Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-08-03
Zhang, Yan, Li, Bing, Wang, Yazhou, Wu, Jiaxin, Yuan, Pengwei.  2020.  A Blockchain-based User Remote Autentication Scheme in IoT Systems Using Physical Unclonable Functions. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :1100—1105.
Achieving efficient and secure accesses to real-time information from the designated IoT node is the fundamental key requirement for the applications of the Internet of Things. However, IoT nodes are prone to physical attacks, public channels reveal the sensitive information, and gateways that manage the IoT nodes suffer from the single-point failure, thereby causing the security and privacy problems. In this paper, a blockchain-based user remote authentication scheme using physical unclonable functions (PUFs) is proposed to overcome these problems. The PUFs provide physically secure identities for the IoT nodes and the blockchain acts as a distributed database to manage the key materials reliably for gateways. The security analysis is conducted and shows that our scheme realizes reliable security features and resists various attacks. Furthermore, a prototype was implemented to prove our scheme is efficient, scalable, and suitable for IoT scenarios.
2021-01-20
Focardi, R., Luccio, F. L..  2020.  Automated Analysis of PUF-based Protocols. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :304—317.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are a promising technology to secure low-cost devices. A PUF is a function whose values depend on the physical characteristics of the underlying hardware: the same PUF implemented on two identical integrated circuits will return different values. Thus, a PUF can be used as a unique fingerprint identifying one specific physical device among (apparently) identical copies that run the same firmware on the same hardware. PUFs, however, are tricky to implement, and a number of attacks have been reported in the literature, often due to wrong assumptions about the provided security guarantees and/or the attacker model. In this paper, we present the first mechanized symbolic model for PUFs that allows for precisely reasoning about their security with respect to a variegate set of attackers. We consider mutual authentication protocols based on different kinds of PUFs and model attackers that are able to access PUF values stored on servers, abuse the PUF APIs, model the PUF behavior and exploit error correction data to reproduce the PUF values. We prove security properties and we formally specify the capabilities required by the attacker to break them. Our analysis points out various subtleties, and allows for a systematic comparison between different PUF-based protocols. The mechanized models are easily extensible and can be automatically checked with the Tamarin prover.

2021-01-18
Barbareschi, M., Barone, S., Mazzeo, A., Mazzocca, N..  2019.  Efficient Reed-Muller Implementation for Fuzzy Extractor Schemes. 2019 14th International Conference on Design Technology of Integrated Systems In Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–2.
Nowadays, physical tampering and counterfeiting of electronic devices are still an important security problem and have a great impact on large-scale and distributed applications, such as Internet-of-Things. Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have the potential to be a fundamental means to guarantee intrinsic hardware security, since they promise immunity against most of known attack models. However, inner nature of PUF circuits hinders a wider adoption since responses turn out to be noisy and not stable during time. To overcome this issue, most of PUF implementations require a fuzzy extraction scheme, able to recover responses stability by exploiting error correction codes (ECCs). In this paper, we propose a Reed-Muller (RM) ECC design, meant to be embedded into a fuzzy extractor, that can be efficiently configured in terms of area/delay constraints in order to get reliable responses from PUFs. We provide implementation details and experimental evidences of area/delay efficiency through syntheses on medium-range FPGA device.
2020-12-07
Hamadeh, H., Tyagi, A..  2019.  Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) Entangled Trusted Computing Base. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :177–180.
The center-piece of this work is a software measurement physical unclonable function (PUF). It measures processor chip ALU silicon biometrics in a manner similar to all PUFs. Additionally, it composes the silicon measurement with the data-dependent delay of a particular program instruction in a way that is difficult to decompose through a mathematical model. This approach ensures that each software instruction is measured if computed. The SW-PUF measurements bind the execution of software to a specific processor with a corresponding certificate. This makes the SW-PUF a promising candidate for applications requiring Trusted Computing. For instance, it could measure the integrity of an execution path by generating a signature that is unique to the specific program execution path and the processor chip. We present an area and energy-efficient scheme based on the SW-PUF to provide a more robust root of trust for measurement than the existing trusted platform module (TPM). To explore the feasibility of the proposed design, the SW-PUF has been implemented in HSPICE using 45 nm technology and evaluated on the FPGA platform.
2020-07-20
Marakis, Evangelos, van Harten, Wouter, Uppu, Ravitej, Vos, Willem L., Pinkse, Pepijn W. H..  2017.  Reproducibility of artificial multiple scattering media. 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC). :1–1.
Summary form only given. Authentication of people or objects using physical keys is insecure against secret duplication. Physical unclonable functions (PUF) are special physical keys that are assumed to be unclonable due to the large number of degrees of freedom in their manufacturing [1]. Opaque scattering media, such as white paint and teeth, comprise of millions of nanoparticles in a random arrangement. Under coherent light illumination, the multiple scattering from these nanoparticles gives rise to a complex interference resulting in a speckle pattern. The speckle pattern is seemingly random but highly sensitive to the exact position and size of the nanoparticles in the given piece of opaque scattering medium [2], thereby realizing an ideal optical PUF. These optical PUFs enabled applications such as quantum-secure authentication (QSA) and communication [3, 4].
2020-04-24
Balijabudda, Venkata Sreekanth, Thapar, Dhruv, Santikellur, Pranesh, Chakraborty, Rajat Subhra, Chakrabarti, Indrajit.  2019.  Design of a Chaotic Oscillator based Model Building Attack Resistant Arbiter PUF. 2019 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1—6.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are vulnerable to various modelling attacks. The chaotic behaviour of oscillating systems can be leveraged to improve their security against these attacks. We have integrated an Arbiter PUF implemented on a FPGA with Chua's oscillator circuit to obtain robust final responses. These responses are tested against conventional Machine Learning and Deep Learning attacks for verifying security of the design. It has been found that such a design is robust with prediction accuracy of nearly 50%. Moreover, the quality of the PUF architecture is evaluated for uniformity and uniqueness metrics and Monte Carlo analysis at varying temperatures is performed for determining reliability.

