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Patil, Vishwas T., Shyamasundar, R.K..  2022.  Evolving Role of PKI in Facilitating Trust. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Public Key Infrastructure and its Applications (PKIA). :1–7.
A digital certificate is by far the most widely used artifact to establish secure electronic communication over the Internet. It certifies to its user that the public key encapsulated in it is associated with the subject of the certificate. A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is responsible to create, store, distribute, and revoke digital certificates. To establish a secure communication channel two unfamiliar entities rely on a common certificate issuer (a part of PKI) that vouches for both entities' certificates - thus authenticating each other via public keys listed in each other's certificates. Therefore, PKIs act as a trusted third party for two previously unfamiliar entities. Certificates are static data structures, their revocation status must be checked before usage; this step inadvertently involves a PKI for every secure channel establishment - leading to privacy violations of relying parties. As PKIs act as trust anchors for their subjects, any inadvertent event or malfeasance in PKI setup breaches the trust relationship leading to identity theft. Alternative PKI trust models, like PGP and SPKI, have been proposed but with limited deployment. With several retrofitting amendments to the prevalent X.509 standard, the standard has been serving its core objective of entity authentication but with modern requirements of contextual authentication, it is falling short to accommodate the evolving requirements. With the advent of blockchain as a trust management protocol, the time has come to rethink flexible alternatives to PKI core functionality; keeping in mind the modern-day requirements of contextual authentication-cum-authorization, weighted trust anchors, privacy-preservation, usability, and cost-efficient key management. In this paper, we assess this technology's complementary role in modern-day evolving security requirements. We discuss the feasibility of re-engineering PKIs with the help of blockchains, and identity networks.
Desuert, Arthur, Chollet, Stéphanie, Pion, Laurent, Hely, David.  2022.  A Middleware for Secure Integration of Heterogeneous Edge Devices. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Communications (EDGE). :83–92.
Connected devices are being deployed at a steady rate, providing services like data collection. Pervasive applications rely on those edge devices to seamlessly provide services to users. To connect applications and edge devices, using a middleware has been a popular approach. The research is active on the subject as there are many open challenges. The secure management of the edge devices and the security of the middleware are two of them. As security is a crucial requirement for pervasive environment, we propose a middleware architecture easing the secure use of edge devices for pervasive applications, while supporting the heterogeneity of communication protocols and the dynamism of devices. Because of the heterogeneity in protocols and security features, not all edge devices are equally secure. To allow the pervasive applications to gain control over this heterogeneous security, we propose a model to describe edge devices security. This model is accessible by the applications through our middleware. To validate our work, we developed a demonstrator of our middleware and we tested it in a concrete scenario.
ISSN: 2767-9918
Song, Yangxu, Jiang, Frank, Ali Shah, Syed Wajid, Doss, Robin.  2022.  A New Zero-Trust Aided Smart Key Authentication Scheme in IoV. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops and other Affiliated Events (PerCom Workshops). :630–636.
With the development of 5G networking technology on the Internet of Vehicle (IoV), there are new opportunities for numerous cyber-attacks, such as in-vehicle attacks like hijacking occurrences and data theft. While numerous attempts have been made to protect against the potential attacks, there are still many unsolved problems such as developing a fine-grained access control system. This is reflected by the granularity of security as well as the related data that are hosted on these platforms. Among the most notable trends is the increased usage of smart devices, IoV, cloud services, emerging technologies aim at accessing, storing and processing data. Most popular authentication protocols rely on knowledge-factor for authentication that is infamously known to be vulnerable to subversions. Recently, the zero-trust framework has drawn huge attention; there is an urgent need to develop further the existing Continuous Authentication (CA) technique to achieve the zero-trustiness framework. In this paper, firstly, we develop the static authentication process and propose a secured protocol to generate the smart key for user to unlock the vehicle. Then, we proposed a novel and secure continuous authentication system for IoVs. We present the proof-of-concept of our CA scheme by building a prototype that leverages the commodity fingerprint sensors, NFC, and smartphone. Our evaluations in real-world settings demonstrate the appropriateness of CA scheme and security analysis of our proposed protocol for digital key suggests its enhanced security against the known attack-vector.
