Visible to the public Biblio

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2022-09-29
Al-Alawi, Adel Ismail, Alsaad, Abdulla Jalal, AlAlawi, Ebtesam Ismaeel, Naser Al-Hadad, Ahmed Abdulla.  2021.  The Analysis of Human Attitude toward Cybersecurity Information Sharing. 2021 International Conference on Decision Aid Sciences and Application (DASA). :947–956.
Over the years, human errors have been identified as one of the most critical factors impacting cybersecurity in an organization that has had a substantial impact. The research uses recent articles published on human resources and information cybersecurity. This research focuses on the vulnerabilities and the best solution to mitigate these threats based on literature review methodology. The study also focuses on identifying the human attitude and behavior towards cybersecurity and how that would impact the organization's financial impact. With the help of the Two-factor Taxonomy of the security behavior model developed in past research, the research aims to identify the best practices and compare the best practices with that of the attitude-behavior found and matched to the model. Finally, the study would compare the difference between best practices and the current practices from the model. This would help provide the organization with specific recommendations that would help change their attitude and behavior towards cybersecurity and ensure the organization is not fearful of the cyber threat of human error threat.
2022-09-20
Emadi, Hamid, Clanin, Joe, Hyder, Burhan, Khanna, Kush, Govindarasu, Manimaran, Bhattacharya, Sourabh.  2021.  An Efficient Computational Strategy for Cyber-Physical Contingency Analysis in Smart Grids. 2021 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1—5.
The increasing penetration of cyber systems into smart grids has resulted in these grids being more vulnerable to cyber physical attacks. The central challenge of higher order cyber-physical contingency analysis is the exponential blow-up of the attack surface due to a large number of attack vectors. This gives rise to computational challenges in devising efficient attack mitigation strategies. However, a system operator can leverage private information about the underlying network to maintain a strategic advantage over an adversary equipped with superior computational capability and situational awareness. In this work, we examine the following scenario: A malicious entity intrudes the cyber-layer of a power network and trips the transmission lines. The objective of the system operator is to deploy security measures in the cyber-layer to minimize the impact of such attacks. Due to budget constraints, the attacker and the system operator have limits on the maximum number of transmission lines they can attack or defend. We model this adversarial interaction as a resource-constrained attacker-defender game. The computational intractability of solving large security games is well known. However, we exploit the approximately modular behaviour of an impact metric known as the disturbance value to arrive at a linear-time algorithm for computing an optimal defense strategy. We validate the efficacy of the proposed strategy against attackers of various capabilities and provide an algorithm for a real-time implementation.
2022-06-14
Hancock, John, Khoshgoftaar, Taghi M., Leevy, Joffrey L..  2021.  Detecting SSH and FTP Brute Force Attacks in Big Data. 2021 20th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA). :760–765.
We present a simple approach for detecting brute force attacks in the CSE-CIC-IDS2018 Big Data dataset. We show our approach is preferable to more complex approaches since it is simpler, and yields stronger classification performance. Our contribution is to show that it is possible to train and test simple Decision Tree models with two independent variables to classify CSE-CIC-IDS2018 data with better results than reported in previous research, where more complex Deep Learning models are employed. Moreover, we show that Decision Tree models trained on data with two independent variables perform similarly to Decision Tree models trained on a larger number independent variables. Our experiments reveal that simple models, with AUC and AUPRC scores greater than 0.99, are capable of detecting brute force attacks in CSE-CIC-IDS2018. To the best of our knowledge, these are the strongest performance metrics published for the machine learning task of detecting these types of attacks. Furthermore, the simplicity of our approach, combined with its strong performance, makes it an appealing technique.
2022-06-09
Trifonov, Roumen, Manolov, Slavcho, Yoshinov, Radoslav, Tsochev, Georgy, Pavlova, Galya.  2021.  Applying the Experience of Artificial Intelligence Methods for Information Systems Cyber Protection at Industrial Control Systems. 2021 25th International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Communications and Computers (CSCC). :21–25.