2020-04-06
Chin, Paul, Cao, Yuan, Zhao, Xiaojin, Zhang, Leilei, Zhang, Fan.  2019.  Locking Secret Data in the Vault Leveraging Fuzzy PUFs. 2019 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1–6.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are considered as an attractive low-cost security anchor. The unique features of PUFs are dependent on the Nanoscale variations introduced during the manufacturing variations. Most PUFs exhibit an unreliability problem due to aging and inherent sensitivity to the environmental conditions. As a remedy to the reliability issue, helper data algorithms are used in practice. A helper data algorithm generates and stores the helper data in the enrollment phase in a secure environment. The generated helper data are used then for error correction, which can transform the unique feature of PUFs into a reproducible key. The key can be used to encrypt secret data in the security scheme. In contrast, this work shows that the fuzzy PUFs can be used to secret important data directly by an error-tolerant protocol without the enrollment phase and error-correction algorithm. In our proposal, the secret data is locked in a vault leveraging the unique fuzzy pattern of PUF. Although the noise exists, the data can then be released only by this unique PUF. The evaluation was performed on the most prominent intrinsic PUF - DRAM PUF. The test results demonstrate that our proposal can reach an acceptable reconstruction rate in various environment. Finally, the security analysis of the new proposal is discussed.

2019-12-09
Nozaki, Yusuke, Yoshikawa, Masaya.  2018.  Area Constraint Aware Physical Unclonable Function for Intelligence Module. 2018 3rd International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Applications (ICCIA). :205-209.

Artificial intelligence technology such as neural network (NN) is widely used in intelligence module for Internet of Things (IoT). On the other hand, the risk of illegal attacks for IoT devices is pointed out; therefore, security countermeasures such as an authentication are very important. In the field of hardware security, the physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have been attracted attention as authentication techniques to prevent the semiconductor counterfeits. However, implementation of the dedicated hardware for both of NN and PUF increases circuit area. Therefore, this study proposes a new area constraint aware PUF for intelligence module. The proposed PUF utilizes the propagation delay time from input layer to output layer of NN. To share component for operation, the proposed PUF reduces the circuit area. Experiments using a field programmable gate array evaluate circuit area and PUF performance. In the result of circuit area, the proposed PUF was smaller than the conventional PUFs was showed. Then, in the PUF performance evaluation, for steadiness, diffuseness, and uniqueness, favorable results were obtained.

2019-09-11
Khuchit, Uyangaa, Bai, Yonghong, Wu, Liji, Zhang, Xiangmin.  2018.  An Improved Cross-Coupled NAND Gates PUF for Bank IC Card. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy. :150–153.