Ahmed, Shamim, Biswas, Milon, Hasanuzzaman, Md., Nayeen Mahi, Md. Julkar, Ashraful Islam, Md., Chaki, Sudipto, Gaur, Loveleen.  2022.  A Secured Peer-to-Peer Messaging System Based on Blockchain. 2022 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Engineering and Management (ICIEM). :332–337.
Nowadays, the messaging system is one of the most popular mobile applications, and therefore the authentication between clients is essential. Various kinds of such mobile applications are using encryption-based security protocols, but they are facing many security threat issues. It clearly defines the necessity for a trustful security procedure. Therefore, a blockchain-based messaging system could be an alternative to this problem. That is why, we have developed a secured peer-to-peer messaging system supported by blockchain. This proposed mechanism provides data security among the users. In a blockchain-based framework, all the information can be verified and controlled automatically and all the transactions are recorded that have been created already. In our paper, we have explained how the users can communicate through a blockchain-based messaging system that can maintain a secured network. We explored why blockchain would improve communication security in this post, and we proposed a model architecture for blockchain-based messaging that retains the performance and security of data stored on the blockchain. Our proposed architecture is completely decentralized and enables users to send and receive messages in an acceptable and secure manner.
Skaug, Kirsten Lunde, Smebye, Elise Breivik, Tola, Besmir, Jiang, Yuming.  2022.  Keeping Connected in Internet-Isolated Locations. 2022 Seventh International Conference On Mobile And Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–7.
In many scenarios, Internet connectivity may not be available. In such situations, device-to-device (D2D) communication may be utilized to establish a peer-to-peer (P2P) network among mobile users in the vicinity. However, this raises a fundamental question as is how to ensure secure communication in such an infrastructure-less network. In this paper, we present an approach that enables connectivity between mobile devices in the vicinity and supports secure communication between users in Internet-isolated locations. Specifically, the proposed solution uses Wi-Fi Aware for establishing a P2P network and the mTLS (mutual Transport Layer Security) protocol to provide mutually authenticated and encrypted message transfer. Besides, a novel decentralized peer authentication (DPA) scheme compatible with Wi-Fi Aware and TLS is proposed, which enables peers to verify other peers to join the network. A proof-of-concept instant messaging application has been developed to test the proposed DPA scheme and to evaluate the performance of the proposed overall approach. Experimental results, which validate the proposed solution, are presented with findings and limitations discussed.
ISSN: 2640-558X
Sultana, Fozia, Arain, Qasim Ali, Soothar, Perman, Jokhio, Imran Ali, Zubedi, Asma.  2022.  A Spoofing Proof Stateless Session Architecture. 2022 2nd International Conference of Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies (SMARTTECH). :80–84.
To restrict unauthorized access to the data of the website. Most of the web-based systems nowadays require users to verify themselves before accessing the website is authentic information. In terms of security, it is very important to take different security measures for the protection of the authentic data of the website. However, most of the authentication systems which are used on the web today have several security flaws. This document is based on the security of the previous schemes. Compared to the previous approaches, this “spoofed proof stateless session model” method offers superior security assurance in a scenario in which an attacker has unauthorized access to the data of the website. The various protocol models are being developed and implemented on the web to analyze the performance. The aim was to secure the authentic database backups of the website and prevent them from SQL injection attacks by using the read-only properties for the database. This limits potential harm and provides users with reasonable security safeguards when an attacker has an unauthorized read-only access to the website's authentic database. This scheme provides robustness to the disclosure of authentic databases. Proven experimental results show the overheads due to the modified authentication method and the insecure model.
Oakley, Lisa, Oprea, Alina, Tripakis, Stavros.  2022.  Adversarial Robustness Verification and Attack Synthesis in Stochastic Systems. 2022 IEEE 35th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :380–395.
