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Guo, T., Zhou, R., Tian, C..  2020.  On the Information Leakage in Private Information Retrieval Systems. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 15:2999—3012.
We consider information leakage to the user in private information retrieval (PIR) systems. Information leakage can be measured in terms of individual message leakage or total leakage. Individual message leakage, or simply individual leakage, is defined as the amount of information that the user can obtain on any individual message that is not being requested, and the total leakage is defined as the amount of information that the user can obtain about all the other messages except the one being requested. In this work, we characterize the tradeoff between the minimum download cost and the individual leakage, and that for the total leakage, respectively. Coding schemes are proposed to achieve these optimal tradeoffs, which are also shown to be optimal in terms of the message size. We further characterize the optimal tradeoff between the minimum amount of common randomness and the total leakage. Moreover, we show that under individual leakage, common randomness is in fact unnecessary when there are more than two messages.
Levina, A., Kamnev, I., Zikratov, I..  2020.  Implementation White Box Cryptography in Substitution-Permutation network. 2020 9th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). :1—3.

Advances in technology have led not only to increased security and privacy but also to new channels of information leakage. New leak channels have resulted in the emergence of increased relevance of various types of attacks. One such attacks are Side-Channel Attacks, i.e. attacks aimed to find vulnerabilities in the practical component of the algorithm. However, with the development of these types of attacks, methods of protection against them have also appeared. One of such methods is White-Box Cryptography.

Amada, N., Yagi, H..  2020.  The Minimum Cost of Information Erasure for Stationary Memoryless Sources under Restriction on the Output Distribution. 2020 54th Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1—6.
In order to erase data including confidential in-formation stored in storage devices, an unrelated and random sequence is usually overwritten, which prevents the data from being restored. The problem of minimizing the cost for information erasure when the amount of information leakage of the confidential information should be less than or equal to a constant asymptotically has been introduced by T. Matsuta and T. Uyematsu. Whereas the minimum cost for overwriting has been given for general sources, a single-letter characterization for stationary memoryless sources is not easily derived. In this paper, we give single-letter characterizations for stationary memoryless sources under two types of restrictions: one requires the output distribution of the encoder to be independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) and the other requires it to be memoryless but not necessarily i.i.d. asymptotically. The characterizations indicate the relation among the amount of information leakage, the minimum cost for information erasure and the rate of the size of uniformly distributed sequences. The obtained results show that the minimum costs are different between these restrictions.
Sreekumari, P..  2018.  Privacy-Preserving Keyword Search Schemes over Encrypted Cloud Data: An Extensive Analysis. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE International Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :114–120.
Big Data has rapidly developed into a hot research topic in many areas that attracts attention from academia and industry around the world. Many organization demands efficient solution to store, process, analyze and search huge amount of information. With the rapid development of cloud computing, organization prefers cloud storage services to reduce the overhead of storing data locally. However, the security and privacy of big data in cloud computing is a major source of concern. One of the positive ways of protecting data is encrypting it before outsourcing to remote servers, but the encrypted significant amounts of cloud data brings difficulties for the remote servers to perform any keyword search functions without leaking information. Various privacy-preserving keyword search (PPKS) schemes have been proposed to mitigate the privacy issue of big data encrypted on cloud storage. This paper presents an extensive analysis of the existing PPKS techniques in terms of verifiability, efficiency and data privacy. Through this analysis, we present some valuable directions for future work.
Chen, Lvhao, Liao, Xiaofeng, Mu, Nankun, Wu, Jiahui, Junqing, Junqing.  2019.  Privacy-Preserving Fuzzy Multi-Keyword Search for Multiple Data Owners in Cloud Computing. 2019 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :2166–2171.
With cloud computing's development, more users are decide to store information on the cloud server. Owing to the cloud server's insecurity, many documents should be encrypted to avoid information leakage before being sent to the cloud. Nevertheless, it leads to the problem that plaintext search techniques can not be directly applied to the ciphertext search. In this case, many searchable encryption schemes based on single data owner model have been proposed. But, the actual situation is that users want to do research with encrypted documents originating from various data owners. This paper puts forward a privacy-preserving scheme that is based on fuzzy multi-keyword search (PPFMKS) for multiple data owners. For the sake of espousing fuzzy multi-keyword and accurate search, secure indexes on the basis of Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) and Bloom Filter (BF)are established. To guarantee the search privacy under multiple data owners model, a new encryption method allowing that different data owners have diverse keys to encrypt files is proposed. This method also solves the high cost caused by inconvenience of key management.
Li, Ge, Iyer, Vishnuvardhan, Orshansky, Michael.  2019.  Securing AES against Localized EM Attacks through Spatial Randomization of Dataflow. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :191—197.
A localized electromagnetic (EM) attack is a potent threat to security of embedded cryptographic implementations. The attack utilizes high resolution EM probes to localize and exploit information leakage in sub-circuits of a system, providing information not available in traditional EM and power attacks. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure based on randomizing the assignment of sensitive data to parallel datapath components in a high-performance implementation of AES. In contrast to a conventional design where each state register byte is routed to a fixed S-box, a permutation network, controlled by a transient random value, creates a dynamic random mapping between the state registers and the set of S-boxes. This randomization results in a significant reduction of exploitable leakage.We demonstrate the countermeasure's effectiveness under two attack scenarios: a more powerful attack that assumes a fully controlled access to an attacked implementation for building a priori EM-profiles, and a generic attack based on the black-box model. Spatial randomization leads to a 150× increase of the minimum traces to disclosure (MTD) for the profiled attack and a 3.25× increase of MTD for the black-box model attack.
Guri, Mordechai.  2019.  HOTSPOT: Crossing the Air-Gap Between Isolated PCs and Nearby Smartphones Using Temperature. 2019 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC). :94—100.
Air-gapped computers are hermetically isolated from the Internet to eliminate any means of information leakage. In this paper we present HOTSPOT - a new type of airgap crossing technique. Signals can be sent secretly from air-gapped computers to nearby smartphones and then on to the Internet - in the form of thermal pings. The thermal signals are generated by the CPUs and GPUs and intercepted by a nearby smartphone. We examine this covert channel and discuss other work in the field of air-gap covert communication channels. We present technical background and describe thermal sensing in modern smartphones. We implement a transmitter on the computer side and a receiver Android App on the smartphone side, and discuss the implementation details. We evaluate the covert channel and tested it in a typical work place. Our results show that it possible to send covert signals from air-gapped PCs to the attacker on the Internet through the thermal pings. We also propose countermeasures for this type of covert channel which has thus far been overlooked.
Kundu, M. K., Shabab, S., Badrudduza, A. S. M..  2019.  Information Theoretic Security over α-µ/α-µ Composite Multipath Fading Channel. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications and Photonics (ICTP). :1—4.

