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Sarapan, Waranyu, Boonrakchat, Nonthakorn, Paudel, Ashok, Booraksa, Terapong, Boonraksa, Promphak, Marungsri, Boonruang.  2022.  Optimal Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading by Applying Blockchain to Islanded Microgrid Considering V2G. 2022 19th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON). :1–4.
Energy trading in small groups or microgrids is interesting to study. The energy market may overgrow in the future, so accessing the energy market by small prosumers may not be difficult anymore. This paper has modeled a decentralized P2P energy trading and exchange system in a microgrid group. The Islanded microgrid system is simulated to create a small energy producer and consumer trading situation. The simulation results show the increasing energy transactions and profit when including V2G as an energy storage device. In addition, blockchain is used for system security because a peer-to-peer marketplace has no intermediary control.
Boiarkin, Veniamin, Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan.  2022.  A novel Blockchain-Based Data-Aggregation scheme for Edge-Enabled Microgrid of Prosumers. 2022 Fourth International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (BCCA). :63—68.

The concept of a microgrid has emerged as a promising solution for the management of local groups of electricity consumers and producers. The use of end-users' energy usage data can help in increasing efficient operation of a microgrid. However, existing data-aggregation schemes for a microgrid suffer different cyber attacks and do not provide high level of accuracy. This work aims at designing a privacy-preserving data-aggregation scheme for a microgrid of prosumers that achieves high level of accuracy, thereby benefiting to the management and control of a microgrid. First, a novel smart meter readings data protection mechanism is proposed to ensure privacy of prosumers by hiding the real energy usage data from other parties. Secondly, a blockchain-based data-aggregation scheme is proposed to ensure privacy of the end-users, while achieving high level of accuracy in terms of the aggregated data. The proposed data-aggregation scheme is evaluated using real smart meter readings data from 100 prosumers. The results show that the proposed scheme ensures prosumers' privacy and achieves high level of accuracy, while it is secure against eavesdropping and man-in-the-middle cyber attacks.

Venkataramanan, Venkatesh, Srivastava, Anurag K., Hahn, Adam, Zonouz, Saman.  2019.  Measuring and Enhancing Microgrid Resiliency Against Cyber Threats. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 55:6303—6312.
Recent cyber attacks on the power grid have been of increasing complexity and sophistication. In order to understand the impact of cyber-attacks on the power system resiliency, it is important to consider an holistic cyber-physical system specially with increasing industrial automation. In this study, device-level resilience properties of the various controllers and their impact on the microgrid resiliency is studied. In addition, a cyber-physical resiliency metric considering vulnerabilities, system model, and device-level properties is proposed. Resiliency is defined as the system ability to provide energy to critical loads even in extreme contingencies and depends on system ability to withstand, predict, and recover. A use case is presented inspired by the recent Ukraine cyber-attack. A use case has been presented to demonstrate application of the developed cyber-physical resiliency metric to enhance situational awareness of the operator, and enable better proactive or remedial control actions to improve resiliency.
Venkataramanan, V., Srivastava, A., Hahn, A., Zonouz, S..  2018.  Enhancing Microgrid Resiliency Against Cyber Vulnerabilities. 2018 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS). :1—8.
Recent cyber attacks on the power grid have been of increasing complexity and sophistication. In order to understand the impact of cyber-attacks on the power system resiliency, it is important to consider an holistic cyber-physical system specially with increasing industrial automation. In this work, device level resilience properties of the various controllers and their impact on the microgrid resiliency is studied. In addition, a cyber-physical resiliency metric considering vulnerabilities, system model, and device level properties is proposed. A use case is presented inspired by the recent Ukraine cyber-attack. A use case has been presented to demonstrate application of the developed cyber-physical resiliency metric to enhance situational awareness of the operator, and enable better control actions to improve resiliency.
Roy, Vishwajit, Noureen, Subrina Sultana, Atique, Sharif, Bayne, Stephen, Giesselmann, Michael.  2021.  Intrusion Detection from Synchrophasor Data propagation using Cyber Physical Platform. 2021 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability (SusTech). :1–5.
Some of the recent reports show that Power Grid is a target of attack and gradually the need for understanding the security of Grid network is getting a prime focus. The Department of Homeland Security has imposed focus on Cyber Threats on Power Grid in their "Cyber Security Strategy,2018" [1] . DHS has focused on innovations to manage risk attacks on Power System based national resources. Power Grid is a cyber physical system which consists of power flow and data transmission. The important part of a microgrid is the two-way power flow which makes the system complex on monitoring and control. In this paper, we have tried to study different types of attacks which change the data propagation of Synchrophasor, network communication interruption behavior and find the data propagation scenario due to attack. The focus of the paper is to develop a platform for Synchrophasor based data network attack study which is a part of Microgrid design. Different types of intrusion models were studied to observe change in Synchrophasor data pattern which will help for further prediction to improve Microgrid resiliency for different types of cyber-attack.
Beg, Omar Ali, Yadav, Ajay P., Johnson, Taylor T., Davoudi, Ali.  2020.  Formal Online Resiliency Monitoring in Microgrids. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :99–105.
This work adopts an online resiliency monitoring framework employing metric temporal logic (MTL) under cyber-physical anomalies, namely false-data injection attacks, denial-of-service attacks, and physical faults. Such anomalies adversely affect the frequency synchronization, load sharing, and voltage regulation in microgrids. MTL formalism is adopted to monitor the outputs of inverters/converters against operational bounds, detect and quantify cyber-physical anomalies, monitor the microgrid's resiliency during runtime, and compare mitigation strategies. Since the proposed framework does not require system knowledge, it can be deployed on a complex microgrid. This is verified using an IEEE 34-bus feeder system and a DC microgrid cluster in a controller/hardware-in-the-loop environment.
Venkataramanan, Venkatesh, Hahn, Adam, Srivastava, Anurag.  2020.  CP-SAM: Cyber-Physical Security Assessment Metric for Monitoring Microgrid Resiliency. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 11:1055–1065.
Trustworthy and secure operation of the cyber-power system calls for resilience against malicious and accidental failures. The objective of a resilient system is to withstand and recover operation of the system to supply critical loads despite multiple contingencies in the system. To take timely actions, we need to continuously measure the cyberphysical security of the system. We propose a cyber-physical security assessment metric (CP-SAM) based on quantitative factors affecting resiliency and utilizing concepts from graph theoretic analysis, probabilistic model of availability, attack graph metrics, and vulnerabilities across different layers of the microgrid system. These factors are integrated into a single metric using a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique, Choquet Integral to compute CP-SAM. The developed metric will be valuable for i) monitoring the microgrid resiliency considering a holistic cyber-physical model; and ii) enable better decision-making to select best possible mitigation strategies towards resilient microgrid system. Developed CP-SAM can be extended for active distribution system and has been validated in a real-world power-grid test-bed to monitor the microgrid resiliency.
Siritoglou, Petros, Oriti, Giovanna.  2020.  Distributed Energy Resources Design Method to Improve Energy Security in Critical Facilities. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2020 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1–6.

