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Al-Dhaqm, A., Razak, S. A., Ikuesan, R. A., Kebande, V. R., Siddique, K..  2020.  A Review of Mobile Forensic Investigation Process Models. IEEE Access. 8:173359—173375.
Mobile Forensics (MF) field uses prescribed scientific approaches with a focus on recovering Potential Digital Evidence (PDE) from mobile devices leveraging forensic techniques. Consequently, increased proliferation, mobile-based services, and the need for new requirements have led to the development of the MF field, which has in the recent past become an area of importance. In this article, the authors take a step to conduct a review on Mobile Forensics Investigation Process Models (MFIPMs) as a step towards uncovering the MF transitions as well as identifying open and future challenges. Based on the study conducted in this article, a review of the literature revealed that there are a few MFIPMs that are designed for solving certain mobile scenarios, with a variety of concepts, investigation processes, activities, and tasks. A total of 100 MFIPMs were reviewed, to present an inclusive and up-to-date background of MFIPMs. Also, this study proposes a Harmonized Mobile Forensic Investigation Process Model (HMFIPM) for the MF field to unify and structure whole redundant investigation processes of the MF field. The paper also goes the extra mile to discuss the state of the art of mobile forensic tools, open and future challenges from a generic standpoint. The results of this study find direct relevance to forensic practitioners and researchers who could leverage the comprehensiveness of the developed processes for investigation.
Mori, S..  2020.  A Fundamental Analysis of Caching Data Protection Scheme using Light-weight Blockchain and Hashchain for Information-centric WSNs. 2020 2nd Conference on Blockchain Research Applications for Innovative Networks and Services (BRAINS). :200–201.
This paper explains a novel caching data protection scheme that uses lightweight blockchain and hashchain for information-centric wireless sensor networks. The proposed verification procedure in a Blockchain is conducted based on the proof-of-consensus validation mechanism without using exhaustive mining computations; therefore, our scheme is suitable for resource-shortage wireless and mobile devices. Hashchains are utilized for traceability and signatures that ensure a block's validity. We make a primitive evaluation of the scheme using computer simulations in familiar low-power wide-area wireless environments.
Bodhe, A., Sangale, A..  2020.  Network Parameter Analysis; ad hoc WSN for Security Protocol with Fuzzy Logic. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :960—963.

The wireless communication has become very vast, important and easy to access nowadays because of less cost associated and easily available mobile devices. It creates a potential threat for the community while accessing some secure information like banking passwords on the unsecured network. This proposed research work expose such a potential threat such as Rogue Access Point (RAP) detection using soft computing prediction tool. Fuzzy logic is used to implement the proposed model to identify the presence of RAP existence in the network.

Yerima, S. Y., Alzaylaee, M. K..  2020.  Mobile Botnet Detection: A Deep Learning Approach Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1—8.

Android, being the most widespread mobile operating systems is increasingly becoming a target for malware. Malicious apps designed to turn mobile devices into bots that may form part of a larger botnet have become quite common, thus posing a serious threat. This calls for more effective methods to detect botnets on the Android platform. Hence, in this paper, we present a deep learning approach for Android botnet detection based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Our proposed botnet detection system is implemented as a CNN-based model that is trained on 342 static app features to distinguish between botnet apps and normal apps. The trained botnet detection model was evaluated on a set of 6,802 real applications containing 1,929 botnets from the publicly available ISCX botnet dataset. The results show that our CNN-based approach had the highest overall prediction accuracy compared to other popular machine learning classifiers. Furthermore, the performance results observed from our model were better than those reported in previous studies on machine learning based Android botnet detection.