This paper presents some verifications and improved considerations of NAND PUF, which was introduced recently [1]. For embedded system such as IC cards, the secret data in memory is vulnerable, so it has to be encrypted and secured. PUF circuit is sensitive to environmental condition, especially in the temperature range influences and variations of current and voltages. This proposed bank IC card would be operated in AB class standard, i.e. voltage would be constant except for power mode changing. Nevertheless, operational temperatures may vary such as the situation of outdoor ATM. Thus, this paper presented some results of our PUF work in Cadence, also on FPGA board. Around 5ns is spent for stabilization of our PUF output that is under variance temperature when power mode changes. Inter Hamming distances is 48.9%, very near to uniqueness and robustness value, that our PUF is feasible to use in bankcard. The maximum error rates are HDintra(0$^\circ$C) = 3.9961 and HDintra(80$^\circ$C) = 3.9916 where at antipoles, while the minimum error rate is HDintra(20$^\circ$C) = 2.9 at room temperature. For improvement, Repetition, LDPC and SEC-DED codes are considered that would eliminate error rates.

2019-02-08
Wang, Qian, Gao, Mingze, Qu, Gang.  2018.  A Machine Learning Attack Resistant Dual-Mode PUF. Proceedings of the 2018 on Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI. :177-182.

Silicon Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is arguably the most promising hardware security primitive. In particular, PUFs that are capable of generating a large amount of challenge response pairs (CRPs) can be used in many security applications. However, these CRPs can also be exploited by machine learning attacks to model the PUF and predict its response. In this paper, we first show that, based on data in the public domain, two popular PUFs that can generate CRPs (i.e., arbiter PUF and reconfigurable ring oscillator (RO) PUF) can be broken by simple logistic regression (LR) attack with about 99% accuracy. We then propose a feedback structure to XOR the PUF response with the challenge and challenge the PUF again to generate the response. Results show that this successfully reduces LR's learning accuracy to the lower 50%, but artificial neural network (ANN) learning attack still has an 80% success rate. Therefore, we propose a configurable ring oscillator based dual-mode PUF which works with both odd number of inverters (like the reconfigurable RO PUF) and even number of inverters (like a bistable ring (BR) PUF). Since currently there are no known attacks that can model both RO PUF and BR PUF, the dual-mode PUF will be resistant to modeling attacks as long as we can hide its working mode from the attackers, which we achieve with two practical methods. Finally, we implement the proposed dual-mode PUF on Nexys 4 FPGA boards and collect real measurement to show that it reduces the learning accuracy of LR and ANN to the mid-50% and low 60%, respectively. In addition, it meets the PUF requirements of uniqueness, randomness, and robustness.

2018-02-06
Mispan, M. S., Halak, B., Zwolinski, M..  2017.  Lightweight Obfuscation Techniques for Modeling Attacks Resistant PUFs. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :19–24.

Building lightweight security for low-cost pervasive devices is a major challenge considering the design requirements of a small footprint and low power consumption. Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a promising technology to provide a low-cost authentication for such devices. By exploiting intrinsic manufacturing process variations, PUFs are able to generate unique and apparently random chip identifiers. Strong-PUFs represent a variant of PUFs that have been suggested for lightweight authentication applications. Unfortunately, many of the Strong-PUFs have been shown to be susceptible to modelling attacks (i.e., using machine learning techniques) in which an adversary has access to challenge and response pairs. In this study, we propose an obfuscation technique during post-processing of Strong-PUF responses to increase the resilience against machine learning attacks. We conduct machine learning experiments using Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Networks on two Strong-PUFs: a 32-bit Arbiter-PUF and a 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF. The predictability of the 32-bit Arbiter-PUF is reduced to $\approx$ 70% by using an obfuscation technique. Combining the obfuscation technique with 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF helps to reduce the predictability to $\approx$ 64%. More reduction in predictability has been observed in an XOR Arbiter-PUF because this PUF architecture has a good uniformity. The area overhead with an obfuscation technique consumes only 788 and 1080 gate equivalents for the 32-bit Arbiter-PUF and 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF, respectively.

2018-02-02
Pocklassery, G., Kajuruli, V. K., Plusquellic, J., Saqib, F..  2017.  Physical unclonable functions and dynamic partial reconfiguration for security in resource-constrained embedded systems. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :116–121.