Probabilistic model checking is a useful technique for specifying and verifying properties of stochastic systems including randomized protocols and reinforcement learning models. However, these methods rely on the assumed structure and probabilities of certain system transitions. These assumptions may be incorrect, and may even be violated by an adversary who gains control of some system components. In this paper, we develop a formal framework for adversarial robustness in systems modeled as discrete time Markov chains (DTMCs). We base our framework on existing methods for verifying probabilistic temporal logic properties and extend it to include deterministic, memoryless policies acting in Markov decision processes (MDPs). Our framework includes a flexible approach for specifying structure-preserving and non structure-preserving adversarial models. We outline a class of threat models under which adversaries can perturb system transitions, constrained by an ε ball around the original transition probabilities. We define three main DTMC adversarial robustness problems: adversarial robustness verification, maximal δ synthesis, and worst case attack synthesis. We present two optimization-based solutions to these three problems, leveraging traditional and parametric probabilistic model checking techniques. We then evaluate our solutions on two stochastic protocols and a collection of Grid World case studies, which model an agent acting in an environment described as an MDP. We find that the parametric solution results in fast computation for small parameter spaces. In the case of less restrictive (stronger) adversaries, the number of parameters increases, and directly computing property satisfaction probabilities is more scalable. We demonstrate the usefulness of our definitions and solutions by comparing system outcomes over various properties, threat models, and case studies.
Yu, Yue, Yao, Jiming, Wang, Wei, Qiu, Lanxin, Xu, Yangzhou.  2022.  A Lightweight Identity-Based Secondary Authentication Method in Smart Grid. 2022 IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 10:2190—2195.
5G network slicing plays a key role in the smart grid business. The existing authentication schemes for 5G slicing in smart grids require high computing costs, so they are time-consuming and do not fully consider the security of authentication. Aiming at the application scenario of 5G smart grid, this paper proposes an identity-based lightweight secondary authentication scheme. Compared with other well-known methods, in the protocol interaction of this paper, both the user Ui and the grid server can authenticate each other's identities, thereby preventing illegal users from pretending to be identities. The grid user Ui and the grid server can complete the authentication process without resorting to complex bilinear mapping calculations, so the computational overhead is small. The grid user and grid server can complete the authentication process without transmitting the original identification. Therefore, this scheme has the feature of anonymous authentication. In this solution, the authentication process does not require infrastructure such as PKI, so the deployment is simple. Experimental results show that the protocol is feasible in practical applications
Choudhary, Sachin, Kumar, Abhimanyu, Kumar, Krishan.  2022.  An Efficient Key Agreement Protocol for Smart Grid communication. 2022 2nd International Conference on Emerging Frontiers in Electrical and Electronic Technologies (ICEFEET). :1—5.
Integration of technology with power grid emerged Smart grid. The advancement of power grid into smart grid faces some security issues like message mod-ification attacks, message injection attacks etc. If these issues are correctly not addressed, then the performance of the smart grid is degraded. Smart grid has bidirectional communication among the smart grid entities. The flow of user energy consumption information between all smart grid entities may lead the user privacy violation. Smart grids have various components but service providers and smart meters are the main components. Smart meters have sensing and communication functionality, while service providers have control and communication functionality. There are many privacy preservation schemes proposed that ensure the cus-tomer's privacy in the smart grid. To preserve the customer's data privacy and communication, authentication and key agreement schemes are required between the smart meter and the service provider. This paper proposes an efficient key agreement protocol to handle several security challenges in smart grid. The proposed protocol is tested against the various security attributes necessary for a key establishment protocol and found safe. Further the performance of the proposed work is compared with several others existing work for smart grid application and it has been observed that the proposed protocol performs significantly better than the existing protocols available in the literature.
Wang, Mei.  2022.  Big Data Analysis and Mining Technology of Smart Grid Based on Privacy Protection. 2022 6th International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :868—871.
Aiming at the big data security and privacy protection issues in the smart grid, the current key technologies for big data security and privacy protection in smart grids are sorted out, and a privacy-protecting smart grid association rule is proposed according to the privacy-protecting smart grid big data analysis and mining technology route The mining plan specifically analyzes the risk factors in the operation of the new power grid, and discusses the information security of power grid users from the perspective of the user, focusing on the protection of privacy and security, using safe multi-party calculation of the support and confidence of the association rules. Privacy-protecting smart grid big data mining enables power companies to improve service quality to 7.5% without divulging customer private information.
