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Hallaji, Ehsan, Razavi-Far, Roozbeh, Saif, Mehrdad.  2020.  Detection of Malicious SCADA Communications via Multi-Subspace Feature Selection. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1—8.
Security maintenance of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems has been a point of interest during recent years. Numerous research works have been dedicated to the design of intrusion detection systems for securing SCADA communications. Nevertheless, these data-driven techniques are usually dependant on the quality of the monitored data. In this work, we propose a novel feature selection approach, called MSFS, to tackle undesirable quality of data caused by feature redundancy. In contrast to most feature selection techniques, the proposed method models each class in a different subspace, where it is optimally discriminated. This has been accomplished by resorting to ensemble learning, which enables the usage of multiple feature sets in the same feature space. The proposed method is then utilized to perform intrusion detection in smaller subspaces, which brings about efficiency and accuracy. Moreover, a comparative study is performed on a number of advanced feature selection algorithms. Furthermore, a dataset obtained from the SCADA system of a gas pipeline is employed to enable a realistic simulation. The results indicate the proposed approach extensively improves the detection performance in terms of classification accuracy and standard deviation.
Bulle, Bruno B., Santin, Altair O., Viegas, Eduardo K., dos Santos, Roger R..  2020.  A Host-based Intrusion Detection Model Based on OS Diversity for SCADA. IECON 2020 The 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :691—696.
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been a frequent target of cyberattacks in Industrial Control Systems (ICS). As such systems are a frequent target of highly motivated attackers, researchers often resort to intrusion detection through machine learning techniques to detect new kinds of threats. However, current research initiatives, in general, pursue higher detection accuracies, neglecting the detection of new kind of threats and their proposal detection scope. This paper proposes a novel, reliable host-based intrusion detection for SCADA systems through the Operating System (OS) diversity. Our proposal evaluates, at the OS level, the SCADA communication over time and, opportunistically, detects, and chooses the most appropriate OS to be used in intrusion detection for reliability purposes. Experiments, performed through a variety of SCADA OSs front-end, shows that OS diversity provides higher intrusion detection scope, improving detection accuracy by up to 8 new attack categories. Besides, our proposal can opportunistically detect the most reliable OS that should be used for the current environment behavior, improving by up to 8%, on average, the system accuracy when compared to a single OS approach, in the best case.
Hasan, Tooba, Adnan, Akhunzada, Giannetsos, Thanassis, Malik, Jahanzaib.  2020.  Orchestrating SDN Control Plane towards Enhanced IoT Security. 2020 6th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft). :457—464.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly evolving, while introducing several new challenges regarding security, resilience and operational assurance. In the face of an increasing attack landscape, it is necessary to cater for the provision of efficient mechanisms to collectively detect sophisticated malware resulting in undesirable (run-time) device and network modifications. This is not an easy task considering the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of IoT environments; i.e., different operating systems, varied connected networks and a wide gamut of underlying protocols and devices. Malicious IoT nodes or gateways can potentially lead to the compromise of the whole IoT network infrastructure. On the other hand, the SDN control plane has the capability to be orchestrated towards providing enhanced security services to all layers of the IoT networking stack. In this paper, we propose an SDN-enabled control plane based orchestration that leverages emerging Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) classification models; a Deep Learning (DL) based architecture to combat malicious IoT nodes. It is a first step towards a new line of security mechanisms that enables the provision of scalable AI-based intrusion detection focusing on the operational assurance of only those specific, critical infrastructure components,thus, allowing for a much more efficient security solution. The proposed mechanism has been evaluated with current state of the art datasets (i.e., N\_BaIoT 2018) using standard performance evaluation metrics. Our preliminary results show an outstanding detection accuracy (i.e., 99.9%) which significantly outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. Based on our findings, we posit open issues and challenges, and discuss possible ways to address them, so that security does not hinder the deployment of intelligent IoT-based computing systems.
Chytas, S. P., Maglaras, L., Derhab, A., Stamoulis, G..  2020.  Assessment of Machine Learning Techniques for Building an Efficient IDS. 2020 First International Conference of Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies (SMARTTECH). :165—170.
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are the systems that detect and block any potential threats (e.g. DDoS attacks) in the network. In this project, we explore the performance of several machine learning techniques when used as parts of an IDS. We experiment with the CICIDS2017 dataset, one of the biggest and most complete IDS datasets in terms of having a realistic background traffic and incorporating a variety of cyber attacks. The techniques we present are applicable to any IDS dataset and can be used as a basis for deploying a real time IDS in complex environments.
Jin, R., He, X., Dai, H..  2019.  On the Security-Privacy Tradeoff in Collaborative Security: A Quantitative Information Flow Game Perspective. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 14:3273–3286.
To contest the rapidly developing cyber-attacks, numerous collaborative security schemes, in which multiple security entities can exchange their observations and other relevant data to achieve more effective security decisions, are proposed and developed in the literature. However, the security-related information shared among the security entities may contain some sensitive information and such information exchange can raise privacy concerns, especially when these entities belong to different organizations. With such consideration, the interplay between the attacker and the collaborative entities is formulated as Quantitative Information Flow (QIF) games, in which the QIF theory is adapted to measure the collaboration gain and the privacy loss of the entities in the information sharing process. In particular, three games are considered, each corresponding to one possible scenario of interest in practice. Based on the game-theoretic analysis, the expected behaviors of both the attacker and the security entities are obtained. In addition, the simulation results are presented to validate the analysis.
Xingjie, F., Guogenp, W., ShiBIN, Z., ChenHAO.  2020.  Industrial Control System Intrusion Detection Model based on LSTM Attack Tree. 2020 17th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Active Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP). :255–260.
With the rapid development of the Industrial Internet, the network security risks faced by industrial control systems (ICSs) are becoming more and more intense. How to do a good job in the security protection of industrial control systems is extremely urgent. For traditional network security, industrial control systems have some unique characteristics, which results in traditional intrusion detection systems that cannot be directly reused on it. Aiming at the industrial control system, this paper constructs all attack paths from the hacker's perspective through the attack tree model, and uses the LSTM algorithm to identify and classify the attack behavior, and then further classify the attack event by extracting atomic actions. Finally, through the constructed attack tree model, the results are reversed and predicted. The results show that the model has a good effect on attack recognition, and can effectively analyze the hacker attack path and predict the next attack target.
Gillen, R. E., Carter, J. M., Craig, C., Johnson, J. A., Scott, S. L..  2020.  Assessing Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Configurations for Industrial Control Systems. 2020 IEEE 21st International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM). :360—366.