The rapid development of the Industry 4.0 initiative highlights the problems of Cyber-security of Industrial Computer Systems and, following global trends in Cyber Defense, the implementation of Artificial Intelligence instruments. The authors, having certain achievement in the implementation of Artificial Intelligence tools in Cyber Protection of Information Systems and, more precisely, creating and successfully experimenting with a hybrid model of Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS), decided to study and experiment with the possibility of applying a similar model to Industrial Control Systems. This raises the question: can the experience of applying Artificial Intelligence methods in Information Systems, where this development went beyond the experimental phase and has entered into the real implementation phase, be useful for experimenting with these methods in Industrial Systems.
2022-04-18
Aivatoglou, Georgios, Anastasiadis, Mike, Spanos, Georgios, Voulgaridis, Antonis, Votis, Konstantinos, Tzovaras, Dimitrios.  2021.  A Tree-Based Machine Learning Methodology to Automatically Classify Software Vulnerabilities. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :312–317.
Software vulnerabilities have become a major problem for the security analysts, since the number of new vulnerabilities is constantly growing. Thus, there was a need for a categorization system, in order to group and handle these vulnerabilities in a more efficient way. Hence, the MITRE corporation introduced the Common Weakness Enumeration that is a list of the most common software and hardware vulnerabilities. However, the manual task of understanding and analyzing new vulnerabilities by security experts, is a very slow and exhausting process. For this reason, a new automated classification methodology is introduced in this paper, based on the vulnerability textual descriptions from National Vulnerability Database. The proposed methodology, combines textual analysis and tree-based machine learning techniques in order to classify vulnerabilities automatically. The results of the experiments showed that the proposed methodology performed pretty well achieving an overall accuracy close to 80%.
Ahmadian, Saeed, Ebrahimi, Saba, Malki, Heidar.  2021.  Cyber-Security Enhancement of Smart Grid's Substation Using Object's Distance Estimation in Surveillance Cameras. 2021 IEEE 11th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0631–0636.
Cyber-attacks toward cyber-physical systems are one of the main concerns of smart grid's operators. However, many of these cyber-attacks, are toward unmanned substations where the cyber-attackers needs to be close enough to substation to malfunction protection and control systems in substations, using Electromagnetic signals. Therefore, in this paper, a new threat detection algorithm is proposed to prevent possible cyber-attacks toward unmanned substations. Using surveillance camera's streams and based on You Only Look Once (YOLO) V3, suspicious objects in the image are detected. Then, using Intersection over Union (IOU) and Generalized Intersection Over Union (GIOU), threat distance is estimated. Finally, the estimated threats are categorized into three categories using color codes red, orange and green. The deep network used for detection consists of 106 convolutional layers and three output prediction with different resolutions for different distances. The pre-trained network is transferred from Darknet-53 weights trained on 80 classes.
Bothos, Ioannis, Vlachos, Vasileios, Kyriazanos, Dimitris M., Stamatiou, Ioannis, Thanos, Konstantinos Georgios, Tzamalis, Pantelis, Nikoletseas, Sotirios, Thomopoulos, Stelios C.A..  2021.  Modelling Cyber-Risk in an Economic Perspective. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :372–377.
In this paper, we present a theoretical approach concerning the econometric modelling for the estimation of cyber-security risk, with the use of time-series analysis methods and alternatively with Machine Learning (ML) based, deep learning methodology. Also we present work performed in the framework of SAINT H2020 Project [1], concerning innovative data mining techniques, based on automated web scrapping, for the retrieving of the relevant time-series data. We conclude with a review of emerging challenges in cyber-risk assessment brought by the rapid development of adversarial AI.
2022-04-12
Li, Junyan.  2021.  Threats and data trading detection methods in the dark web. 2021 6th International Conference on Innovative Technology in Intelligent System and Industrial Applications (CITISIA). :1—9.
The dark web has become a major trading platform for cybercriminals, with its anonymity and encrypted content nature make it possible to exchange hacked information and sell illegal goods without being traced. The types of items traded on the dark web have increased with the number of users and demands. In recent years, in addition to the main items sold in the past, including drugs, firearms and child pornography, a growing number of cybercriminals are targeting various types of private information, including different types of account data, identity information and visual data etc. This paper will further discuss the issue of threat detection in the dark web by reviewing the past literature on the subject. An approach is also proposed to identify criminals who commit crimes offline or on the surface network by using private information purchased from the dark web and the original sources of information on the dark web by building a database based on historical victim records for keyword matching and traffic analysis.