Korkmaz, Yusuf, Huseinovic, Alvin, Bisgin, Halil, Mrdović, Saša, Uludag, Suleyman.  2022.  Using Deep Learning for Detecting Mirroring Attacks on Smart Grid PMU Networks. 2022 International Balkan Conference on Communications and Networking (BalkanCom). :84–89.
Similar to any spoof detection systems, power grid monitoring systems and devices are subject to various cyberattacks by determined and well-funded adversaries. Many well-publicized real-world cyberattacks on power grid systems have been publicly reported. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) networks with Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs) are the main building blocks of the overall wide area monitoring and situational awareness systems in the power grid. The data between PMUs and PDC(s) are sent through the legacy networks, which are subject to many attack scenarios under with no, or inadequate, countermeasures in protocols, such as IEEE 37.118-2. In this paper, we consider a stealthier data spoofing attack against PMU networks, called a mirroring attack, where an adversary basically injects a copy of a set of packets in reverse order immediately following their original positions, wiping out the correct values. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time in the literature, we consider a more challenging attack both in terms of the strategy and the lower percentage of spoofed attacks. As part of our countermeasure detection scheme, we make use of novel framing approach to make application of a 2D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based approach which avoids the computational overhead of the classical sample-based classification algorithms. Our experimental evaluation results show promising results in terms of both high accuracy and true positive rates even under the aforementioned stealthy adversarial attack scenarios.
Alanzi, Mataz, Challa, Hari, Beleed, Hussain, Johnson, Brian K., Chakhchoukh, Yacine, Reen, Dylan, Singh, Vivek Kumar, Bell, John, Rieger, Craig, Gentle, Jake.  2022.  Synchrophasors-based Master State Awareness Estimator for Cybersecurity in Distribution Grid: Testbed Implementation & Field Demonstration. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
The integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and expansion of complex network in the distribution grid requires an advanced two-level state estimator to monitor the grid health at micro-level. The distribution state estimator will improve the situational awareness and resiliency of distributed power system. This paper implements a synchrophasors-based master state awareness (MSA) estimator to enhance the cybersecurity in distribution grid by providing a real-time estimation of system operating states to control center operators. In this paper, the implemented MSA estimator utilizes only phasor measurements, bus magnitudes and angles, from phasor measurement units (PMUs), deployed in local substations, to estimate the system states and also detects data integrity attacks, such as load tripping attack that disconnects the load. To validate the proof of concept, we implement this methodology in cyber-physical testbed environment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Electric Grid Security Testbed. Further, to address the "valley of death" and support technology commercialization, field demonstration is also performed at the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC) at the INL. Our experimental results reveal a promising performance in detecting load tripping attack and providing an accurate situational awareness through an alert visualization dashboard in real-time.
Shyshkin, Oleksandr.  2022.  Cybersecurity Providing for Maritime Automatic Identification System. 2022 IEEE 41st International Conference on Electronics and Nanotechnology (ELNANO). :736–740.

Automatic Identification System (AIS) plays a leading role in maritime navigation, traffic control, local and global maritime situational awareness. Today, the reliable and secure AIS operation is threatened by probable cyber attacks such as imitation of ghost vessels, false distress or security messages, or fake virtual aids-to-navigation. We propose a method for ensuring the authentication and integrity of AIS messages based on the use of the Message Authentication Code scheme and digital watermarking (WM) technology to organize an additional tag transmission channel. The method provides full compatibility with the existing AIS functionality.

Rahim, Usva, Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal, Javed, Muhammad Awais, Nafi, Nazmus.  2022.  Architectural Implementation of AES based 5G Security Protocol on FPGA. 2022 32nd International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC). :1–6.