Zhang, C., Shahriar, H., Riad, A. B. M. K..  2020.  Security and Privacy Analysis of Wearable Health Device. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1767—1772.
Mobile wearable health devices have expanded prevalent usage and become very popular because of the valuable health monitor system. These devices provide general health tips and monitoring human health parameters as well as generally assisting the user to take better health of themselves. However, these devices are associated with security and privacy risk among the consumers because these devices deal with sensitive data information such as users sleeping arrangements, dieting formula such as eating constraint, pulse rate and so on. In this paper, we analyze the significant security and privacy features of three very popular health tracker devices: Fitbit, Jawbone and Google Glass. We very carefully analyze the devices' strength and how the devices communicate and its Bluetooth pairing process with mobile devices. We explore the possible malicious attack through Bluetooth networking by hacker. The outcomes of this analysis show how these devices allow third parties to gain sensitive information from the device exact location that causes the potential privacy breach for users. We analyze the reasons of user data security and privacy are gained by unauthorized people on wearable devices and the possible challenge to secure user data as well as the comparison of three wearable devices (Fitbit, Jawbone and Google Glass) security vulnerability and attack type.
Garbo, A., Quer, S..  2018.  A Fast MPEG’s CDVS Implementation for GPU Featured in Mobile Devices. IEEE Access. 6:52027—52046.
The Moving Picture Experts Group's Compact Descriptors for Visual Search (MPEG's CDVS) intends to standardize technologies in order to enable an interoperable, efficient, and cross-platform solution for internet-scale visual search applications and services. Among the key technologies within CDVS, we recall the format of visual descriptors, the descriptor extraction process, and the algorithms for indexing and matching. Unfortunately, these steps require precision and computation accuracy. Moreover, they are very time-consuming, as they need running times in the order of seconds when implemented on the central processing unit (CPU) of modern mobile devices. In this paper, to reduce computation times and maintain precision and accuracy, we re-design, for many-cores embedded graphical processor units (GPUs), all main local descriptor extraction pipeline phases of the MPEG's CDVS standard. To reach this goal, we introduce new techniques to adapt the standard algorithm to parallel processing. Furthermore, to reduce memory accesses and efficiently distribute the kernel workload, we use new approaches to store and retrieve CDVS information on proper GPU data structures. We present a complete experimental analysis on a large and standard test set. Our experiments show that our GPU-based approach is remarkably faster than the CPU-based reference implementation of the standard, and it maintains a comparable precision in terms of true and false positive rates.
Gupta, D. S., Islam, S. H., Obaidat, M. S..  2019.  A Secure Identity-based Deniable Authentication Protocol for MANETs. 2019 International Conference on Computer, Information and Telecommunication Systems (CITS). :1–5.
A deniable authentication (DA) protocol plays a vital role to provide security and privacy of the mobile nodes in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In recent years, a number of similar works have been proposed, but most of them experience heavy computational and communication overhead. Further, most of these protocols are not secure against different attacks. To address these concerns, we devised an identity-based deniable authentication (IBDA) protocol with adequate security and efficiency. The proposed IBDA protocol is mainly designed for MANETs, where the mobile devices are resource-limited. The proposed IBDA protocol used the elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) and identity-based cryptosystem (IBC). The security of our IBDA protocol depends on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm (ECDL) problem and bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) problem.
Xylogiannopoulos, Konstantinos F., Karampelas, Panagiotis, Alhajj, Reda.  2019.  Text Mining for Malware Classification Using Multivariate All Repeated Patterns Detection. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM). :887—894.

Mobile phones have become nowadays a commodity to the majority of people. Using them, people are able to access the world of Internet and connect with their friends, their colleagues at work or even unknown people with common interests. This proliferation of the mobile devices has also been seen as an opportunity for the cyber criminals to deceive smartphone users and steel their money directly or indirectly, respectively, by accessing their bank accounts through the smartphones or by blackmailing them or selling their private data such as photos, credit card data, etc. to third parties. This is usually achieved by installing malware to smartphones masking their malevolent payload as a legitimate application and advertise it to the users with the hope that mobile users will install it in their devices. Thus, any existing application can easily be modified by integrating a malware and then presented it as a legitimate one. In response to this, scientists have proposed a number of malware detection and classification methods using a variety of techniques. Even though, several of them achieve relatively high precision in malware classification, there is still space for improvement. In this paper, we propose a text mining all repeated pattern detection method which uses the decompiled files of an application in order to classify a suspicious application into one of the known malware families. Based on the experimental results using a real malware dataset, the methodology tries to correctly classify (without any misclassification) all randomly selected malware applications of 3 categories with 3 different families each.