2022-03-14
Kummerow, André, Rösch, Dennis, Nicolai, Steffen, Brosinsky, Christoph, Westermann, Dirk, Naumann, é.  2021.  Attacking dynamic power system control centers - a cyber-physical threat analysis. 2021 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :01—05.

In dynamic control centers, conventional SCADA systems are enhanced with novel assistance functionalities to increase existing monitoring and control capabilities. To achieve this, different key technologies like phasor measurement units (PMU) and Digital Twins (DT) are incorporated, which give rise to new cyber-security challenges. To address these issues, a four-stage threat analysis approach is presented to identify and assess system vulnerabilities for novel dynamic control center architectures. For this, a simplified risk assessment method is proposed, which allows a detailed analysis of the different system vulnerabilities considering various active and passive cyber-attack types. Qualitative results of the threat analysis are presented and discussed for different use cases at the control center and substation level.

2022-02-25
Itria, Massimiliano Leone, Schiavone, Enrico, Nostro, Nicola.  2021.  Towards anomaly detection in smart grids by combining Complex Events Processing and SNMP objects. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :212—217.
This paper describes the architecture and the fundamental methodology of an anomaly detector, which by continuously monitoring Simple Network Management Protocol data and by processing it as complex-events, is able to timely recognize patterns of faults and relevant cyber-attacks. This solution has been applied in the context of smart grids, and in particular as part of a security and resilience component of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Gateway, a middleware-based architecture that correlates and fuses measurement data from different sources (e.g., Inverters, Smart Meters) to provide control coordination and to enable grid observability applications. The detector has been evaluated through experiments, where we selected some representative anomalies that can occur on the ICT side of the energy distribution infrastructure: non-malicious faults (indicated by patterns in the system resources usage), as well as effects of typical cyber-attacks directed to the smart grid infrastructure. The results show that the detection is promisingly fast and efficient.
2021-11-30
Marah, Rim, Gabassi, Inssaf El, Larioui, Sanae, Yatimi, Hanane.  2020.  Security of Smart Grid Management of Smart Meter Protection. 2020 1st International Conference on Innovative Research in Applied Science, Engineering and Technology (IRASET). :1–5.
The need of more secured and environmental energy is becoming a necessity and priority in an environment suffering from serious problems due to technological development. Since the Smart Grid is a promising alternative that supports green energy and enhances a better management of electricity, the security side has became one of the major and critical associated issues in building the communication network in the microgrid.In this paper we will present the Smart Grid Cyber security challenges and propose a distributed algorithm that face one of the biggest problems threatening the smart grid which is fires.
2021-11-29
Qu, Yanfeng, Chen, Gong, Liu, Xin, Yan, Jiaqi, Chen, Bo, Jin, Dong.  2020.  Cyber-Resilience Enhancement of PMU Networks Using Software-Defined Networking. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–7.
Phasor measurement unit (PMU) networks are increasingly deployed to offer timely and high-precision measurement of today's highly interconnected electric power systems. To enhance the cyber-resilience of PMU networks against malicious attacks and system errors, we develop an optimization-based network management scheme based on the software-defined networking (SDN) communication infrastructure to recovery PMU network connectivity and restore power system observability. The scheme enables fast network recovery by optimizing the path generation and installation process, and moreover, compressing the SDN rules to be installed on the switches. We develop a prototype system and perform system evaluation in terms of power system observability, recovery speed, and rule compression using the IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system.
Chandra, Nungky Awang, Putri Ratna, Anak Agung, Ramli, Kalamullah.  2020.  Development of a Cyber-Situational Awareness Model of Risk Maturity Using Fuzzy FMEA. 2020 International Workshop on Big Data and Information Security (IWBIS). :127–136.