Multipath fading as well as shadowing is liable for the leakage of confidential information from the wireless channels. In this paper a solution to this information leakage is proposed, where a source transmits signal through a α-μ/α-μ composite fading channel considering an eavesdropper is present in the system. Secrecy enhancement is investigated with the help of two fading parameters α and μ. To mitigate the impacts of shadowing a α-μ distribution is considered whose mean is another α-μ distribution which helps to moderate the effects multipath fading. The mathematical expressions of some secrecy matrices such as the probability of non-zero secrecy capacity and the secure outage probability are obtained in closed-form to analyze security of the wireless channel in light of the channel parameters. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations are provided to justify the correctness of the derived expressions.

Wang, Jian, Guo, Shize, Chen, Zhe, Zhang, Tao.  2019.  A Benchmark Suite of Hardware Trojans for On-Chip Networks. IEEE Access. 7:102002—102009.
As recently studied, network-on-chip (NoC) suffers growing threats from hardware trojans (HTs), leading to performance degradation or information leakage when it provides communication service in many/multi-core systems. Therefore, defense techniques against NoC HTs experience rapid development in recent years. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are few standard benchmarks developed for the defense techniques evaluation. To address this issue, in this paper, we design a suite of benchmarks which involves multiple NoCs with different HTs, so that researchers can compare various HT defense methods fairly by making use of them. We first briefly introduce the features of target NoC and its infected modules in our benchmarks, and then, detail the design of our NoC HTs in a one-by-one manner. Finally, we evaluate our benchmarks through extensive simulations and report the circuit cost of NoC HTs in terms of area and power consumption, as well as their effects on NoC performance. Besides, comprehensive experiments, including functional testing and side channel analysis are performed to assess the stealthiness of our HTs.
Niu, Yukun, Tan, Xiaobin, Zhou, Zifei, Zheng, Jiangyu, Zhu, Jin.  2013.  Privacy Protection Scheme in Smart Grid Using Rechargeable Battery. Proceedings of the 32nd Chinese Control Conference. :8825–8830.