Madhan, E.S., Ghosh, Uttam, Tosh, Deepak K., Mandal, K., Murali, E., Ghosh, Soumalya.  2019.  An Improved Communications in Cyber Physical System Architecture, Protocols and Applications. 2019 16th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON). :1–6.
In recent trends, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet of Things interpret an evolution of computerized integration connectivity. The specific research challenges in CPS as security, privacy, data analytics, participate sensing, smart decision making. In addition, The challenges in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) includes secure architecture, energy efficient protocols and quality of services. In this paper, we present an architectures of CPS and its protocols and applications. We propose software related mobile sensing paradigm namely Mobile Sensor Information Agent (MSIA). It works as plug-in based for CPS middleware and scalable applications in mobile devices. The working principle MSIA is acts intermediary device and gathers data from a various external sensors and its upload to cloud on demand. CPS needs tight integration between cyber world and man-made physical world to achieve stability, security, reliability, robustness, and efficiency in the system. Emerging software-defined networking (SDN) can be integrated as the communication infrastructure with CPS infrastructure to accomplish such system. Thus we propose a possible SDN-based CPS framework to improve the performance of the system.
Corneci, Vlad-Mihai, Carabas, Costin, Deaconescu, Razvan, Tapus, Nicolae.  2019.  Adding Custom Sandbox Profiles to iOS Apps. 2019 18th RoEduNet Conference: Networking in Education and Research (RoEduNet). :1–5.
The massive adoption of mobile devices by both individuals and companies is raising many security concerns. The fact that such devices are handling sensitive data makes them a target for attackers. Many attack prevention mechanisms are deployed with a last line of defense that focuses on the containment principle. Currently, iOS treats each 3rd party application alike which may lead to security flaws. We propose a framework in which each application has a custom sandboxed environment. We investigated the current confinement architecture used by Apple and built a solution on top of it.
Ababtain, Eman, Engels, Daniel.  2019.  Security of Gestures Based CAPTCHAs. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :120—126.
We present a security analysis of several gesture CAPTCHA challenges designed to operate on mobiles. Mobile gesture CAPTCHA challenges utilize the accelerometer and the gyroscope inputs from a mobile to allow a human to solve a simple test by physically manipulating the device. We have evaluated the security of gesture CAPTCHA in mobile devices and found them resistant to a range of common automated attacks. Our study has shown that using an accelerometer and the gyroscope readings as an input to solve the CAPTCHA is difficult for malware, but easy for a real user. Gesture CAPTCHA is effective in differentiating between humans and machines.
Ababtain, Eman, Engels, Daniel.  2019.  Gestures Based CAPTCHAs the Use of Sensor Readings to Solve CAPTCHA Challenge on Smartphones. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :113—119.
We present novel CAPTCHA challenges based on user gestures designed for mobile. A gesture CAPTCHA challenge is a security mechanism to prevent malware from gaining access to network resources from mobile. Mobile devices contain a number of sensors that record the physical movement of the device. We utilized the accelerometer and gyroscope data as inputs to our novel CAPTCHAs to capture the physical manipulation of the device. We conducted an experimental study on a group of people. We discovered that younger people are able to solve this type of CAPTCHA challenges successfully in a short amount of time. We found that using accelerometer readings produces issues for some older people.
Yang, Bowen, Chen, Xiang, Xie, Jinsen, Li, Sugang, Zhang, Yanyong, Yang, Jian.  2019.  Multicast Design for the MobilityFirst Future Internet Architecture. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :88–93.