This paper uses Endsley's situational awareness model as a starting point for creating a new cyber-security awareness model for risk maturity. This is used to model the relationship between risk management-based situational awareness and levels of maturity in making decisions to deal with potential cyber-attacks. The risk maturity related to cyber situational awareness using the fuzzy failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) method is needed as a basis for effective risk-based decision making and to measure the level of maturity in decision making using the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model Integration (SEI CMMI) approach. The novelty of this research is that it builds a model of the relationship between the level of maturity and the level of risk in cyber-situational awareness. Based on the data during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a decrease in the number of incidents, including the following decreases: from 15-29 cases of malware attacks to 8-12 incidents, from 20-35 phishing cases to 12-15 cases and from 5-10 ransomware cases to 5-6 cases.
2021-09-16
Loonam, John, Zwiegelaar, Jeremy, Kumar, Vikas, Booth, Charles.  2020.  Cyber-Resiliency for Digital Enterprises: A Strategic Leadership Perspective. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. :1–14.
As organizations increasingly view information as one of their most valuable assets, which supports the creation and distribution of their products and services, information security will be an integral part of the design and operation of organizational business processes. Yet, risks associated with cyber-attacks are on the rise. Organizations that are subjected to attacks can suffer significant reputational damage as well as loss of information and knowledge. As a consequence, effective leadership is cited as a critical factor for ensuring corporate level attention for information security. However, there is a lack of empirical understanding as to the roles strategic leaders play in shaping and supporting the cyber-security strategy. This article seeks to address this gap in the literature by focusing on how senior leaders support the cyber-security strategy. The authors conducted a series of exploratory interviews with leaders in the positions of Chief Information Officer, Chief Security Information Officer, and Chief Technology Officer. The findings revealed that leaders are engaged in both transitional, where the focus is on improving governance and integration and transformational support, which involves fostering a new cultural mindset for cyber-resiliency and the development of an ecosystem approach to security thinking.
Sarker, Partha S., Singh Saini, Amandeep, Sajan, K S, Srivastava, Anurag K..  2020.  CP-SAM: Cyber-Power Security Assessment and Resiliency Analysis Tool for Distribution System. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :188–193.
Cyber-power resiliency analysis of the distribution system is becoming critical with increase in adverse cyberevents. Distribution network operators need to assess and analyze the resiliency of the system utilizing the analytical tool with a carefully designed visualization and be driven by data and model-based analytics. This work introduces the Cyber-Physical Security Assessment Metric (CP-SAM) visualization tool to assist operators in ensuring the energy supply to critical loads during or after a cyber-attack. CP-SAM also provides decision support to operators utilizing measurement data and distribution power grid model and through well-designed visualization. The paper discusses the concepts of cyber-physical resiliency, software design considerations, open-source software components, and use cases for the tool to demonstrate the implementation and importance of the developed tool.
2021-06-24
Hastings, John C., Laverty, David M., Jahic, Admir, Morrow, D John, Brogan, Paul.  2020.  Cyber-security considerations for domestic-level automated demand-response systems utilizing public-key infrastructure and ISO/IEC 20922. 2020 31st Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1–6.
In this paper, the Authors present MQTT (ISO/IEC 20922), coupled with Public-key Infrastructure (PKI) as being highly suited to the secure and timely delivery of the command and control messages required in a low-latency Automated Demand Response (ADR) system which makes use of domestic-level electrical loads connected to the Internet. Several use cases for ADR are introduced, and relevant security considerations are discussed; further emphasizing the suitability of the proposed infrastructure. The authors then describe their testbed platform for testing ADR functionality, and finally discuss the next steps towards getting these kinds of technologies to the next stage.
2021-04-29
Fejrskov, M., Pedersen, J. M., Vasilomanolakis, E..  2020.  Cyber-security research by ISPs: A NetFlow and DNS Anonymization Policy. :1—8.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have an economic and operational interest in detecting malicious network activity relating to their subscribers. However, it is unclear what kind of traffic data an ISP has available for cyber-security research, and under which legal conditions it can be used. This paper gives an overview of the challenges posed by legislation and of the data sources available to a European ISP. DNS and NetFlow logs are identified as relevant data sources and the state of the art in anonymization and fingerprinting techniques is discussed. Based on legislation, data availability and privacy considerations, a practically applicable anonymization policy is presented.