It can get the user's privacy and home energy use information by analyzing the user's electrical load information in smart grid, and this is an area of concern. A rechargeable battery may be used in the home network to protect user's privacy. In this paper, the battery can neither charge nor discharge, and the power of battery is adjustable, at the same time, we model the real user's electrical load information and the battery power information and the recorded electrical power of smart meters which are processed with discrete way. Then we put forward a heuristic algorithm which can make the rate of information leakage less than existing solutions. We use statistical methods to protect user's privacy, the theoretical analysis and the examples show that our solution makes the scene design more reasonable and is more effective than existing solutions to avoid the leakage of the privacy.

Karvelas, Nikolaos P., Treiber, Amos, Katzenbeisser, Stefan.  2018.  Examining Leakage of Access Counts in ORAM Constructions. Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society. :66-70.

Oblivious RAM is a cryptographic primitive that embodies one of the cornerstones of privacy-preserving technologies for database protection. While any Oblivious RAM (ORAM) construction offers access pattern hiding, there does not seem to be a construction that is safe against the potential leakage due to knowledge about the number of accesses performed by a client. Such leakage constitutes a privacy violation, as client data may be stored in a domain specific fashion. In this work, we examine this leakage by considering an adversary that can probe the server that stores an ORAM database, and who takes regular snapshots of it. We show that even against such a weak adversary, no major ORAM architecture is resilient, except for the trivial case, where the client scans the whole database in order to access a single element. In fact, we argue that constructing a non-trivial ORAM that is formally resilient seems impossible. Moreover, we quantify the leakage of different constructions to show which architecture offers the best privacy in practice.

Belozubova, A., Epishkina, A., Kogos, K..  2018.  Dummy Traffic Generation to Limit Timing Covert Channels. 2018 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :1472-1476.

Covert channels are used to hidden transmit information and violate the security policy. What is more it is possible to construct covert channel in such manner that protection system is not able to detect it. IP timing covert channels are objects for research in the article. The focus of the paper is the research of how one can counteract an information leakage by dummy traffic generation. The covert channel capacity formula has been obtained in case of counteraction. In conclusion, the examples of counteraction tool parameter calculation are given.

Futagami, Shota, Unoki, Tomoya, Kourai, Kenichi.  2018.  Secure Out-of-Band Remote Management of Virtual Machines with Transparent Passthrough. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :430–440.

Infrastructure-as-a-Service clouds provide out-of-band remote management for users to access their virtual machines (VMs). Out-of-band remote management is a method for indirectly accessing VMs via their virtual devices. While virtual devices running in the virtualized system are managed by cloud operators, not all cloud operators are always trusted in clouds. To prevent information leakage from virtual devices and tampering with their I/O data, several systems have been proposed by trusting the hypervisor in the virtualized system. However, they have various issues on security and management. This paper proposes VSBypass, which enables secure out-of-band remote management outside the virtualized system using a technique called transparent passthrough. VSBypass runs the entire virtualized system in an outer VM using nested virtualization. Then it intercepts I/O requests of out-of-band remote management and processes those requests in shadow devices, which run outside the virtualized system. We have implemented VSBypass in Xen for the virtual serial console and GUI remote access. We confirmed that information leakage was prevented and that the performance was comparable to that in traditional out-of-band remote management.

Wang, Y., Zhang, L..  2017.  High Security Orthogonal Factorized Channel Scrambling Scheme with Location Information Embedded for MIMO-Based VLC System. 2017 IEEE 85th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring). :1–5.
The broadcast nature of visible light beam has aroused great concerns about the privacy and confidentiality of visible light communication (VLC) systems.In this paper, in order to enhance the physical layer security, we propose a channel scrambling scheme, which realizes orthogonal factorized channel scrambling with location information embedded (OFCS-LIE) for the VLC systems. We firstly embed the location information of the legitimate user, including the transmission angle and the distance, into a location information embedded (LIE) matrix, then the LIE matrix is factorized orthogonally in order that the LIE matrix is approximately uncorrelated to the multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) channels by the iterative orthogonal factorization method, where the iteration number is determined based on the orthogonal error. The resultant OFCS-LIE matrix is approximately orthogonal and used to enhance both the reliability and the security of information transmission. Furthermore, we derive the information leakage at the eavesdropper and the secrecy capacity to analyze the system security. Simulations are performed, and the results demonstrate that with the aid of the OFCS-LIE scheme, MIMO-based VLC system has achieved higher security when compared with the counterpart scrambling scheme and the system without scrambling.
Zhang, Ruide, Zhang, Ning, Du, Changlai, Lou, Wenjing, Hou, Y. Thomas, Kawamoto, Yuichi.  2017.  From Electromyogram to Password: Exploring the Privacy Impact of Wearables in Augmented Reality. ACM Trans. Intell. Syst. Technol.. 9:13:1–13:20.