This paper presents a user-friendly design method for accurately sizing the distributed energy resources of a stand-alone microgrid to meet the critical load demands of a military, commercial, industrial, or residential facility when the utility power is not available. The microgrid combines renewable resources such as photovoltaics (PV) with an energy storage system to increase energy security for facilities with critical loads. The design tool's novelty includes compliance with IEEE standards 1562 and 1013 and addresses resilience, which is not taken into account in existing design methods. Several case studies, simulated with a physics-based model, validate the proposed design method. Additionally, the design and the simulations were validated by 24-hour laboratory experiments conducted on a microgrid assembled using commercial off the shelf components.

Cheng, Z., Chow, M.-Y..  2020.  An Augmented Bayesian Reputation Metric for Trustworthiness Evaluation in Consensus-based Distributed Microgrid Energy Management Systems with Energy Storage. 2020 2nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics for Sustainable Energy Systems (IESES). 1:215–220.
Consensus-based distributed microgrid energy management system is one of the most used distributed control strategies in the microgrid area. To improve its cybersecurity, the system needs to evaluate the trustworthiness of the participating agents in addition to the conventional cryptography efforts. This paper proposes a novel augmented reputation metric to evaluate the agents' trustworthiness in a distributed fashion. The proposed metric adopts a novel augmentation method to substantially improve the trust evaluation and attack detection performance under three typical difficult-to-detect attack patterns. The proposed metric is implemented and validated on a real-time HIL microgrid testbed.
Ulrich, Jacob J., Vaagensmith, Bjorn C., Rieger, Craig G., Welch, Justin J..  2019.  Software Defined Cyber-Physical Testbed for Analysis of Automated Cyber Responses for Power System Security. 2019 Resilience Week (RWS). 1:47–54.

As the power grid becomes more interconnected the attack surface increases and determining the causes of anomalies becomes more complex. Automated responses are a mechanism which can provide resilience in a power system by responding to anomalies. An automated response system can make intelligent decisions when paired with an automated health assessment system which includes a human in the loop for making critical decisions. Effective responses can be determined by developing a matrix which considers the likely impacts on resilience if a response is taken. A testbed assists to analyze these responses and determine their effects on system resilience.