With the advent of fifth generation (5G) network and increasingly powerful mobile devices, people can conveniently obtain network resources wherever they are and whenever they want. However, the problem of mobility support in current network has not been adequately solved yet, especially in inter-domain mobile scenario, which leads to poor experience for mobile consumers. MobilityFirst is a clean slate future Internet architecture which adopts a clean separation between identity and network location. It provides new mechanisms to address the challenge of wireless access and mobility at scale. However, MobilityFirst lacks effective ways to deal with multicast service over mobile networks. In this paper, we design an efficient multicast mechanism based on MobilityFirst architecture and present the deployment in current network at scale. Furthermore, we propose a hierarchical multicast packet header with additional destinations to achieve low-cost dynamic multicast routing and provide solutions for both the multicast source and the multicast group members moving in intra- or inter-domain. Finally, we deploy a multicast prototype system to evaluate the performance of the proposed multicast mechanism.
Ishak, Muhammad Yusry Bin, Ahmad, Samsiah Binti, Zulkifli, Zalikha.  2019.  Iot Based Bluetooth Smart Radar Door System Via Mobile Apps. 2019 1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Data Sciences (AiDAS). :142—145.
{In the last few decades, Internet of things (IOT) is one of the key elements in industrial revolution 4.0 that used mart phones as one of the best technological advances' intelligent device. It allows us to have power over devices without people intervention, either remote or voice control. Therefore, the “Smart Radar Door “system uses a microcontroller and mobile Bluetooth module as an automation of smart door lock system. It is describing the improvement of a security system integrated with an Android mobile phone that uses Bluetooth as a wireless connection protocol and processing software as a tool in order to detect any object near to the door. The mob ile device is required a password as authentication method by using microcontroller to control lock and unlock door remotely. The Bluetooth protocol was chosen as a method of communication between microcontroller and mobile devices which integrated with many Android devices in secured protocol}.
Shi, Yang, Zhang, Qing, Liang, Jingwen, He, Zongjian, Fan, Hongfei.  2019.  Obfuscatable Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Mobile Crowd Sensing. IEEE Systems Journal. 13:2918—2929.
Mobile crowd sensing (MCS) is a rapidly developing technique for information collection from the users of mobile devices. This technique deals with participants' personal information such as their identities and locations, thus raising significant security and privacy concerns. Accordingly, anonymous authentication schemes have been widely considered for preserving participants' privacy in MCS. However, mobile devices are easy to lose and vulnerable to device capture attacks, which enables an attacker to extract the private authentication key of a mobile application and to further invade the user's privacy by linking sensed data with the user's identity. To address this issue, we have devised a special anonymous authentication scheme where the authentication request algorithm can be obfuscated into an unintelligible form and thus the authentication key is not explicitly used. This scheme not only achieves authenticity and unlinkability for participants, but also resists impersonation, replay, denial-of-service, man-in-the-middle, collusion, and insider attacks. The scheme's obfuscation algorithm is the first obfuscator for anonymous authentication, and it satisfies the average-case secure virtual black-box property. The scheme also supports batch verification of authentication requests for improving efficiency. Performance evaluations on a workstation and smart phones have indicated that our scheme works efficiently on various devices.
Routh, Caleb, DeCrescenzo, Brandon, Roy, Swapnoneel.  2018.  Attacks and vulnerability analysis of e-mail as a password reset point. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Mobile and Secure Services (MobiSecServ). :1—5.
In this work, we perform security analysis of using an e-mail as a self-service password reset point, and exploit some of the vulnerabilities of e-mail servers' forgotten password reset paths. We perform and illustrate three different attacks on a personal Email account, using a variety of tools such as: public knowledge attainable through social media or public records to answer security questions and execute a social engineering attack, hardware available to the public to perform a man in the middle attack, and free software to perform a brute-force attack on the login of the email account. Our results expose some of the inherent vulnerabilities in using emails as password reset points. The findings are extremely relevant to the security of mobile devices since users' trend has leaned towards usage of mobile devices over desktops for Internet access.
Aravindhar, D. John, Gino Sophia, S. G., Krishnan, Padmaveni, Kumar, D. Praveen.  2019.  Minimization of Black hole Attacks in AdHoc Networks using Risk Aware Response Mechanism. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :1391—1394.

