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2020-02-26
Kaur, Prabhjot, Kang, Sandeep Singh.  2019.  Trust Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks. 2019 6th International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom). :1106–1112.

The technology made it easier to design the sensors of small size such that human can easily wear/implant them on his body and free to do his regular activities without any interruption. These tiny sensors can monitor, track and record the physical and environmental changes occurred in the surrounding. It is preferred to deploy the sensors where the regular continuous interference of human is very difficult. For a quality life, healthcare is the main concern today. Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) can play an important role in improving the quality of life. The main contribution of this paper is to review the trust-aware routing protocols which are able to detect the malicious nodes during communication by using node's trust factor as important metric to make the node to node communication secure. In this paper, we also present an overview of the WAN, its architecture, communication technologies used, various routing parameters, applications, security issues, and challenges. We further give a brief discussion about the flaws in the existing trust-aware routing protocols of WBAN.

Saad, Muhammad, Anwar, Afsah, Ahmad, Ashar, Alasmary, Hisham, Yuksel, Murat, Mohaisen, Aziz.  2019.  RouteChain: Towards Blockchain-Based Secure and Efficient BGP Routing. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC). :210–218.

Routing on the Internet is defined among autonomous systems (ASes) based on a weak trust model where it is assumed that ASes are honest. While this trust model strengthens the connectivity among ASes, it results in an attack surface which is exploited by malicious entities to hijacking routing paths. One such attack is known as the BGP prefix hijacking, in which a malicious AS broadcasts IP prefixes that belong to a target AS, thereby hijacking its traffic. In this paper, we proposeRouteChain: a blockchain-based secure BGP routing system that counters BGP hijacking and maintains a consistent view of the Internet routing paths. Towards that, we leverage provenance assurance and tamper-proof properties of blockchains to augment trust among ASes. We group ASes based on their geographical (network) proximity and construct a bihierarchical blockchain model that detects false prefixes prior to their spread over the Internet. We validate strengths of our design by simulations and show its effectiveness by drawing a case study with the Youtube hijacking of 2008. Our proposed scheme is a standalone service that can be incrementally deployed without the need of a central authority.

L, Nirmala Devi, K, Venkata Subbareddy.  2019.  Secure and Composite Routing Strategy through Clustering In WSN. 2019 2nd International Conference on Innovations in Electronics, Signal Processing and Communication (IESC). :119–123.

Due to openness of the deployed environment and transmission medium, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) suffers from various types of security attacks including Denial of service, Sinkhole, Tampering etc. Securing WSN is achieved a greater research interest and this paper proposes a new secure routing strategy for WSNs based on trust model. In this model, initially the sensor nodes of the network are formulated as clusters. Further a trust evaluation mechanism was accomplished for every sensor node at Cluster Head level to build a secure route for data transmission from sensor node to base station. Here the trust evaluation is carried out only at cluster head and also the cluster head is chosen in such a way the node having rich resources availability. The trust evaluation is a composition of the social trust and data trust. Simulation experiments are conducted over the proposed approach and the performance is measured through the performance metrics such as network lifetime, and Malicious Detection Rate. The obtained performance metrics shows the outstanding performance of proposed approach even in the increased malicious behavior of network.

Nowak, Mateusz, Nowak, Sławomir, Domańska, Joanna.  2019.  Cognitive Routing for Improvement of IoT Security. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Fog Computing (ICFC). :41–46.

Internet of Things is nowadays growing faster than ever before. Operators are planning or already creating dedicated networks for this type of devices. There is a need to create dedicated solutions for this type of network, especially solutions related to information security. In this article we present a mechanism of security-aware routing, which takes into account the evaluation of trust in devices and packet flows. We use trust relationships between flows and network nodes to create secure SDN paths, not ignoring also QoS and energy criteria. The system uses SDN infrastructure, enriched with Cognitive Packet Networks (CPN) mechanisms. Routing decisions are made by Random Neural Networks, trained with data fetched with Cognitive Packets. The proposed network architecture, implementing the security-by-design concept, was designed and is being implemented within the SerIoT project to demonstrate secure networks for the Internet of Things (IoT).

Almohaimeed, Abdulrahman, Asaduzzaman, Abu.  2019.  Incorporating Monitoring Points in SDN to Ensure Trusted Links Against Misbehaving Traffic Flows. 2019 Fifth Conference on Mobile and Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1–4.