Brugman, Jonathon, Khan, Mohammed, Kasera, Sneha, Parvania, Masood.  2019.  Cloud Based Intrusion Detection and Prevention System for Industrial Control Systems Using Software Defined Networking. 2019 Resilience Week (RWS). 1:98—104.

Industrial control systems (ICS) are becoming more integral to modern life as they are being integrated into critical infrastructure. These systems typically lack application layer encryption and the placement of common network intrusion services have large blind spots. We propose the novel architecture, Cloud Based Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (CB-IDPS), to detect and prevent threats in ICS networks by using software defined networking (SDN) to route traffic to the cloud for inspection using network function virtualization (NFV) and service function chaining. CB-IDPS uses Amazon Web Services to create a virtual private cloud for packet inspection. The CB-IDPS framework is designed with considerations to the ICS delay constraints, dynamic traffic routing, scalability, resilience, and visibility. CB-IDPS is presented in the context of a micro grid energy management system as the test case to prove that the latency of CB-IDPS is within acceptable delay thresholds. The implementation of CB-IDPS uses the OpenDaylight software for the SDN controller and commonly used network security tools such as Zeek and Snort. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at using NFV in an ICS context for network security.

Gadde, Phani Harsha, Brahma, Sukumar.  2019.  Realistic Microgrid Test Bed for Protection and Resiliency Studies. 2019 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1–6.

Momentum towards realization of smart grid will continue to result in high penetration of renewable fed Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in the Electric Power System (EPS). The drive towards resiliency will enable a modular topology where several microgrids are tied to-gather, operating synchronously to form the future EPS. These microgrids may very well evolve to be fed by 100% Inverter Based Resources (IBRs), and required to operate reliably in both grid-connected and islanded modes. Since microgrids will evolve from existing distribution feeders, they will be unbalanced in terms of load, phases, and feeder-impedances. Protection and control of such microgrids, spanning over grid-connected mode, islanded mode, and transition mode need urgent attention. This paper focuses on the control aspect to facilitate stable operation and power sharing under these modes. A detailed EMTP model of a testbed using the IEEE 13-bus system is created in PSCAD, involving multiple inverters. Control strategy, modes, and implementation of inverter controls are described, and results showing stable operation and power sharing in all modes are presented.

Richardson, Walter, Seshadri, Sreenivas Sudarshan.  2019.  Cyber-Physical Resiliency for Islanded Microgrids. 2019 Resilience Week (RWS). 1:194–199.

This paper describes work in progress to analyze the cyber-physical resiliency of a microgrid when operated in islanded mode, as would be the case during an extreme event. The analysis must include each of the four components of a microgrid: sources or generation, energy storage, load, and power electronics interfaces. Two networks with disparate time constants must be accurately modeled. The electrical (and mechanical if there are generators or wind turbines) network is simulated with the power flow equations, a challenging control problem that requires accurate state estimation for its solution. In addition, there is the sensor-communication network consisting of legacy devices such as MV90 meters and SCADA hardware as well as IoT devices such as PMUs and grid management equipment.

Ferdowsi, Farzad, Barati, Masoud, Edrington, Chris S..  2019.  Real-Time Resiliency Assessment of Control Systems in Microgrids Using the Complexity Metric. 2019 IEEE Green Technologies Conference(GreenTech). :1-5.

This paper presents a novel technique to quantify the operational resilience for power electronic-based components affected by High-Impact Low-Frequency (HILF) weather-related events such as high speed winds. In this study, the resilience quantification is utilized to investigate how prompt the system goes back to the pre-disturbance or another stable operational state. A complexity quantification metric is used to assess the system resilience. The test system is a Solid-State Transformer (SST) representing a complex, nonlinear interconnected system. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique for quantifying the operational resilience in systems affected by weather-related disturbances.

Borra, V. S., Debnath, K..  2018.  Dynamic programming for solving unit commitment and security problems in microgrid systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Innovative Research and Development (ICIRD). :1–6.

In order to meet the demand of electrical energy by consumers, utilities have to maintain the security of the system. This paper presents a design of the Microgrid Central Energy Management System (MCEMS). It will plan operation of the system one-day advance. The MCEMS will adjust itself during operation if a fault occurs anywhere in the generation system. The proposed approach uses Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm solves the Unit Commitment (UC) problem and at the same time enhances the security of power system. A case study is performed with ten subsystems. The DP is used to manage the operation of the subsystems and determines the UC on the situation demands. Faults are applied to the system and the DP corrects the UC problem with appropriate power sources to maintain reliability supply. The MATLAB software has been used to simulate the operation of the system.

Ficco, M., Venticinque, S., Rak, M..  2017.  Malware Detection for Secure Microgrids: CoSSMic Case Study. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :336–341.