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is the collection of mobile devices which could change the locations and configure themselves without a centralized base point. Mobile Ad hoc Networks are vulnerable to attacks due to its dynamic infrastructure. The routing attacks are one among the possible attacks that causes damage to MANET. This paper gives a new method of risk aware response technique which is combined version the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) algorithm. This can reduce black hole attacks. Dijkstra's algorithm finds the shortest path from the single source to the destination when the edges have positive weights. The DSDV is an improved version of the conventional technique by adding the sequence number and next hop address in each routing table.

He, Yongzhong, Zhao, Xiaojuan, Wang, Chao.  2019.  Privacy Mining of Large-scale Mobile Usage Data. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS). :81—86.
While enjoying the convenience brought by mobile phones, users have been exposed to high risk of private information leakage. It is known that many applications on mobile devices read private data and send them to remote servers. However how, when and in what scale the private data are leaked are not investigated systematically in the real-world scenario. In this paper, a framework is proposed to analyze the usage data from mobile devices and the traffic data from the mobile network and make a comprehensive privacy leakage detection and privacy inference mining on a large scale of realworld mobile data. Firstly, this paper sets up a training dataset and trains a privacy detection model on mobile traffic data. Then classical machine learning tools are used to discover private usage patterns. Based on our experiments and data analysis, it is found that i) a large number of private information is transmitted in plaintext, and even passwords are transmitted in plaintext by some applications, ii) more privacy types are leaked in Android than iOS, while GPS location is the most leaked privacy in both Android and iOS system, iii) the usage pattern is related to mobile device price. Through our experiments and analysis, it can be concluded that mobile privacy leakage is pervasive and serious.
Kellner, Ansgar, Horlboge, Micha, Rieck, Konrad, Wressnegger, Christian.  2019.  False Sense of Security: A Study on the Effectivity of Jailbreak Detection in Banking Apps. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :1—14.
People increasingly rely on mobile devices for banking transactions or two-factor authentication (2FA) and thus trust in the security provided by the underlying operating system. Simultaneously, jailbreaks gain tremendous popularity among regular users for customizing their devices. In this paper, we show that both do not go well together: Jailbreaks remove vital security mechanisms, which are necessary to ensure a trusted environment that allows to protect sensitive data, such as login credentials and transaction numbers (TANs). We find that all but one banking app, available in the iOS App Store, can be fully compromised by trivial means without reverse-engineering, manipulating the app, or other sophisticated attacks. Even worse, 44% of the banking apps do not even try to detect jailbreaks, revealing the prevalent, errant trust in the operating system's security. This study assesses the current state of security of banking apps and pleads for more advanced defensive measures for protecting user data.
Galuppo, Raúl Ignacio, Luna, Carlos, Betarte, Gustavo.  2018.  Security in iOS and Android: A Comparative Analysis. 2018 37th International Conference of the Chilean Computer Science Society (SCCC). :1–8.
This paper presents a detailed analysis of some relevant security features of iOS and Android -the two most popular operating systems for mobile devices- from the perspective of user privacy. In particular, permissions that can be modified at run time on these platforms are analyzed. Additionally, a framework is introduced for permission analysis, a hybrid mobile application that can run on both iOS and Android. The framework, which can be extended, places special emphasis on the relationship between the user's privacy and the permission system.
Si, Xiaolin, Wang, Pengpian, Zhang, Liwu.  2013.  KP-ABE Based Verifiable Cloud Access Control Scheme. 2013 12th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications. :34—41.

With the rapid development of mobile internet, mobile devices are requiring more complex authorization policy to ensure an secure access control on mobile data. However mobiles have limited resources (computing, storage, etc.) and are not suitable to execute complex operations. Cloud computing is an increasingly popular paradigm for accessing powerful computing resources. Intuitively we can solve that problem by moving the complex access control process to the cloud and implement a fine-grained access control relying on the powerful cloud. However the cloud computation may not be trusted, a crucial problem is how to verify the correctness of such computations. In this paper, we proposed a public verifiable cloud access control scheme based on Parno's public verifiable computation protocol. For the first time, we proposed the conception and concrete construction of verifiable cloud access control. Specifically, we firstly design a user private key revocable Key Policy Attribute Based Encryption (KP-ABE) scheme with non-monotonic access structure, which can be combined with the XACML policy perfectly. Secondly we convert the XACML policy into the access structure of KP-ABE. Finally we construct a security provable public verifiable cloud access control scheme based on the KP-ABE scheme we designed.