Confidentiality and integrity security are the key challenges in future 5G networks. To encounter these challenges, various signature and key agreement protocols are being implemented in 5G systems to secure high-speed mobile-to-mobile communication. Many security ciphers such as SNOW 3G, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), and ZUC are used for 5G security. Among these protocols, the AES algorithm has been shown to achieve higher hardware efficiency and throughput in the literature. In this paper, we implement the AES algorithm on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and real-time performance factors of the AES algorithm were exploited to best fit the needs and requirements of 5G. In addition, several modifications such as partial pipelining and deep pipelining (partial pipelining with sub-module pipelining) are implemented on Virtex 6 FPGA ML60S board to improve the throughput of the proposed design.
Zhai, Di, Lu, Yang, Shi, Rui, Ji, Yuejie.  2022.  Large-Scale Micro-Power Sensors Access Scheme Based on Hybrid Mode in IoT Enabled Smart Grid. 2022 7th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :719—723.
In order to solve the problem of high data collision probability, high access delay and high-power consumption in random access process of power Internet of Things, an access scheme for large-scale micro-power wireless sensors based on slot-scheduling and hybrid mode is presented. This scheme divides time into different slots and designs a slot-scheduling algorithm according to network workload and power consumption. Sensors with different service priorities are arranged in different time slots for competitive access, using appropriate random-access mechanism. And rationally arrange the number of time slots and competing end-devices in different time slots. This scheme is able to meet the timeliness requirements of different services and reduce the overall network power consumption when dealing with random access scenarios of large-scale micro-power wireless sensor network. Based on the simulation results of actual scenarios, this access scheme can effectively reduce the overall power consumption of the network, and the high priority services can meet the timeliness requirements on the premise of lower power consumption, while the low priority services can further reduce power consumption.
Mohsin, Ali, Aurangzeb, Sana, Aleem, Muhammad, Khan, Muhammad Taimoor.  2022.  On the Performance and Scalability of Simulators for Improving Security and Safety of Smart Cities. 2022 IEEE 27th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1–8.
Simulations have gained paramount importance in terms of software development for wireless sensor networks and have been a vital focus of the scientific community in this decade to provide efficient, secure, and safe communication in smart cities. Network Simulators are widely used for the development of safe and secure communication architectures in smart city. Therefore, in this technical survey report, we have conducted experimental comparisons among ten different simulation environments that can be used to simulate smart-city operations. We comprehensively analyze and compare simulators COOJA, NS-2 with framework Mannasim, NS-3, OMNeT++ with framework Castalia, WSNet, TOSSIM, J-Sim, GloMoSim, SENSE, and Avrora. These simulators have been run eight times each and comparison among them is critically scrutinized. The main objective behind this research paper is to assist developers and researchers in selecting the appropriate simulator against the scenario to provide safe and secure wired and wireless networks. In addition, we have discussed the supportive simulation environments, functions, and operating modes, wireless channel models, energy consumption models, physical, MAC, and network-layer protocols in detail. The selection of these simulation frameworks is based on features, literature, and important characteristics. Lastly, we conclude our work by providing a detailed comparison and describing the pros and cons of each simulator.
Leclerc, Griffin, Bartos, Radim.  2022.  Experimental Analysis of the Performance and Scalability of Network Time Security for the Network Time Protocol. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Precision Clock Synchronization for Measurement, Control, and Communication (ISPCS). :1–7.
Network Time Security (NTS) standardizes mechanisms that allow clients to authenticate timing information received via Network Time Protocol (NTP). NTS includes a new key establishment protocol, NTS-KE, and extension fields for NTPv4 which, when utilized together, allow clients to authenticate messages from time servers. Utilizing an open source implementation of each, we determine the existence and severity of any performance or scalability impact introduced by NTS when compared to NTP. We found that conducting individual authenticated time transfer takes approximately 116% longer when utilizing NTS over NTP. Additionally, we found that NTS-KE can only support approximately 2000 requests per second before a substantial and consistent increase in turnaround time is observed.
Yuan, Wenyong, Wei, Lixian, Li, Zhengge, Ki, Ruifeng, Yang, Xiaoyuan.  2022.  ID-based Data Integrity Auditing Scheme from RSA with Forward Security. 2022 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :192—197.