Information and communication technologies are extensively used to monitor and control electric microgrids. Although, such innovation enhance self healing, resilience, and efficiency of the energy infrastructure, it brings emerging security threats to be a critical challenge. In the context of microgrid, the cyber vulnerabilities may be exploited by malicious users for manipulate system parameters, meter measurements and price information. In particular, malware may be used to acquire direct access to monitor and control devices in order to destabilize the microgrid ecosystem. In this paper, we exploit a sandbox to analyze security vulnerability to malware of involved embedded smart-devices, by monitoring at different abstraction levels potential malicious behaviors. In this direction, the CoSSMic project represents a relevant case study.

Wang, Y., Pulgar-Painemal, H., Sun, K..  2017.  Online Analysis of Voltage Security in a Microgrid Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–5.

Although connecting a microgrid to modern power systems can alleviate issues arising from a large penetration of distributed generation, it can also cause severe voltage instability problems. This paper presents an online method to analyze voltage security in a microgrid using convolutional neural networks. To transform the traditional voltage stability problem into a classification problem, three steps are considered: 1) creating data sets using offline simulation results; 2) training the model with dimensional reduction and convolutional neural networks; 3) testing the online data set and evaluating performance. A case study in the modified IEEE 14-bus system shows the accuracy of the proposed analysis method increases by 6% compared to back-propagation neural network and has better performance than decision tree and support vector machine. The proposed algorithm has great potential in future applications.

Dong Jin, Illinois Institute of Technology, Zhiyi Li, Illinois Institute of Technology, Christopher Hannon, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chen Chen, Argonne National Laboratory, Jianhui Wang, Argonne National Laboratory, Mohammad Shahidehpour, Illinois Institute of Technology, Cheol Won Lee, National Research Institute, South Korea.  2017.  Toward a Cyber Resilient and Secure Microgrid Using Software-Defined Networking. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 8(5)

To build a resilient and secure microgrid in the face of growing cyber-attacks and cyber-mistakes, we present a software-defined networking (SDN)-based communication network architecture for microgrid operations. We leverage the global visibility, direct networking controllability, and programmability offered by SDN to investigate multiple security applications, including self-healing communication network management, real-time and uncertainty-aware communication network verification, and specification-based intrusion detection. We also expand a novel cyber-physical testing and evaluation platform that combines a power distribution system simulator (for microgrid energy services) and an SDN emulator with a distributed control environment (for microgrid communications). Experimental results demonstrate that the SDN-based communication architecture and applications can significantly enhance the resilience and security of microgrid operations against the realization of various cyber threats.

Ji, Y., Wang, J., Yan, S., Gao, W., Li, H..  2015.  Optimal microgrid energy management integrating intermittent renewable energy and stochastic load. 2015 IEEE Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). :334–338.

In this paper, we focus on energy management of distributed generators (DGs) and energy storage system (ESS) in microgrids (MG) considering uncertainties in renewable energy and load demand. The MG energy management problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming model based on optimization principle. Then, the optimization model is decomposed into a mixed integer quadratic programming problem by using discrete stochastic scenarios to approximate the continuous random variables. A Scenarios generation approach based on time-homogeneous Markov chain model is proposed to generate simulated time-series of renewable energy generation and load demand. Finally, the proposed stochastic programming model is tested in a typical LV network and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The simulation results show that the proposed stochastic programming model has a better performance to obtain robust scheduling solutions and lower the operating cost compared to the deterministic optimization modeling methods.

Christopher Hannon, Illinois Institute of Technology, Jiaqi Yan, Illinois Institute of Tecnology, Dong Jin, Illinois Institute of Technology.  2016.  DSSnet: A Smart Grid Modeling Platform Combining Electrical Power Distribution System Simulation and Software Defined Networking Emulation. ACM SIGSIM Conference on Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation.

The successful operations of modern power grids are highly dependent on a reliable and ecient underlying communication network. Researchers and utilities have started to explore the opportunities and challenges of applying the emerging software-de ned networking (SDN) technology to enhance eciency and resilience of the Smart Grid. This trend calls for a simulation-based platform that provides sufcient exibility and controllability for evaluating network application designs, and facilitating the transitions from inhouse research ideas to real productions. In this paper, we present DSSnet, a hybrid testing platform that combines a power distribution system simulator with an SDN emulator to support high delity analysis of communication network applications and their impacts on the power systems. Our contributions lay in the design of a virtual time system with the tight controllability on the execution of the emulation system, i.e., pausing and resuming any speci ed container processes in the perception of their own virtual clocks, with little overhead scaling to 500 emulated hosts with an average of 70 ms overhead; and also lay in the ecient synchronization of the two sub-systems based on the virtual time. We evaluate the system performance of DSSnet, and also demonstrate the usability through a case study by evaluating a load shifting algorithm.