The growing trend toward information technology increases the amount of data travelling over the network links. The problem of detecting anomalies in data streams has increased with the growth of internet connectivity. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a new concept of computer networking that can adapt and support these growing trends. However, the centralized nature of the SDN design is challenged by the need for an efficient method for traffic monitoring against traffic anomalies caused by misconfigured devices or ongoing attacks. In this paper, we propose a new model for traffic behavior monitoring that aims to ensure trusted communication links between the network devices. The main objective of this model is to confirm that the behavior of the traffic streams matches the instructions provided by the SDN controller, which can help to increase the trust between the SDN controller and its covered infrastructure components. According to our preliminary implementation, the behavior monitoring unit is able to read all traffic information and perform a validation process that reports any mismatching traffic to the controller.

Thulasiraman, Preetha, Wang, Yizhong.  2019.  A Lightweight Trust-Based Security Architecture for RPL in Mobile IoT Networks. 2019 16th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–6.

Military communities have come to rely heavily on commercial off the shelf (COTS) standards and technologies for Internet of Things (IoT) operations. One of the major obstacles to military use of COTS IoT devices is the security of data transfer. In this paper, we successfully design and develop a lightweight, trust-based security architecture to support routing in a mobile IoT network. Specifically, we modify the RPL IoT routing algorithm using common security techniques, including a nonce identity value, timestamp, and network whitelist. Our approach allows RPL to select a routing path over a mobile IoT wireless network based on a computed node trust value and average received signal strength indicator (ARSSI) value across network members. We conducted simulations using the Cooja network simulator and Wireshark to validate the algorithm against stipulated threat models. We demonstrate that our algorithm can protect the network against Denial of Service (DoS) and Sybil based identity attacks. We also show that the control overhead required for our algorithm is less than 5% and that the packet delivery rate improves by nearly 10%.

Kumar, A. Ranjith, Sivagami, A..  2019.  Balanced Load Clustering with Trusted Multipath Relay Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network. 2019 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies (i-PACT). 1:1–6.

Clustering is one of an eminent mechanism which deals with large number of nodes and effective consumption of energy in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Balanced Load Clustering is used to balance the channel bandwidth by incorporating the concept of HMAC. Presently several research studies works to improve the quality of service and energy efficiency of WSN but the security issues are not taken care of. Relay based multipath trust is one of the methods to secure the network. To this end, a novel approach called Balanced Load Clustering with Trusted Multipath Relay Routing Protocol (BLC-TMR2) to improve the performance of the network. The proposed protocol consists of two algorithms. Initially in order to reduce the energy consumption of the network, balanced load clustering (BLC) concepts is introduced. Secondly to secure the network from the malicious activity trusted multipath relay routing protocol (TMR2) is used. Multipath routing is monitored by the relay node and it computed the trust values. Network simulation (NS2) software is used to obtain the results and the results prove that the proposed system performs better the earlier methods the in terms of efficiency, consumption, QoS and throughput.

Zhong, Xiaoxiong, Lu, Renhao, Li, Li, Wang, Xinghan, Zheng, Yanbin.  2019.  DSOR: A Traffic-Differentiated Secure Opportunistic Routing with Game Theoretic Approach in MANETs. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1–6.

Recently, the increase of different services makes the design of routing protocols more difficult in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), e.g., how to guarantee the QoS of different types of traffics flows in MANETs with resource constrained and malicious nodes. opportunistic routing (OR) can make full use of the broadcast characteristics of wireless channels to improve the performance of MANETs. In this paper, we propose a traffic-differentiated secure opportunistic routing from a game theoretic perspective, DSOR. In the proposed scheme, we use a novel method to calculate trust value, considering node's forwarding capability and the status of different types of flows. According to the resource status of the network, we propose a service price and resource price for the auction model, which is used to select optimal candidate forwarding sets. At the same time, the optimal bid price has been proved and a novel flow priority decision for transmission is presented, which is based on waiting time and requested time. The simulation results show that the network lifetime, packet delivery rate and delay of the DSOR are better than existing works.

Wang, Jun-Wei, Jiang, Yu-Ting, Liu, Zhe.  2019.  A Trusted Routing Mechanism for Mobile Social Networks. 2019 IEEE 7th International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology (ICCSNT). :365–369.