2021-02-10
Averin, A., Zyulyarkina, N..  2020.  Malicious Qr-Code Threats and Vulnerability of Blockchain. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :82—86.

Today’s rapidly changing world, is observing fast development of QR-code and Blockchain technologies. It is worth noting that these technologies have also received a boost for sharing. The user gets the opportunity to receive / send funds, issue invoices for payment and transfer, for example, Bitcoin using QR-code. This paper discusses the security of using the symbiosis of Blockchain and QR-code technologies, and the vulnerabilities that arise in this case. The following vulnerabilities were considered: fake QR generators, stickers for cryptomats, phishing using QR-codes, create Malicious QR-Codes for Hack Phones and Other Scanners. The possibility of creating the following malicious QR codes while using the QRGen tool was considered: SQL Injections, XSS (Cross-Site Scripting), Command Injection, Format String, XXE (XML External Entity), String Fuzzing, SSI (Server-Side Includes) Injection, LFI (Local File Inclusion) / Directory Traversal.

2021-01-22
Alghamdi, W., Schukat, M..  2020.  Practical Implementation of APTs on PTP Time Synchronisation Networks. 2020 31st Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1—5.
The Precision Time Protocol is essential for many time-sensitive and time-aware applications. However, it was never designed for security, and despite various approaches to harden this protocol against manipulation, it is still prone to cyber-attacks. Here Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) are of particular concern, as they may stealthily and over extended periods of time manipulate computer clocks that rely on the accurate functioning of this protocol. Simulating such attacks is difficult, as it requires firmware manipulation of network and PTP infrastructure components. Therefore, this paper proposes and demonstrates a programmable Man-in-the-Middle (pMitM) and a programmable injector (pInj) device that allow the implementation of a variety of attacks, enabling security researchers to quantify the impact of APTs on time synchronisation.
2020-12-17
Basheer, M. M., Varol, A..  2019.  An Overview of Robot Operating System Forensics. 2019 1st International Informatics and Software Engineering Conference (UBMYK). :1—4.
Autonomous technologies have been rapidly replacing the traditional manual intervention nearly in every aspect of our life. These technologies essentially require robots to carry out their automated processes. Nowadays, with the emergence of industry 4.0, robots are increasingly being remote-controlled via client-server connection, which creates uncommon vulnerabilities that allow attackers to target those robots. The development of an open source operational environment for robots, known as Robot Operating System (ROS) has come as a response to these demands. Security and privacy are crucial for the use of ROS as the chance of a compromise may lead to devastating ramifications. In this paper, an overview of ROS and the attacks targeting it are detailed and discussed. Followed by a review of the ROS security and digital investigation studies.
2020-11-20
Sui, T., Marelli, D., Sun, X., Fu, M..  2019.  Stealthiness of Attacks and Vulnerability of Stochastic Linear Systems. 2019 12th Asian Control Conference (ASCC). :734—739.
The security of Cyber-physical systems has been a hot topic in recent years. There are two main focuses in this area: Firstly, what kind of attacks can avoid detection, i.e., the stealthiness of attacks. Secondly, what kind of systems can stay stable under stealthy attacks, i.e., the invulnerability of systems. In this paper, we will give a detailed characterization for stealthy attacks and detection criterion for such attacks. We will also study conditions for the vulnerability of a stochastic linear system under stealthy attacks.
2020-10-05
Abusitta, Adel, Bellaiche, Martine, Dagenais, Michel.  2018.  A trust-based game theoretical model for cooperative intrusion detection in multi-cloud environments. 2018 21st Conference on Innovation in Clouds, Internet and Networks and Workshops (ICIN). :1—8.