Cedillo, Priscila, Camacho, Jessica, Campos, Karina, Bermeo, Alexandra.  2019.  A Forensics Activity Logger to Extract User Activity from Mobile Devices. 2019 Sixth International Conference on eDemocracy eGovernment (ICEDEG). :286—290.

Nowadays, mobile devices have become one of the most popular instruments used by a person on its regular life, mainly due to the importance of their applications. In that context, mobile devices store user's personal information and even more data, becoming a personal tracker for daily activities that provides important information about the user. Derived from this gathering of information, many tools are available to use on mobile devices, with the restrain that each tool only provides isolated information about a specific application or activity. Therefore, the present work proposes a tool that allows investigators to obtain a complete report and timeline of the activities that were performed on the device. This report incorporates the information provided by many sources into a unique set of data. Also, by means of an example, it is presented the operation of the solution, which shows the feasibility in the use of this tool and shows the way in which investigators have to apply the tool.

Soualfi, Abderrahim Hajji, Agoujil, Said, Qaraai, Youssef.  2019.  Performance Analysis of OLSR Protocol under MPR Attack in Progressive Size Grid MANET. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM). :1–5.
Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) is a collection of mobile devices which interchange information without the use of predefined infrastructures or central administration. It is employed in many domains such as military and commercial sectors, data and sensors networks, low level applications, etc. The important constraints in this network are the limitation of bandwidth, processing capabilities and battery life. The choice of an effective routing protocol is primordial. From many routing protocols developed for MANET, OLSR protocol is a widely-used proactive routing protocol which diffuses topological information periodically. Thus, every node has a global vision of the entire network. The protocol assumes, like the other protocols, that the nodes cooperate in a trusted environment. So, all control messages are transmitted (HELLO messages) to all 1-hop neighbor nodes or broadcasted (TC and MID messages) to the entire network in clear. However, a node, which listens to OLSR control messages, can exploit this property to lead an attack. In this paper, we investigate on MultiPoint Relay (MPR) attack considered like one of the efficient OLSR attacks by using a simulation in progressive size gridMANET.
Liu, Xueqing.  2018.  Assisting the Development of Secure Mobile Apps with Natural Language Processing. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC). :279–280.
With the rapid growth of mobile devices and mobile apps, mobile has surpassed desktop and now has the largest worldwide market share [1]. While such growth brings in more opportunities, it also poses new challenges in security. Among the challenges, user privacy protection has drawn tremendous attention in recent years, especially after the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data scandal in April 2018 [2].
Gelil, Walid Abdel, Kunz, Thomas.  2019.  A Hierarchical P2P Overlay for Hierarchical Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). 2019 IEEE 10th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0640–0646.
P2P applications deployment on MANETs is motivated by the popularity of these applications, coupled with the widespread use of mobile devices. P2P applications and MANETs have common features such as decentralization, self organization, and the absence of dedicated servers or infrastructure. The deployment often faces specific performance challenges resulting from topological overlay and underlay mismatch, limited bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology changes. Hierarchical MANETs are a special type of MANETs where some nodes have specific routing roles to allow inter- cluster communications. Such topologies (typical for tactical networks) render a successful P2P deployment more challenging. We developed a novel approach for P2P deployment in such networks by bringing topology-awareness into the overlay, mapping the underlay topology (structure) to the logical overlay and building a hierarchically-structured logical overlay on top of the hierarchical underlay. Simulation results demonstrated a significant performance advantage of our proposed deployment solution vs. a flat logical overlay using different configurations and mobility scenarios.