In recent years, mobile social networks (MSNs) have developed rapidly and their application fields are becoming more and more widespread. Due to the continuous movement of nodes in mobile social networks, the network topology is very unstable. How to ensure the credibility of network communication is a subject worth studying. In this paper, based on the characteristics of mobile social networks, the definition of trust level is introduced into the DSR routing protocol, and a trusted DSR routing mechanism (TDR) is proposed. The scheme combines the sliding window model to design the calculation method of trust level between nodes and path trust level. The nodes in the network participate in the routing process according to their trust level. When the source node receives multiple routes carried by the response, the appropriate trusted path is selected according to the path trust level. Through simulation analysis, compared with the original DSR protocol, the TDR protocol improves the performance of average delay, route cost and packet delivery fraction, and verifies the reliability and credibility of the TDR protocol.

Tandon, Aditya, Srivastava, Prakash.  2019.  Trust-Based Enhanced Secure Routing against Rank and Sybil Attacks in IoT. 2019 Twelfth International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3). :1–7.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that plays a vital role in interconnecting various objects into a network to provide desired services within its resource constrained characteristics. In IoT, the Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy network (RPL) is the standardized proactive routing protocol that achieves satisfying resource consumption, but it does not consider the node's routing behavior for forwarding data packets. The malicious intruders exploit these loopholes for launching various forms of routing attacks. Different security mechanisms have been introduced for detecting these attacks singly. However, the launch of multiple attacks such as Rank attack and Sybil attacks simultaneously in the IoT network is one of the devastating and destructive situations. This problem can be solved by establishing secure routing with trustworthy nodes. The trustworthiness of the nodes is determined using trust evaluation methods, where the parameters considered are based on the factors that influence in detecting the attacks. In this work, Providing Routing Security using the Technique of Collective Trust (PROTECT) mechanism is introduced, and it aims to provide a secure RPL routing by simultaneously detecting both Rank and Sybil attacks in the network. The advantage of the proposed scheme is highlighted by comparing its performance with the performance of the Sec-Trust protocol in terms of detection accuracy, energy consumption, and throughput.

Dhanya, K., Jeyalakshmi, C., Balakumar, A..  2019.  A Secure Autonomic Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Based Trusted Routing Proposal. 2019 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1–6.

This research proposes an inspection on Trust Based Routing protocols to protect Internet of Things directing to authorize dependability and privacy amid to direction-finding procedure in inaccessible systems. There are number of Internet of Things (IOT) gadgets are interrelated all inclusive, the main issue is the means by which to protect the routing of information in the important systems from different types of stabbings. Clients won't feel secure on the off chance that they know their private evidence could without much of a stretch be gotten to and traded off by unapproved people or machines over the system. Trust is an imperative part of Internet of Things (IOT). It empowers elements to adapt to vulnerability and roughness caused by the through and through freedom of other devices. In Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) host moves frequently in any bearing, so that the topology of the network also changes frequently. No specific algorithm is used for routing the packets. Packets/data must be routed by intermediate nodes. It is procumbent to different occurrences ease. There are various approaches to compute trust for a node such as fuzzy trust approach, trust administration approach, hybrid approach, etc. Adaptive Information Dissemination (AID) is a mechanism which ensures the packets in a specific transmission and it analysis of is there any attacks by hackers.It encompasses of ensuring the packet count and route detection between source and destination with trusted path.Trust estimation dependent on the specific condition or setting of a hub, by sharing the setting information onto alternate hubs in the framework would give a superior answer for this issue.Here we present a survey on various trust organization approaches in MANETs. We bring out instantaneous of these approaches for establishing trust of the partaking hubs in a dynamic and unverifiable MANET atmosphere.