Cloud systems are becoming more complex and vulnerable to attacks. Cyber attacks are also becoming more sophisticated and harder to detect. Therefore, it is increasingly difficult for a single cloud-based intrusion detection system (IDS) to detect all attacks, because of limited and incomplete knowledge about attacks. The recent researches in cyber-security have shown that a co-operation among IDSs can bring higher detection accuracy in such complex computer systems. Through collaboration, a cloud-based IDS can consult other IDSs about suspicious intrusions and increase the decision accuracy. The problem of existing cooperative IDS approaches is that they overlook having untrusted (malicious or not) IDSs that may negatively effect the decision about suspicious intrusions in the cloud. Moreover, they rely on a centralized architecture in which a central agent regulates the cooperation, which contradicts the distributed nature of the cloud. In this paper, we propose a framework that enables IDSs to distributively form trustworthy IDSs communities. We devise a novel decentralized algorithm, based on coalitional game theory, that allows a set of cloud-based IDSs to cooperatively set up their coalition in such a way to make their individual detection accuracy increase, even in the presence of untrusted IDSs.

2020-09-18
Ameli, Amir, Hooshyar, Ali, El-Saadany, Ehab F..  2019.  Development of a Cyber-Resilient Line Current Differential Relay. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 15:305—318.
The application of line current differential relays (LCDRs) to protect transmission lines has recently proliferated. However, the reliance of LCDRs on digital communication channels has raised growing cyber-security concerns. This paper investigates the impacts of false data injection attacks (FDIAs) on the performance of LCDRs. It also develops coordinated attacks that involve multiple components, including LCDRs, and can cause false line tripping. Additionally, this paper proposes a technique for detecting FDIAs against LCDRs and differentiating them from actual faults in two-terminal lines. In this method, when an LCDR detects a fault, instead of immediately tripping the line, it calculates and measures the superimposed voltage at its local terminal, using the proposed positive-sequence (PS) and negative-sequence (NS) submodules. To calculate this voltage, the LCDR models the protected line in detail and replaces the rest of the system with a Thevenin equivalent that produces accurate responses at the line terminals. Afterwards, remote current measurement is utilized by the PS and NS submodules to compute each sequence's superimposed voltage. A difference between the calculated and the measured superimposed voltages in any sequence reveals that the remote current measurements are not authentic. Thus, the LCDR's trip command is blocked. The effectiveness of the proposed method is corroborated using simulation results for the IEEE 39-bus test system. The performance of the proposed method is also tested using an OPAL real-time simulator.
2020-06-26
Puccetti, Armand.  2019.  The European H2020 project VESSEDIA (Verification Engineering of Safety and SEcurity critical Dynamic Industrial Applications). 2019 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :588—591.

This paper presents an overview of the H2020 project VESSEDIA [9] aimed at verifying the security and safety of modern connected systems also called IoT. The originality relies in using Formal Methods inherited from high-criticality applications domains to analyze the source code at different levels of intensity, to gather possible faults and weaknesses. The analysis methods are mostly exhaustive an guarantee that, after analysis, the source code of the application is error-free. This paper is structured as follows: after an introductory section 1 giving some factual data, section 2 presents the aims and the problems addressed; section 3 describes the project's use-cases and section 4 describes the proposed approach for solving these problems and the results achieved until now; finally, section 5 discusses some remaining future work.

2020-03-23
Nakayama, Johannes, Plettenberg, Nils, Halbach, Patrick, Burbach, Laura, Ziefle, Martina, Calero Valdez, André.  2019.  Trust in Cyber Security Recommendations. 2019 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference (ProComm). :48–55.
Over the last two decades, the Internet has established itself as part of everyday life. With the recent invention of Social Media, the advent of the Internet of Things as well as trends like "bring your own device" (BYOD), the needs for connectivity rise exponentially and so does the need for proper cyber security. However, human factors research of cyber security in private contexts comprises only a small fraction of the research in the field. In this study, we investigated adoption behaviours and trust in cyber security in private contexts by measuring - among other trust measures - disposition to trust and providing five cyber security scenarios. In each, a person/agent recommends the use of a cyber security tool. Trust is then measured regarding the recommending agent. We compare personal, expert, institutional, and magazine recommendations along with manufacturer information in an exploratory study of sixty participants. We found that personal, expert and institutional recommendations were trusted significantly more than manufacturer information and magazine reports. The highest trust scores were produced by the expert and the personal recommendation scenarios. We argue that technical and professional communicators should aim for cyber security knowledge permeation through personal relations, educating people with high technology self-efficacy beliefs who then disperse the acquired knowledge.