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Birrane, Edward J., Heiner, Sarah E..  2021.  Towards an Interoperable Security Policy for Space-Based Internetworks. 2021 IEEE Space Computing Conference (SCC). :84–94.

Renewed focus on spacecraft networking by government and private industry promises to establish interoperable communications infrastructures and enable distributed computing in multi-nodal systems. Planned near-Earth and cislunar missions by NASA and others evidence the start of building this networking vision. Working with space agencies, academia, and industry, NASA has developed a suite of communications protocols and algorithms collectively referred to as Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) to support an interoperable space network. Included in the DTN protocol suite is a security protocol - the Bundle Protocol Security Protocol - which provides the kind of delay-tolerant, transport-layer security needed for cislunar and deep-space trusted networking. We present an analysis of the lifecycle of security operations inherent in a space network with a focus on the DTN-enabled space networking paradigm. This analysis defines three security-related roles for spacecraft (Security Sources, verifiers, and acceptors) and associates a series of critical processing events with each of these roles. We then define the set of required and optional actions associated with these security events. Finally, we present a series of best practices associated with policy configurations that are unique to the space-network security problem. Framing space network security policy as a mapping of security actions to security events provides the details necessary for making trusted networks semantically interoperable. Finally, this method is flexible enough to allow for customization even while providing a unifying core set of mandatory security actions.

Smith, B., Feather, M. S., Huntsberger, T., Bocchino, R..  2020.  Software Assurance of Autonomous Spacecraft Control. 2020 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS). :1—7.
Summary & Conclusions: The work described addresses assurance of a planning and execution software system being added to an in-orbit CubeSat to demonstrate autonomous control of that spacecraft. Our focus was on how to develop assurance of the correct operation of the added software in its operational context, our approach to which was to use an assurance case to guide and organize the information involved. The relatively manageable magnitude of the CubeSat and its autonomy demonstration experiment made it plausible to try out our assurance approach in a relatively short timeframe. Additionally, the time was ripe to inject useful assurance results into the ongoing development and testing of the autonomy demonstration. In conducting this, we sought to answer several questions about our assurance approach. The questions, and the conclusions we reached, are as follows: 1. Question: Would our approach to assurance apply to the introduction of a planning and execution software into an existing system? Conclusion: Yes. The use of an assurance case helped focus our attention on the more challenging aspects, notably the interactions between the added software and the existing software system into which it was being introduced. This guided us to choose a hazard analysis method specifically for software interactions. In addition, we were able to automate generation of assurance case elements from the hazard analysis' tabular representation. 2. Question: Would our methods prove understandable to the software engineers tasked with integrating the software into the CubeSat's existing system? Conclusion: Somewhat. In interim discussions with the software engineers we found the assurance case style, of decomposing an argument into smaller pieces, to be useful and understandable to organize discussion. Ultimately however we did not persuade them to adopt assurance cases as the means to present review information. We attribute this to reluctance to deviate from JPL's tried and true style of holding reviews. For the CubeSat project as a whole, hosting an autonomy demonstration was already a novelty. Combining this with presentation of review information via an assurance case, with which our reviewers would be unaccustomed, would have exacerbated the unfamiliarity. 3. Question: Would conducting our methods prove to be compatible with the (limited) time available of the software engineers? Conclusion: Yes. We used a series of six brief meetings (approximately one hour each) with the development team to first identify the interactions as the area on which to focus, and to then perform the hazard analysis on those interactions. We used the meetings to confirm, or correct as necessary, our understanding of the software system and the spacecraft context. Between meetings we studied the existing software documentation, did preliminary analyses by ourselves, and documented the results in a concise form suitable for discussion with the team. 4. Question: Would our methods yield useful results to the software engineers? Conclusion: Yes. The hazard analysis systematically confirmed existing hazards' mitigations, and drew attention to a mitigation whose implementation needed particular care. In some cases, the analysis identified potential hazards - and what to do about them - should some of the more sophisticated capabilities of the planning and execution software be used. These capabilities, not exercised in the initial experiments on the CubeSat, may be used in future experiments. We remain involved with the developers as they prepare for these future experiments, so our analysis results will be of benefit as these proceed.
Nieto-Chaupis, H..  2020.  Hyper Secure Cognitive Radio Communications in an Internet of Space Things Network Based on the BB84 Protocol. 2020 Intermountain Engineering, Technology and Computing (IETC). :1–5.
Once constellation of satellites are working in a collaborative manner, the security of their messages would have to be highly secure from all angles of scenarios by which the praxis of eavesdropping constitutes a constant thread for the instability of the different tasks and missions. In this paper we employ the Bennet-Brassard commonly known as the BB84 protocol in conjunction to the technique of Cognitive Radio applied to the Internet of Space Things to build a prospective technology to guarantee the communications among geocentric orbital satellites. The simulations have yielded that for a constellation of 5 satellites, the probability of successful of completion the communication might be of order of 75% ±5%.
Di, A., Ruisheng, S., Lan, L., Yueming, L..  2019.  On the Large-Scale Traffic DDoS Threat of Space Backbone Network. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :192—194.

Satellite networks play an important role in realizing the combination of the space networks and ground networks as well as the global coverage of the Internet. However, due to the limitation of bandwidth resource, compared with ground network, space backbone networks are more likely to become victims of DDoS attacks. Therefore, we hypothesize an attack scenario that DDoS attackers make reflection amplification attacks, colluding with terminal devices accessing space backbone network, and exhaust bandwidth resources, resulting in degradation of data transmission and service delivery. Finally, we propose some plain countermeasures to provide solutions for future researchers.