2019-03-11
Raj, R. V., Balasubramanian, K., Nandhini, T..  2018.  Establishing Trust by Detecting Malicious Nodes in Delay Tolerant Network. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1385–1390.
A Network consists of many nodes among which there may be a presence of misbehavior nodes. Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) is a network where the disconnections occur frequently. Store, carry and forward method is followed in DTN. The serious threat against routing in DTN is the selfish behavior. The main intention of selfish node is to save its own energy. Detecting the selfish node in DTN is very difficult. In this paper, a probabilistic misbehavior detection scheme called MAXTRUST has been proposed. Trusted Authority (TA) has been introduced in order to detect the behavior of the nodes periodically based on the task, forwarding history and contact history evidence. After collecting all the evidences from the nodes, the TA would check the inspection node about its behavior. The actions such as punishment or compensation would be given to that particular node based on its behavior. The TA performs probabilistic checking, in order to ensure security at a reduced cost. To further improve the efficiency, dynamic probabilistic inspection has been demonstrated using game theory analysis. The simulation results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the MAXTRUST scheme.
Ghafoor, K. Z., Kong, L., Sadiq, A. S., Doukha, Z., Shareef, F. M..  2018.  Trust-aware routing protocol for mobile crowdsensing environments. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :82–87.
Link quality, trust management and energy efficiency are considered as main factors that affect the performance and lifetime of Mobile CrowdSensing (MCS). Routing packets toward the sink node can be a daunting task if aforementioned factors are considered. Correspondingly, routing packets by considering only shortest path or residual energy lead to suboptimal data forwarding. To this end, we propose a Fuzzy logic based Routing (FR) solution that incorporates social behaviour of human beings, link quality, and node quality to make the optimal routing decision. FR leverages friendship mechanism for trust management, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to assure good link quality node selection, and residual energy for long lasting sensor lifetime. Extensive simulations show that the FR solution outperforms the existing approaches in terms of network lifetime and packet delivery ratio.
Mehta, R., Parmar, M. M..  2018.  Trust based mechanism for Securing IoT Routing Protocol RPL against Wormhole amp;Grayhole Attacks. 2018 3rd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–6.
Internet of Things is attracting a lot of interest in the modern world and has become a part of daily life leading to a large scale of distribution of Low power and Lossy Networks (LLN). For such networks constrained by low power and storage, IETF has proposed RPL an open standard routing protocol. However RPL protocol is exposed to a number of attacks which may degrade the performance and resources of the network leading to incorrect output. In this paper, to address Wormhole and Grayhole attack we propose a light weight Trust based mechanism. The proposed method uses direct trust which is computed based on node properties and Indirect Trust which is based on opinion of the neighboring nodes. The proposed method is energy friendly and does not impose excessive overhead on network traffic.
Michelin, Regio A., Dorri, Ali, Steger, Marco, Lunardi, Roben C., Kanhere, Salil S., Jurdak, Raja, Zorzo, Avelino F..  2018.  SpeedyChain: A Framework for Decoupling Data from Blockchain for Smart Cities. Proceedings of the 15th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services. :145–154.
There is increased interest in smart vehicles acting as both data consumers and producers in smart cities. Vehicles can use smart city data for decision-making, such as dynamic routing based on traffic conditions. Moreover, the multitude of embedded sensors in vehicles can collectively produce a rich data set of the urban landscape that can be used to provide a range of services. Key to the success of this vision is a scalable and private architecture for trusted data sharing. This paper proposes a framework called SpeedyChain, that leverages blockchain technology to allow smart vehicles to share their data while maintaining privacy, integrity, resilience, and non-repudiation in a decentralized and tamper-resistant manner. Differently from traditional blockchain usage (e.g., Bitcoin and Ethereum), the proposed framework uses a blockchain design that decouples the data stored in the transactions from the block header, thus allowing fast addition of data to the blocks. Furthermore, an expiration time for each block is proposed to avoid large sized blocks. This paper also presents an evaluation of the proposed framework in a network emulator to demonstrate its benefits.
Hu, Xiaohe, Gupta, Arpit, Feamster, Nick, Panda, Aurojit, Shenker, Scott.  2018.  Preserving Privacy at IXPs. Proceedings of the 2Nd Asia-Pacific Workshop on Networking. :43–49.
