication mechanism is proposed to settle the insufficiencies of existing access authentication methods in SGIN such as high computational complexity, large authentication delay and no-resistance to quantum attack. Firstly, the idea of hierarchical identity-based cryptography is introduced according to hierarchical distribution of nodes in SGIN, and a hierarchical access authentication architecture is built. Secondly, a new L-HIBS scheme is constructed based on the Small Integer Solution (SIS) problem to support the hierarchical identity-based cryptography. Thirdly, a mobile access authentication protocol that supports bidirectional authentication and shared session key exchange is designed with the aforementioned L-HIBS scheme. Results of theoretical analysis and simulation experiments suggest that the L-HIBS scheme possesses strong unforgeability of selecting identity and adaptive selection messages under the standard security model, and the authentication protocol has smaller computational overhead and shorter private keys and shorter signature compared to given baseline protocols.

Korzhik, Valery, Starostin, Vladimir, Morales-Luna, Guillermo, Kabardov, Muaed, Gerasimovich, Aleksandr, Yakovlev, Victor, Zhuvikin, Aleksey.  2019.  Information Theoretical Secure Key Sharing Protocol for Noiseless Public Constant Parameter Channels without Cryptographic Assumptions. 2019 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (FedCSIS). :327–332.

We propose a new key sharing protocol executed through any constant parameter noiseless public channel (as Internet itself) without any cryptographic assumptions and protocol restrictions on SNR in the eavesdropper channels. This protocol is based on extraction by legitimate users of eigenvalues from randomly generated matrices. A similar protocol was proposed recently by G. Qin and Z. Ding. But we prove that, in fact, this protocol is insecure and we modify it to be both reliable and secure using artificial noise and privacy amplification procedure. Results of simulation prove these statements.

Shahsavari, Yahya, Zhang, Kaiwen, Talhi, Chamseddine.  2019.  A Theoretical Model for Fork Analysis in the Bitcoin Network. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :237–244.

Blockchain networks which employ Proof-of-Work in their consensus mechanism may face inconsistencies in the form of forks. These forks are usually resolved through the application of block selection rules (such as the Nakamoto consensus). In this paper, we investigate the cause and length of forks for the Bitcoin network. We develop theoretical formulas which model the Bitcoin consensus and network protocols, based on an Erdös-Rényi random graph construction of the overlay network of peers. Our theoretical model addresses the effect of key parameters on the fork occurrence probability, such as block propagation delay, network bandwidth, and block size. We also leverage this model to estimate the weight of fork branches. Our model is implemented using the network simulator OMNET++ and validated by historical Bitcoin data. We show that under current conditions, Bitcoin will not benefit from increasing the number of connections per node.