Mailloux, L. O., Span, M., Mills, R. F., Young, W..  2019.  A Top Down Approach for Eliciting Systems Security Requirements for a Notional Autonomous Space System. 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1–7.
Today's highly interconnected and technology reliant environment places great emphasis on the need for secure cyber-physical systems. This work addresses this need by detailing a top down systems security requirements analysis approach for understanding and eliciting security requirements for a notional space system. More specifically, the System-Theoretic Process Analysis approach for Security (STPA-Sec) is used to understand and elicit systems security requirements during the conceptual stage of development. This work employs STPA-Sec in a notional space system to detail the development of functional-level security requirements, design-level engineering considerations, and architectural-level security specifications early in the system life cycle when the solution trade-space is largest rather than merely examining components and adding protections during system operation, maintenance, or sustainment. Lastly, this approach employs a holistic viewpoint which aligns with the systems and software engineering processes as detailed in ISO/IEC/IEEE 152SS and NIST SP SOO-160 Volume 1. This work seeks to advance the science of systems security by providing insight into a viable systems security requirements analysis approach which results in traceable security, safety, and resiliency requirements that can be designed-for, built-to, and verified with confidence.
Xiao, Litian, Xiao, Nan, Li, Mengyuan, Liu, Zhanqing, Wang, Fei, Li, Yuliang, Hou, Kewen.  2019.  Intelligent Architecture and Hybrid Model of Ground and Launch System for Advanced Launch Site. 2019 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–12.
This paper proposes an intelligent functional architecture for an advanced launch site system that is composed of five parts: the intelligent technical area, the intelligent launching region, the intelligent flight and landing area, the intelligent command and control system, and the intelligent analysis assessment system. The five parts consist of the infrastructure, facilities, equipment, hardware and software and thus include the whole mission processes of ground and launch systems from flight articles' entry to launch. The architectural framework is designed for the intelligent elements of the parts. The framework is also defined as the interrelationship and the interface of the elements, including the launch vehicle and flight payloads. Based on the Internet of Things (IoT), the framework is integrated on four levels: the physical layer, the perception layer, the network layer, and the application layer. The physical layer includes the physical objects and actuators of the launch site. The perception layer consists of the sensors and data processing system. The network layer supplies the access gateways and backbone network. The application layer serves application systems through the middleware platform. The core of the intelligent system is the controller of the automatic control system crossing the four layers. This study builds the models of the IoT, cloud platform, middleware, integrated access gateway, and automatic control system for actual ground and launch systems. A formal approach describes and defines the architecture, models and autonomous control flows in the paper. The defined models describe the physical objects, intelligent elements, interface relations, status transformation functions, etc. The test operation and launch processes are connected with the intelligent system model. This study has been applied to an individual mission project and achieved good results. The architecture and the models of this study regulate the relationship between the elements of the intelligent system. The study lays a foundation for the architectural construction, the simulation and the verification of the intelligent systems at the launch site.
Kroon, Martin, Bongers, Ed, Bubeck, Klaus.  2019.  Magnetic tests and analysis of JUICE solar array. 2019 European Space Power Conference (ESPC). :1–5.
Very sensitive magnetic instruments on the JUICE spacecraft require an extremely low magnetic field emission of the various subsystems. The JUICE solar array includes a photovoltaic assembly and various mechanisms with a magnetic signature. The design of the photovoltaic assembly has been optimised not only with respect to magnetic moment, but also with respect to the emitted magnetic field, by applying the so-called back-wiring technique, alternating string polarity etc. The remanent magnetic field of the mechanisms (hinges, eddy-current damper, hold-down & release mechanism) was tested including a process for demagnetisation. In addition, the temperature coefficient for the magnetic moment was measured, down to the operational temperature of -130°C. The eddy-current damper was also subjected to a field-induced magnetisation test. All the contributors were included in a model to calculate the magnetic field at the instrument location.
Willis, J. M., Mills, R. F., Mailloux, L. O., Graham, S. R..  2017.  Considerations for secure and resilient satellite architectures. 2017 International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon U.S.). :16–22.

Traditionally, the focus of security and ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data in spacecraft systems has been on the ground segment and the uplink/downlink components. Although these are the most obvious attack vectors, potential security risks against the satellite's platform is also a serious concern. This paper discusses a notional satellite architecture and explores security vulnerabilities using a systems-level approach. Viewing attacks through this paradigm highlights several potential attack vectors that conventional satellite security approaches fail to consider. If left undetected, these could yield physical effects limiting the satellite's mission or performance. The approach presented aids in risk analysis and gives insight into architectural design considerations which improve the system's overall resiliency.

Juliato, M., Gebotys, C., Sanchez, I. A..  2016.  TPM-supported key agreement protocols for increased autonomy in constellation of spacecrafts. 2016 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–9.

The incorporation of security mechanisms to protect spacecraft's TT&c; payload links is becoming a constant requirement in many space missions. More advanced mission concepts will allow spacecrafts to have higher levels of autonomy, which includes performing key management operations independently of control centers. This is especially beneficial to support missions operating distantly from Earth. In order to support such levels of autonomy, key agreement is one approach that allows spacecrafts to establish new cryptographic keys as they deem necessary. This work introduces an approach based on a trusted platform module that allows for key agreement to be performed with minimal computational efforts and protocol iterations. Besides, it allows for opportunistic control center reporting while avoiding man-in-the-middle and replay attacks.