Authentication and encryption within an embedded system environment using cameras, sensors, thermostats, autonomous vehicles, medical implants, RFID, etc. is becoming increasing important with ubiquitious wireless connectivity. Hardware-based authentication and encryption offer several advantages in these types of resource-constrained applications, including smaller footprints and lower energy consumption. Bitstring and key generation implemented with Physical Unclonable Functions or PUFs can further reduce resource utilization for authentication and encryption operations and reduce overall system cost by eliminating on-chip non-volatile-memory (NVM). In this paper, we propose a dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) strategy for implementing both authentication and encryption using a PUF for bitstring and key generation on FPGAs as a means of optimizing the utilization of the limited area resources. We show that the time and energy penalties associated with DPR are small in modern SoC-based architectures, such as the Xilinx Zynq SoC, and therefore, the overall approach is very attractive for emerging resource-constrained IoT applications.

2018-01-23
Abtioglu, E., Yeniçeri, R., Gövem, B., Göncü, E., Yalçin, M. E., Saldamli, G..  2017.  Partially Reconfigurable IP Protection System with Ring Oscillator Based Physically Unclonable Functions. 2017 New Generation of CAS (NGCAS). :65–68.

The size of counterfeiting activities is increasing day by day. These activities are encountered especially in electronics market. In this paper, a countermeasure against counterfeiting on intellectual properties (IP) on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is proposed. FPGA vendors provide bitstream ciphering as an IP security solution such as battery-backed or non-volatile FPGAs. However, these solutions are secure as long as they can keep decryption key away from third parties. Key storage and key transfer over unsecure channels expose risks for these solutions. In this work, physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have been used for key generation. Generating a key from a circuit in the device solves key transfer problem. Proposed system goes through different phases when it operates. Therefore, partial reconfiguration feature of FPGAs is essential for feasibility of proposed system.

2017-11-20
Wallrabenstein, J. R..  2016.  Practical and Secure IoT Device Authentication Using Physical Unclonable Functions. 2016 IEEE 4th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). :99–106.

Devices in the internet of things (IoT) are frequently (i) resource-constrained, and (ii) deployed in unmonitored, physically unsecured environments. Securing these devices requires tractable cryptographic protocols, as well as cost effective tamper resistance solutions. We propose and evaluate cryptographic protocols that leverage physical unclonable functions (PUFs): circuits whose input to output mapping depends on the unique characteristics of the physical hardware on which it is executed. PUF-based protocols have the benefit of minimizing private key exposure, as well as providing cost-effective tamper resistance. We present and experimentally evaluate an elliptic curve based variant of a theoretical PUF-based authentication protocol proposed previously in the literature. Our work improves over an existing proof-of-concept implementation, which relied on the discrete logarithm problem as proposed in the original work. In contrast, our construction uses elliptic curve cryptography, which substantially reduces the computational and storage burden on the device. We describe PUF-based algorithms for device enrollment, authentication, decryption, and digital signature generation. The performance of each construction is experimentally evaluated on a resource-constrained device to demonstrate tractability in the IoT domain. We demonstrate that our implementation achieves practical performance results, while also providing realistic security. Our work demonstrates that PUF-based protocols may be practically and securely deployed on low-cost resource-constrained IoT devices.

Shahrak, M. Z., Ye, M., Swaminathan, V., Wei, S..  2016.  Two-way real time multimedia stream authentication using physical unclonable functions. 2016 IEEE 18th International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP). :1–4.

Multimedia authentication is an integral part of multimedia signal processing in many real-time and security sensitive applications, such as video surveillance. In such applications, a full-fledged video digital rights management (DRM) mechanism is not applicable due to the real time requirement and the difficulties in incorporating complicated license/key management strategies. This paper investigates the potential of multimedia authentication from a brand new angle by employing hardware-based security primitives, such as physical unclonable functions (PUFs). We show that the hardware security approach is not only capable of accomplishing the authentication for both the hardware device and the multimedia stream but, more importantly, introduce minimum performance, resource, and power overhead. We justify our approach using a prototype PUF implementation on Xilinx FPGA boards. Our experimental results on the real hardware demonstrate the high security and low overhead in multimedia authentication obtained by using hardware security approaches.

2017-03-20
Qiu, Pengfei, Lyu, Yongqiang, Zhang, Jiliang, Wang, Xingwei, Zhai, Di, Wang, Dongsheng, Qu, Gang.  2016.  Physical Unclonable Functions-based Linear Encryption Against Code Reuse Attacks. Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Design Automation Conference. :75:1–75:6.