With the increasing popularity of augmented reality (AR) services, providing seamless human-computer interactions in the AR setting has received notable attention in the industry. Gesture control devices have recently emerged to be the next great gadgets for AR due to their unique ability to enable computer interaction with day-to-day gestures. While these AR devices are bringing revolutions to our interaction with the cyber world, it is also important to consider potential privacy leakages from these always-on wearable devices. Specifically, the coarse access control on current AR systems could lead to possible abuse of sensor data. Although the always-on gesture sensors are frequently quoted as a privacy concern, there has not been any study on information leakage of these devices. In this article, we present our study on side-channel information leakage of the most popular gesture control device, Myo. Using signals recorded from the electromyography (EMG) sensor and accelerometers on Myo, we can recover sensitive information such as passwords typed on a keyboard and PIN sequence entered through a touchscreen. EMG signal records subtle electric currents of muscle contractions. We design novel algorithms based on dynamic cumulative sum and wavelet transform to determine the exact time of finger movements. Furthermore, we adopt the Hudgins feature set in a support vector machine to classify recorded signal segments into individual fingers or numbers. We also apply coordinate transformation techniques to recover fine-grained spatial information with low-fidelity outputs from the sensor in keystroke recovery. We evaluated the information leakage using data collected from a group of volunteers. Our results show that there is severe privacy leakage from these commodity wearable sensors. Our system recovers complex passwords constructed with lowercase letters, uppercase letters, numbers, and symbols with a mean success rate of 91%.

Hartl, Alexander, Annessi, Robert, Zseby, Tanja.  2017.  A Subliminal Channel in EdDSA: Information Leakage with High-Speed Signatures. Proceedings of the 2017 International Workshop on Managing Insider Security Threats. :67–78.
Subliminal channels in digital signatures provide a very effective method to clandestinely leak information from inside a system to a third party outside. Information can be hidden in signature parameters in a way that both network operators and legitimate receivers would not notice any suspicious traces. Subliminal channels have previously been discovered in other signatures, such as ElGamal and ECDSA. Those signatures are usually just sparsely exchanged in network protocols, e.g. during authentication, and their usability for leaking information is therefore limited. With the advent of high-speed signatures such as EdDSA, however, scenarios become feasible where numerous packets with individual signatures are transferred between communicating parties. This significantly increases the bandwidth for transmitting subliminal information. Examples are broadcast clock synchronization or signed sensor data export. A subliminal channel in signatures appended to numerous packets allows the transmission of a high amount of hidden information, suitable for large scale data exfiltration or even the operation of command and control structures. In this paper, we show the existence of a broadband subliminal channel in the EdDSA signature scheme. We then discuss the implications of the subliminal channel in practice using thee different scenarios: broadcast clock synchronization, signed sensor data export, and classic TLS. We perform several experiments to show the use of the subliminal channel and measure the actual bandwidth of the subliminal information that can be leaked. We then discuss the applicability of different countermeasures against subliminal channels from other signature schemes to EdDSA but conclude that none of the existing solutions can sufficiently protect against data exfiltration in network protocols secured by EdDSA.
Vassena, M., Breitner, J., Russo, A..  2017.  Securing Concurrent Lazy Programs Against Information Leakage. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :37–52.
Many state-of-the-art information-flow control (IFC) tools are implemented as Haskell libraries. A distinctive feature of this language is lazy evaluation. In his influencal paper on why functional programming matters, John Hughes proclaims:,,Lazy evaluation is perhaps the most powerful tool for modularization in the functional programmer's repertoire.,,Unfortunately, lazy evaluation makes IFC libraries vulnerable to leaks via the internal timing covert channel. The problem arises due to sharing, the distinguishing feature of lazy evaluation, which ensures that results of evaluated terms are stored for subsequent re-utilization. In this sense, the evaluation of a term in a high context represents a side-effect that eludes the security mechanisms of the libraries. A naïve approach to prevent that consists in forcing the evaluation of terms before entering a high context. However, this is not always possible in lazy languages, where terms often denote infinite data structures. Instead, we propose a new language primitive, lazyDup, which duplicates terms lazily. By using lazyDup to duplicate terms manipulated in high contexts, we make the security library MAC robust against internal timing leaks via lazy evaluation. We show that well-typed programs satisfy progress-sensitive non-interference in our lazy calculus with non-strict references. Our security guarantees are supported by mechanized proofs in the Agda proof assistant.
Zabib, D. Z., Levi, I., Fish, A., Keren, O..  2017.  Secured Dual-Rail-Precharge Mux-based (DPMUX) symmetric-logic for low voltage applications. 2017 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (S3S). :1–2.

Hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms may leak information through numerous side channels, which can be used to reveal the secret cryptographic keys, and therefore compromise the security of the algorithm. Power Analysis Attacks (PAAs) [1] exploit the information leakage from the device's power consumption (typically measured on the supply and/or ground pins). Digital circuits consume dynamic switching energy when data propagate through the logic in each new calculation (e.g. new clock cycle). The average power dissipation of a design can be expressed by: Ptot(t) = α · (Pd(t) + Ppvt(t)) (1) where α is the activity factor (the probability that the gate will switch) and depends on the probability distribution of the inputs to the combinatorial logic. This induces a linear relationship between the power and the processed data [2]. Pd is the deterministic power dissipated by the switching of the gate, including any parasitic and intrinsic capacitances, and hence can be evaluated prior to manufacturing. Ppvt is the change in expected power consumption due to nondeterministic parameters such as process variations, mismatch, temperature, etc. In this manuscript, we describe the design of logic gates that induce data-independent (constant) α and Pd.

Shahriar, H., Bond, W..  2017.  Towards an Attack Signature Generation Framework for Intrusion Detection Systems. 2017 IEEE 15th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 15th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 3rd Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :597–603.
Attacks on web services are major concerns and can expose organizations valuable information resources. Despite there are increasing awareness in secure programming, we still find vulnerabilities in web services. To protect deployed web services, it is important to have defense techniques. Signaturebased Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) have gained popularity to protect applications against attacks. However, signature IDSs have limited number of attack signatures. In this paper, we propose a Genetic Algorithm (GA)-based attack signature generation approach and show its application for web services. GA algorithm has the capability of generating new member from a set of initial population. We leverage this by generating new attack signatures at SOAP message level to overcome the challenge of limited number of attack signatures. The key contributions include defining chromosomes and fitness functions. The initial results show that the GA-based IDS can generate new signatures and complement the limitation of existing web security testing tools. The approach can generate new attack signatures for injection, privilege escalation, denial of service and information leakage.
Neuner, Sebastian, Voyiatzis, Artemios G., Schmiedecker, Martin, Weippl, Edgar R..  2017.  Timestamp Hiccups: Detecting Manipulated Filesystem Timestamps on NTFS. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :33:1–33:6.

Redundant capacity in filesystem timestamps is recently proposed in the literature as an effective means for information hiding and data leakage. Here, we evaluate the steganographic capabilities of such channels and propose techniques to aid digital forensics investigation towards identifying and detecting manipulated filesystem timestamps. Our findings indicate that different storage media and interfaces exhibit different timestamp creation patterns. Such differences can be utilized to characterize file source media and increase the analysis capabilities of the incident response process.

Will, M. A., Ko, R. K. L., Schlickmann, S. J..  2017.  Anonymous Data Sharing Between Organisations with Elliptic Curve Cryptography. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :1024–1031.

Promoting data sharing between organisations is challenging, without the added concerns over having actions traced. Even with encrypted search capabilities, the entities digital location and downloaded information can be traced, leaking information to the hosting organisation. This is a problem for law enforcement and government agencies, where any information leakage is not acceptable, especially for investigations. Anonymous routing is a technique to stop a host learning which agency is accessing information. Many related works for anonymous routing have been proposed, but are designed for Internet traffic, and are over complicated for internal usage. A streaming design for circuit creation is proposed using elliptic curve cryptography. Allowing for a simple anonymous routing solution, which provides fast performance with source and destination anonymity to other organisations.