To reduce cost and ease maintenance, industrial control systems (ICS) have adopted Ethernetbased interconnections that integrate operational technology (OT) systems with information technology (IT) networks. This integration has made these critical systems vulnerable to attack. Security solutions tailored to ICS environments are an active area of research. Anomalybased network intrusion detection systems are well-suited for these environments. Often these systems must be optimized for their specific environment. In prior work, we introduced a method for assessing the impact of various anomaly-based network IDS settings on security. This paper reviews the experimental outcomes when we applied our method to a full-scale ICS test bed using actual attacks. Our method provides new and valuable data to operators enabling more informed decisions about IDS configurations.

Ateş, Ç, Özdel, S., Anarim, E..  2020.  DDoS Detection Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Logic. 2020 28th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1—4.

While internet technologies are developing day by day, threats against them are increasing at the same speed. One of the most serious and common types of attacks is Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. The DDoS intrusion detection approach proposed in this study is based on fuzzy logic and entropy. The network is modeled as a graph and graphics-based features are used to distinguish attack traffic from non-attack traffic. Fuzzy clustering is applied based on these properties to indicate the tendency of IP addresses or port numbers to be in the same cluster. Based on this uncertainty, attack and non-attack traffic were modeled. The detection stage uses the fuzzy relevance function. This algorithm was tested on real data collected from Boğaziçi University network.

Malek, Z. S., Trivedi, B., Shah, A..  2020.  User behavior Pattern -Signature based Intrusion Detection. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :549—552.

Technology advancement also increases the risk of a computer's security. As we can have various mechanisms to ensure safety but still there have flaws. The main concerned area is user authentication. For authentication, various biometric applications are used but once authentication is done in the begging there was no guarantee that the computer system is used by the authentic user or not. The intrusion detection system (IDS) is a particular procedure that is used to identify intruders by analyzing user behavior in the system after the user logged in. Host-based IDS monitors user behavior in the computer and identify user suspicious behavior as an intrusion or normal behavior. This paper discusses how an expert system detects intrusions using a set of rules as a pattern recognized engine. We propose a PIDE (Pattern Based Intrusion Detection) model, which is verified previously implemented SBID (Statistical Based Intrusion Detection) model. Experiment results indicate that integration of SBID and PBID approach provides an extensive system to detect intrusion.

Ouiazzane, S., Addou, M., Barramou, F..  2020.  Toward a Network Intrusion Detection System for Geographic Data. 2020 IEEE International conference of Moroccan Geomatics (Morgeo). :1—7.

The objective of this paper is to propose a model of a distributed intrusion detection system based on the multi-agent paradigm and the distributed file system (HDFS). Multi-agent systems (MAS) are very suitable to intrusion detection systems as they can address the issue of geographic data security in terms of autonomy, distribution and performance. The proposed system is based on a set of autonomous agents that cooperate and collaborate with each other to effectively detect intrusions and suspicious activities that may impact geographic information systems. Our system allows the detection of known and unknown computer attacks without any human intervention (Security Experts) unlike traditional intrusion detection systems that rely on knowledge bases as a mechanism to detect known attacks. The proposed model allows a real time detection of known and unknown attacks within large networks hosting geographic data.