Autonomous systems (ASes) on the Internet increasingly rely on Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) for peering. A single IXP may interconnect several 100s or 1000s of participants (ASes) all of which might peer with each other through BGP sessions. IXPs have addressed this scaling challenge through the use of route servers. However, route servers require participants to trust the IXP and reveal their policies, a drastic change from the accepted norm where all policies are kept private. In this paper we look at techniques to build route servers which provide the same functionality as existing route servers without requiring participants to reveal their policies thus preserving the status quo and enabling wider adoption of IXPs. Prior work has looked at secure multiparty computation (SMPC) as a means of implementing such route servers however this affects performance and reduces policy flexibility. In this paper we take a different tack and build on trusted execution environments (TEEs) such as Intel SGX to keep policies private and flexible. We present results from an initial route server implementation that runs under Intel SGX and show that our approach has 20x better performance than SMPC based approaches. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the additional privacy provided by our approach comes at minimal cost and our implementation is at worse 2.1x slower than a current route server implementation (and in some situations up to 2x faster).
Oliveira, Luis, Luton, Jacob, Iyer, Sumeet, Burns, Chris, Mouzakitis, Alexandros, Jennings, Paul, Birrell, Stewart.  2018.  Evaluating How Interfaces Influence the User Interaction with Fully Autonomous Vehicles. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. :320–331.
With increasing automation, occupants of fully autonomous vehicles are likely to be completely disengaged from the driving task. However, even with no driving involved, there are still activities that will require interfaces between the vehicle and passengers. This study evaluated different configurations of screens providing operational-related information to occupants for tracking the progress of journeys. Surveys and interviews were used to measure trust, usability, workload and experience after users were driven by an autonomous low speed pod. Results showed that participants want to monitor the state of the vehicle and see details about the ride, including a map of the route and related information. There was a preference for this information to be displayed via an onboard touchscreen device combined with an overhead letterbox display versus a smartphone-based interface. This paper provides recommendations for the design of devices with the potential to improve the user interaction with future autonomous vehicles.
Psaras, Ioannis.  2018.  Decentralised Edge-Computing and IoT Through Distributed Trust. Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services. :505–507.
The emerging Internet of Things needs edge-computing - this is an established fact. In turn, edge computing needs infrastructure decentralisation. What is not necessarily established yet is that infrastructure decentralisation needs a distributed model of Internet governance and decentralised trust schemes. We discuss the features of a decentralised IoT and edge-computing ecosystem and list the components that need to be designed, as well the challenges that need to be addressed.
Konstantopoulos, Charalampos, Mamalis, Basilis, Pantziou, Grammati.  2018.  Secure and Trust-aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the 22Nd Pan-Hellenic Conference on Informatics. :312–317.
Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) are susceptible to many security threats, and because of communication, computation and delay constraints of WSNs, traditional security mechanisms cannot be used. As a consequence, several secure routing methods have been proposed during the last decade, whereas trust management models and corresponding routing protocols have also been recently suggested as an even more effective security mechanism for WSNs. In this paper, we present a detailed survey on such routing protocols along with a proper classification according to their basic features. We first distinguish between secure multipath protocols and trust evaluation based protocols. The former are then distinguished to share and non share-based ones, whereas the latter are categorized according to their cluster-based structure or not. A comprehensive analysis is presented, accompanied by proper comparison and summarization tables for the most significant ones, as well as corresponding discussion and conclusions. Main emphasis is given to their novelty, basic methodology, pros and cons, kinds of faced attacks and complexity.
Zhang, Dajun, Yu, F. Richard, Yang, Ruizhe, Tang, Helen.  2018.  A Deep Reinforcement Learning-based Trust Management Scheme for Software-defined Vehicular Networks. Proceedings of the 8th ACM Symposium on Design and Analysis of Intelligent Vehicular Networks and Applications. :1–7.
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have become a promising technology in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) with rising interest of expedient, safe, and high-efficient transportation. VANETs are vulnerable to malicious nodes and result in performance degradation because of dynamicity and infrastructure-less. In this paper, we propose a trust based dueling deep reinforcement learning approach (T-DDRL) for communication of connected vehicles, we deploy a dueling network architecture into a logically centralized controller of software-defined networking (SDN). Specifically, the SDN controller is used as an agent to learn the most trusted routing path by deep neural network (DNN) in VANETs, where the trust model is designed to evaluate neighbors' behaviour of forwarding routing information. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed T-DDRL framework.
2018-04-11
Ma, C., Guo, Y., Su, J..  2017.  A Multiple Paths Scheme with Labels for Key Distribution on Quantum Key Distribution Network. 2017 IEEE 2nd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). :2513–2517.