Cloud data integrity verification was an important means to ensure data security. We used public key infrastructure (PKI) to manage user keys in Traditional way, but there were problems of certificate verification and high cost of key management. In this paper, RSA signature was used to construct a new identity-based cloud audit protocol, which solved the previous problems caused by PKI and supported forward security, and reduced the loss caused by key exposure. Through security analysis, the design scheme could effectively resist forgery attack and support forward security.
Al Rahbani, Rani, Khalife, Jawad.  2022.  IoT DDoS Traffic Detection Using Adaptive Heuristics Assisted With Machine Learning. 2022 10th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—6.
DDoS is a major issue in network security and a threat to service providers that renders a service inaccessible for a period of time. The number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices has developed rapidly. Nevertheless, it is proven that security on these devices is frequently disregarded. Many detection methods exist and are mostly focused on Machine Learning. However, the best method has not been defined yet. The aim of this paper is to find the optimal volumetric DDoS attack detection method by first comparing different existing machine learning methods, and second, by building an adaptive lightweight heuristics model relying on few traffic attributes and simple DDoS detection rules. With this new simple model, our goal is to decrease the classification time. Finally, we compare machine learning methods with our adaptive new heuristics method which shows promising results both on the accuracy and performance levels.
Cabral, Warren Z., Sikos, Leslie F., Valli, Craig.  2022.  Shodan Indicators Used to Detect Standard Conpot Implementations and Their Improvement Through Sophisticated Customization. 2022 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—7.
Conpot is a low-interaction SCADA honeypot system that mimics a Siemens S7-200 proprietary device on default deployments. Honeypots operating using standard configurations can be easily detected by adversaries using scanning tools such as Shodan. This study focuses on the capabilities of the Conpot honeypot, and how these competences can be used to lure attackers. In addition, the presented research establishes a framework that enables for the customized configuration, thereby enhancing its functionality to achieve a high degree of deceptiveness and realism when presented to the Shodan scanners. A comparison between the default and configured deployments is further conducted to prove the modified deployments' effectiveness. The resulting annotations can assist cybersecurity personnel to better acknowledge the effectiveness of the honeypot's artifacts and how they can be used deceptively. Lastly, it informs and educates cybersecurity audiences on how important it is to deploy honeypots with advanced deceptive configurations to bait cybercriminals.
Krishna, P. Vamsi, Matta, Venkata Durga Rao.  2022.  A Unique Deep Intrusion Detection Approach (UDIDA) for Detecting the Complex Attacks. 2022 International Conference on Edge Computing and Applications (ICECAA). :557—560.
Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is one of the applications to detect intrusions in the network. IDS aims to detect any malicious activities that protect the computer networks from unknown persons or users called attackers. Network security is one of the significant tasks that should provide secure data transfer. Virtualization of networks becomes more complex for IoT technology. Deep Learning (DL) is most widely used by many networks to detect the complex patterns. This is very suitable approaches for detecting the malicious nodes or attacks. Software-Defined Network (SDN) is the default virtualization computer network. Attackers are developing new technology to attack the networks. Many authors are trying to develop new technologies to attack the networks. To overcome these attacks new protocols are required to prevent these attacks. In this paper, a unique deep intrusion detection approach (UDIDA) is developed to detect the attacks in SDN. Performance shows that the proposed approach is achieved more accuracy than existing approaches.
Syed, Shameel, Khuhawar, Faheem, Talpur, Shahnawaz, Memon, Aftab Ahmed, Luque-Nieto, Miquel-Angel, Narejo, Sanam.  2022.  Analysis of Dynamic Host Control Protocol Implementation to Assess DoS Attacks. 2022 Global Conference on Wireless and Optical Technologies (GCWOT). :1—7.