Yilmaz, I., Masum, R., Siraj, A..  2020.  Addressing Imbalanced Data Problem with Generative Adversarial Network For Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :25–30.

Machine learning techniques help to understand underlying patterns in datasets to develop defense mechanisms against cyber attacks. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) technique is a machine learning technique used in detecting attack vs. benign data. However, it is difficult to construct any effective model when there are imbalances in the dataset that prevent proper classification of attack samples in data. In this research, we use UGR'16 dataset to conduct data wrangling initially. This technique helps to prepare a test set from the original dataset to train the neural network model effectively. We experimented with a series of inputs of varying sizes (i.e. 10000, 50000, 1 million) to observe the performance of the MLP neural network model with distribution of features over accuracy. Later, we use Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model that produces samples of different attack labels (e.g. blacklist, anomaly spam, ssh scan) for balancing the dataset. These samples are generated based on data from the UGR'16 dataset. Further experiments with MLP neural network model shows that a balanced attack sample dataset, made possible with GAN, produces more accurate results than an imbalanced one.

Chauhan, R., Heydari, S. Shah.  2020.  Polymorphic Adversarial DDoS attack on IDS using GAN. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1–6.
Intrusion Detection systems are important tools in preventing malicious traffic from penetrating into networks and systems. Recently, Intrusion Detection Systems are rapidly enhancing their detection capabilities using machine learning algorithms. However, these algorithms are vulnerable to new unknown types of attacks that can evade machine learning IDS. In particular, they may be vulnerable to attacks based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). GANs have been widely used in domains such as image processing, natural language processing to generate adversarial data of different types such as graphics, videos, texts, etc. We propose a model using GAN to generate adversarial DDoS attacks that can change the attack profile and can be undetected. Our simulation results indicate that by continuous changing of attack profile, defensive systems that use incremental learning will still be vulnerable to new attacks.
Alabugin, S. K., Sokolov, A. N..  2020.  Applying of Generative Adversarial Networks for Anomaly Detection in Industrial Control Systems. 2020 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :199–203.

Modern industrial control systems (ICS) act as victims of cyber attacks more often in last years. These cyber attacks often can not be detected by classical information security methods. Moreover, the consequences of cyber attack's impact can be catastrophic. Since cyber attacks leads to appearance of anomalies in the ICS and technological equipment controlled by it, the task of intrusion detection for ICS can be reformulated as the task of industrial process anomaly detection. This paper considers the applicability of generative adversarial networks (GANs) in the field of industrial processes anomaly detection. Existing approaches for GANs usage in the field of information security (such as anomaly detection in network traffic) were described. It is proposed to use the BiGAN architecture in order to detect anomalies in the industrial processes. The proposed approach has been tested on Secure Water Treatment Dataset (SWaT). The obtained results indicate the prospects of using the examined method in practice.

Kirkbride, P., Dewan, M. A. Akber, Lin, F..  2020.  Game-Like Captchas for Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :312—315.

In this paper, we consider a novel method of mining biometric data for user authentication by replacing traditional captchas with game-like captchas. The game-like captchas present the user with a short game in which they attempt to get a high score. The data produced from a user's game play will be used to produce a behavior biometric based on user interactions, such as mouse movement, click patterns and game choices. The baseline expectation of interactive behavior will be used as a single factor in an intrusion detection system providing continuous authentication, considering the factors such as IP address, location, time of use, website interactions, and behavior anomalies. In addition to acting as a source of data, game-like captchas are expected to deter bots and automated systems from accessing web-based services and improving the user experience for the end-users who have become accustomed to monotonous alternatives, such as Google's re-captcha.

Perkins, J., Eikenberry, J., Coglio, A., Rinard, M..  2020.  Comprehensive Java Metadata Tracking for Attack Detection and Repair. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :39—51.

We present ClearTrack, a system that tracks meta-data for each primitive value in Java programs to detect and nullify a range of vulnerabilities such as integer overflow/underflow and SQL/command injection vulnerabilities. Contributions include new techniques for eliminating false positives associated with benign integer overflows and underflows, new metadata-aware techniques for detecting and nullifying SQL/command command injection attacks, and results from an independent evaluation team. These results show that 1) ClearTrack operates successfully on Java programs comprising hundreds of thousands of lines of code (including instrumented jar files and Java system libraries, the majority of the applications comprise over 3 million lines of code), 2) because of computations such as cryptography and hash table calculations, these applications perform millions of benign integer overflows and underflows, and 3) ClearTrack successfully detects and nullifies all tested integer overflow and underflow and SQL/command injection vulnerabilities in the benchmark applications.