This paper establishes a probability model of multiple paths scheme of quantum key distribution with public nodes among a set of paths which are used to transmit the key between the source node and the destination node. Then in order to be used in universal net topologies, combining with the key routing in the QKD network, the algorithm of the multiple paths scheme of key distribution we propose includes two major aspects: one is an approach which can confirm the number and the distance of the selection of paths, and the other is the strategy of stochastic paths with labels that can decrease the number of public nodes and avoid the phenomenon that the old scheme may produce loops and often get the nodes apart from the destination node father than current nodes. Finally, the paper demonstrates the rationality of the probability model and strategies about the algorithm.

Tripathy, B. K., Sudhir, A., Bera, P., Rahman, M. A..  2017.  Formal Modelling and Verification of Requirements of Adaptive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network. 2017 IEEE 41st Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:548–556.

A group of mobile nodes with limited capabilities sparsed in different clusters forms the backbone of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET). In such situations, the requirements (mobility, performance, security, trust and timing constraints) vary with change in context, time, and geographic location of deployment. This leads to various performance and security challenges which necessitates a trade-off between them on the application of routing protocols in a specific context. The focus of our research is towards developing an adaptive and secure routing protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, which dynamically configures the routing functions using varying contextual features with secure and real-time processing of traffic. In this paper, we propose a formal framework for modelling and verification of requirement constraints to be used in designing adaptive routing protocols for MANET. We formally represent the network topology, behaviour, and functionalities of the network in SMT-LIB language. In addition, our framework verifies various functional, security, and Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints. The verification engine is built using the Yices SMT Solver. The efficacy of the proposed requirement models is demonstrated with experimental results.

Medjek, F., Tandjaoui, D., Romdhani, I., Djedjig, N..  2017.  Performance Evaluation of RPL Protocol under Mobile Sybil Attacks. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :1049–1055.

In Sybil attacks, a physical adversary takes multiple fabricated or stolen identities to maliciously manipulate the network. These attacks are very harmful for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. In this paper we implemented and evaluated the performance of RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) routing protocol under mobile sybil attacks, namely SybM, with respect to control overhead, packet delivery and energy consumption. In SybM attacks, Sybil nodes take the advantage of their mobility and the weakness of RPL to handle identity and mobility, to flood the network with fake control messages from different locations. To counter these type of attacks we propose a trust-based intrusion detection system based on RPL.

Djedjig, N., Tandjaoui, D., Medjek, F., Romdhani, I..  2017.  New Trust Metric for the RPL Routing Protocol. 2017 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS). :328–335.

Establishing trust relationships between routing nodes represents a vital security requirement to establish reliable routing processes that exclude infected or selfish nodes. In this paper, we propose a new security scheme for the Internet of things and mainly for the RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks) called: Metric-based RPL Trustworthiness Scheme (MRTS). The primary aim is to enhance RPL security and deal with the trust inference problem. MRTS addresses trust issue during the construction and maintenance of routing paths from each node to the BR (Border Router). To handle this issue, we extend DIO (DODAG Information Object) message by introducing a new trust-based metric ERNT (Extended RPL Node Trustworthiness) and a new Objective Function TOF (Trust Objective Function). In fact, ERNT represents the trust values for each node within the network, and TOF demonstrates how ERNT is mapped to path cost. In MRTS all nodes collaborate to calculate ERNT by taking into account nodes' behavior including selfishness, energy, and honesty components. We implemented our scheme by extending the distributed Bellman-Ford algorithm. Evaluation results demonstrated that the new scheme improves the security of RPL.

Lahbib, A., Toumi, K., Elleuch, S., Laouiti, A., Martin, S..  2017.  Link Reliable and Trust Aware RPL Routing Protocol for Internet of Things. 2017 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1–5.

Internet of Things (IoT) is characterized by heterogeneous devices that interact with each other on a collaborative basis to fulfill a common goal. In this scenario, some of the deployed devices are expected to be constrained in terms of memory usage, power consumption and processing resources. To address the specific properties and constraints of such networks, a complete stack of standardized protocols has been developed, among them the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and lossy networks (RPL). However, this protocol is exposed to a large variety of attacks from the inside of the network itself. To fill this gap, this paper focuses on the design and the integration of a novel Link reliable and Trust aware model into the RPL protocol. Our approach aims to ensure Trust among entities and to provide QoS guarantees during the construction and the maintenance of the network routing topology. Our model targets both node and link Trust and follows a multidimensional approach to enable an accurate Trust value computation for IoT entities. To prove the efficiency of our proposal, this last has been implemented and tested successfully within an IoT environment. Therefore, a set of experiments has been made to show the high accuracy level of our system.