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol which provides IP addresses and network configuration parameters to the hosts present in the network. This protocol is deployed in small, medium, and large size organizations which removes the burden from network administrator to manually assign network parameters to every host in the network for establishing communication. Every vendor who plans to incorporate DHCP service in its device follows the working flow defined in Request for Comments (RFC). DHCP Starvation and DHCP Flooding attack are Denial of Service (DoS) attacks to prevents provision of IP addresses by DHCP. Port Security and DHCP snooping are built-in security features which prevents these DoS attacks. However, novel techniques have been devised to bypass these security features which uses ARP and ICMP protocol to perform the attack. The purpose of this research is to analyze implementation of DHCP in multiple devices to verify the involvement of both ARP and ICMP in the address acquisition process of DHCP as per RFC and to validate the results of prior research which assumes ARP or ICMP are used by default in all of devices.
Pali, Isha, Amin, Ruhul.  2022.  PortSec: Securing Port Knocking System using Sequence Mechanism in SDN Environment. 2022 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1009—1014.
Port knocking provides an added layer of security on top of the existing security systems of a network. A predefined port knocking sequence is used to open the ports, which are closed by the firewall by default. The server determines the valid request if the knocking sequence is correct and opens the desired port. However, this sequence poses a security threat due to its static nature. This paper presents the port knock sequence-based communication protocol in the Software Defined network (SDN). It provides better management by separating the control plane and data plane. At the same time, it causes a communication overhead between the switches and the controller. To avoid this overhead, we are using the port knocking concept in the data plane without any involvement of the SDN controller. This study proposes three port knock sequence-based protocols (static, partial dynamic, and dynamic) in the data plane. To test the protocol in SDN environment, the P4 implementation of the underlying model is done in the BMV2 (behavioral model version 2) virtual switch. To check the security of the protocols, an informal security analysis is performed, which shows that the proposed protocols are secured to be implemented in the SDN data plane.
Haase, Julian, Jaster, Sebastian, Franz, Elke, Göhringer, Diana.  2022.  Secure Communication Protocol for Network-on-Chip with Authenticated Encryption and Recovery Mechanism. 2022 IEEE 33rd International Conference on Application-specific Systems, Architectures and Processors (ASAP). :156—160.
In recent times, Network-on-Chip (NoC) has become state of the art for communication in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip due to the existing scalability issues in this area. However, these systems are exposed to security threats such as extraction of secret information. Therefore, the need for secure communication arises in such environments. In this work, we present a communication protocol based on authenticated encryption with recovery mechanisms to establish secure end-to-end communication between the NoC nodes. In addition, a selected key agreement approach required for secure communication is implemented. The security functionality is located in the network adapter of each processing element. If data is tampered with or deleted during transmission, recovery mechanisms ensure that the corrupted data is retransmitted by the network adapter without the need of interference from the processing element. We simulated and implemented the complete system with SystemC TLM using the NoC simulation platform PANACA. Our results show that we can keep a high rate of correctly transmitted information even when attackers infiltrated the NoC system.
Wolsing, Konrad, Saillard, Antoine, Bauer, Jan, Wagner, Eric, van Sloun, Christian, Fink, Ina Berenice, Schmidt, Mari, Wehrle, Klaus, Henze, Martin.  2022.  Network Attacks Against Marine Radar Systems: A Taxonomy, Simulation Environment, and Dataset. 2022 IEEE 47th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :114—122.
Shipboard marine radar systems are essential for safe navigation, helping seafarers perceive their surroundings as they provide bearing and range estimations, object detection, and tracking. Since onboard systems have become increasingly digitized, interconnecting distributed electronics, radars have been integrated into modern bridge systems. But digitization increases the risk of cyberattacks, especially as vessels cannot be considered air-gapped. Consequently, in-depth security is crucial. However, particularly radar systems are not sufficiently protected against harmful network-level adversaries. Therefore, we ask: Can seafarers believe their eyes? In this paper, we identify possible attacks on radar communication and discuss how these threaten safe vessel operation in an attack taxonomy. Furthermore, we develop a holistic simulation environment with radar, complementary nautical sensors, and prototypically implemented cyberattacks from our taxonomy. Finally, leveraging this environment, we create a comprehensive dataset (RadarPWN) with radar network attacks that provides a foundation for future security research to secure marine radar communication.