Recently, code reuse attacks (CRAs) have emerged as a new class of ingenious security threatens. Attackers can utilize CRAs to hijack the control flow of programs to perform malicious actions without injecting any codes. Existing defenses against CRAs often incur high memory and performance overheads or require extending the existing processors' instruction set architectures (ISAs). To tackle these issues, we propose a hardware-based control flow integrity (CFI) that employs physical unclonable functions (PUF)-based linear encryption architecture (LEA) to protect against CRAs with negligible hardware extending and run time overheads. The proposed method can protect ret and indirect jmp instructions from return oriented programming (ROP) and jump oriented programming (JOP) without any additional software manipulations and extending ISAs. The pre-process will be conducted on codes once the executable binary is loaded into memory, and the real-time control flow verification based on LEA can be done while ret and jmp instructions are executed. Performance evaluations on benchmarks show that the proposed method only introduces 0.61% run-time overhead and 0.63% memory overhead on average.

Hiller, Matthias, Önalan, Aysun Gurur, Sigl, Georg, Bossert, Martin.  2016.  Online Reliability Testing for PUF Key Derivation. Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Trustworthy Embedded Devices. :15–22.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) measure manufacturing variations inside integrated circuits to derive internal secrets during run-time and avoid to store secrets permanently in non-volatile memory. PUF responses are noisy such that they require error correction to generate reliable cryptographic keys. To date, when needed one single key is reproduced in the field and always used, regardless of its reliability. In this work, we compute online reliability information for a reproduced key and perform multiple PUF readout and error correction steps in case of an unreliable result. This permits to choose the most reliable key among multiple derived key candidates with different corrected error patterns. We achieve the same average key error probability from less PUF response bits with this approach. Our proof of concept design for a popular reference scenario uses Differential Sequence Coding (DSC) and a Viterbi decoder with reliability output information. It requires 39% less PUF response bits and 16% less helper data bits than the regular approach without the option for multiple readouts.

2015-05-04
Cherkaoui, A., Bossuet, L., Seitz, L., Selander, G., Borgaonkar, R..  2014.  New paradigms for access control in constrained environments. Reconfigurable and Communication-Centric Systems-on-Chip (ReCoSoC), 2014 9th International Symposium on. :1-4.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is here, more than 10 billion units are already connected and five times more devices are expected to be deployed in the next five years. Technological standarization and the management and fostering of rapid innovation by governments are among the main challenges of the IoT. However, security and privacy are the key to make the IoT reliable and trusted. Security mechanisms for the IoT should provide features such as scalability, interoperability and lightness. This paper addresses authentication and access control in the frame of the IoT. It presents Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF), which can provide cheap, secure, tamper-proof secret keys to authentify constrained M2M devices. To be successfully used in the IoT context, this technology needs to be embedded in a standardized identity and access management framework. On the other hand, Embedded Subscriber Identity Module (eSIM) can provide cellular connectivity with scalability, interoperability and standard compliant security protocols. The paper discusses an authorization scheme for a constrained resource server taking advantage of PUF and eSIM features. Concrete IoT uses cases are discussed (SCADA and building automation).

2014-09-26
Armknecht, F., Maes, R., Sadeghi, A, Standaert, O.-X., Wachsmann, C..  2011.  A Formalization of the Security Features of Physical Functions. Security and Privacy (SP), 2011 IEEE Symposium on. :397-412.

Physical attacks against cryptographic devices typically take advantage of information leakage (e.g., side-channels attacks) or erroneous computations (e.g., fault injection attacks). Preventing or detecting these attacks has become a challenging task in modern cryptographic research. In this context intrinsic physical properties of integrated circuits, such as Physical(ly) Unclonable Functions (PUFs), can be used to complement classical cryptographic constructions, and to enhance the security of cryptographic devices. PUFs have recently been proposed for various applications, including anti-counterfeiting schemes, key generation algorithms, and in the design of block ciphers. However, currently only rudimentary security models for PUFs exist, limiting the confidence in the security claims of PUF-based security primitives. A useful model should at the same time (i) define the security properties of PUFs abstractly and naturally, allowing to design and formally analyze PUF-based security solutions, and (ii) provide practical quantification tools allowing engineers to evaluate PUF instantiations. In this paper, we present a formal foundation for security primitives based on PUFs. Our approach requires as little as possible from the physics and focuses more on the main properties at the heart of most published works on PUFs: robustness (generation of stable answers), unclonability (not provided by algorithmic solutions), and unpredictability. We first formally define these properties and then show that they can be achieved by previously introduced PUF instantiations. We stress that such a consolidating work allows for a meaningful security analysis of security primitives taking advantage of physical properties, becoming increasingly important in the development of the next generation secure information systems.