Immler, Vincent, Hennig, Maxim, Kürzinger, Ludwig, Sigl, Georg.  2016.  Practical Aspects of Quantization and Tamper-Sensitivity for Physically Obfuscated Keys. Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Cryptography and Security in Computing Systems. :13–18.

This work deals with key generation based on Physically Obfuscated Keys (POKs), i.e., a certain type of tamper-evident Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) that can be used as protection against invasive physical attacks. To design a protected device, one must take attacks such as probing of data lines or penetration of the physical security boundary into consideration. For the implementation of a POK as a countermeasure, physical properties of a material – which covers all parts to be protected – are measured. After measuring these properties, i.e. analog values, they have to be quantized in order to derive a cryptographic key. This paper will present and discuss the impact of the quantization method with regard to three parameters: key quality, tamper-sensitivity, and reliability. Our contribution is the analysis of two different quantization schemes considering these parameters. Foremost, we propose a new approach to achieve improved tamper-sensitivity in the worst-case with no information leakage. We then analyze a previous solution and compare it to our scenario. Based on empirical data we demonstrate the advantages of our approach. This significantly improves the level of protection of a tamper-resistant cryptographic device compared to cases not benefiting from our scheme.

Sayed, B., Traore, I..  2014.  Protection against Web 2.0 Client-Side Web Attacks Using Information Flow Control. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :261-268.

The dynamic nature of the Web 2.0 and the heavy obfuscation of web-based attacks complicate the job of the traditional protection systems such as Firewalls, Anti-virus solutions, and IDS systems. It has been witnessed that using ready-made toolkits, cyber-criminals can launch sophisticated attacks such as cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF) and botnets to name a few. In recent years, cyber-criminals have targeted legitimate websites and social networks to inject malicious scripts that compromise the security of the visitors of such websites. This involves performing actions using the victim browser without his/her permission. This poses the need to develop effective mechanisms for protecting against Web 2.0 attacks that mainly target the end-user. In this paper, we address the above challenges from information flow control perspective by developing a framework that restricts the flow of information on the client-side to legitimate channels. The proposed model tracks sensitive information flow and prevents information leakage from happening. The proposed model when applied to the context of client-side web-based attacks is expected to provide a more secure browsing environment for the end-user.

Skarmeta, A.F., Hernández-Ramos, J.L., Moreno, M.V..  2014.  A decentralized approach for security and privacy challenges in the Internet of Things. Internet of Things (WF-IoT), 2014 IEEE World Forum on. :67-72.

The strong development of the Internet of Things (IoT) is dramatically changing traditional perceptions of the current Internet towards an integrated vision of smart objects interacting with each other. While in recent years many technological challenges have already been solved through the extension and adaptation of wireless technologies, security and privacy still remain as the main barriers for the IoT deployment on a broad scale. In this emerging paradigm, typical scenarios manage particularly sensitive data, and any leakage of information could severely damage the privacy of users. This paper provides a concise description of some of the major challenges related to these areas that still need to be overcome in the coming years for a full acceptance of all IoT stakeholders involved. In addition, we propose a distributed capability-based access control mechanism which is built on public key cryptography in order to cope with some of these challenges. Specifically, our solution is based on the design of a lightweight token used for access to CoAP Resources, and an optimized implementation of the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) inside the smart object. The results obtained from our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal and show promising in order to cover more complex scenarios in the future, as well as its application in specific IoT use cases.

Sayed, B., Traore, I..  2014.  Protection against Web 2.0 Client-Side Web Attacks Using Information Flow Control. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :261-268.

The dynamic nature of the Web 2.0 and the heavy obfuscation of web-based attacks complicate the job of the traditional protection systems such as Firewalls, Anti-virus solutions, and IDS systems. It has been witnessed that using ready-made toolkits, cyber-criminals can launch sophisticated attacks such as cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF) and botnets to name a few. In recent years, cyber-criminals have targeted legitimate websites and social networks to inject malicious scripts that compromise the security of the visitors of such websites. This involves performing actions using the victim browser without his/her permission. This poses the need to develop effective mechanisms for protecting against Web 2.0 attacks that mainly target the end-user. In this paper, we address the above challenges from information flow control perspective by developing a framework that restricts the flow of information on the client-side to legitimate channels. The proposed model tracks sensitive information flow and prevents information leakage from happening. The proposed model when applied to the context of client-side web-based attacks is expected to provide a more secure browsing environment for the end-user.