Hakim, A. R., Rinaldi, J., Setiadji, M. Y. B..  2020.  Design and Implementation of NIDS Notification System Using WhatsApp and Telegram. 2020 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT). :1—4.

Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) can help administrators of a server in detecting attacks by analyzing packet data traffic on the network in real-time. If an attack occurs, an alert to the administrator is provided by NIDS so that the attack can be known and responded immediately. On the other hand, the alerts cannot be monitored by administrators all the time. Therefore, a system that automatically sends notifications to administrators in real-time by utilizing social media platforms is needed. This paper provides an analysis of the notification system built using Snort as NIDS with WhatsApp and Telegram as a notification platform. There are three types of attacks that are simulated and must be detected by Snort, which are Ping of Death attacks, SYN flood attacks, and SSH brute force attacks. The results obtained indicate that the system successfully provided notification in the form of attack time, IP source of the attack, source of attack port and type of attack in real-time.

Lee, T., Chang, L., Syu, C..  2020.  Deep Learning Enabled Intrusion Detection and Prevention System over SDN Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1—6.

The Software Defined Network (SDN) provides higher programmable functionality for network configuration and management dynamically. Moreover, SDN introduces a centralized management approach by dividing the network into control and data planes. In this paper, we introduce a deep learning enabled intrusion detection and prevention system (DL-IDPS) to prevent secure shell (SSH) brute-force attacks and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks in SDN. The packet length in SDN switch has been collected as a sequence for deep learning models to identify anomalous and malicious packets. Four deep learning models, including Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Stacked Auto-encoder (SAE), are implemented and compared for the proposed DL-IDPS. The experimental results show that the proposed MLP based DL-IDPS has the highest accuracy which can achieve nearly 99% and 100% accuracy to prevent SSH Brute-force and DDoS attacks, respectively.

Hossain, M. D., Ochiai, H., Doudou, F., Kadobayashi, Y..  2020.  SSH and FTP brute-force Attacks Detection in Computer Networks: LSTM and Machine Learning Approaches. 2020 5th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :491—497.

Network traffic anomaly detection is of critical importance in cybersecurity due to the massive and rapid growth of sophisticated computer network attacks. Indeed, the more new Internet-related technologies are created, the more elaborate the attacks become. Among all the contemporary high-level attacks, dictionary-based brute-force attacks (BFA) present one of the most unsurmountable challenges. We need to develop effective methods to detect and mitigate such brute-force attacks in realtime. In this paper, we investigate SSH and FTP brute-force attack detection by using the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep learning approach. Additionally, we made use of machine learning (ML) classifiers: J48, naive Bayes (NB), decision table (DT), random forest (RF) and k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN), for additional detection purposes. We used the well-known labelled dataset CICIDS2017. We evaluated the effectiveness of the LSTM and ML algorithms, and compared their performance. Our results show that the LSTM model outperforms the ML algorithms, with an accuracy of 99.88%.

Stępień, K., Poniszewska-Marańda, A..  2020.  Security methods against Black Hole attacks in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network. 2020 IEEE 19th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1–4.
Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET) are liable to the Black, Worm and Gray Hole attacks because of the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and a lack of authority standards. Black Hole attack covers the situation when a malicious node uses its routing protocol in order to publicize itself for having the shortest route to the destination node. This aggressive node publicizes its availability of fresh routes regardless of checking its routing table. The consequences of these attacks could lead not only to the broken infrastructure, but could cause hammering people's lives. This paper aims to investigate and compare methods for preventing such types of attacks in a VANET.
Moustafa, N., Keshky, M., Debiez, E., Janicke, H..  2020.  Federated TONİoT Windows Datasets for Evaluating AI-Based Security Applications. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :848—855.

Existing cyber security solutions have been basically developed using knowledge-based models that often cannot trigger new cyber-attack families. With the boom of Artificial Intelligence (AI), especially Deep Learning (DL) algorithms, those security solutions have been plugged-in with AI models to discover, trace, mitigate or respond to incidents of new security events. The algorithms demand a large number of heterogeneous data sources to train and validate new security systems. This paper presents the description of new datasets, the so-called ToNİoT, which involve federated data sources collected from Telemetry datasets of IoT services, Operating system datasets of Windows and Linux, and datasets of Network traffic. The paper introduces the testbed and description of TONİoT datasets for Windows operating systems. The testbed was implemented in three layers: edge, fog and cloud. The edge layer involves IoT and network devices, the fog layer contains virtual machines and gateways, and the cloud layer involves cloud services, such as data analytics, linked to the other two layers. These layers were dynamically managed using the platforms of software-Defined Network (SDN) and Network-Function Virtualization (NFV) using the VMware NSX and vCloud NFV platform. The Windows datasets were collected from audit traces of memories, processors, networks, processes and hard disks. The datasets would be used to evaluate various AI-based cyber security solutions, including intrusion detection, threat intelligence and hunting, privacy preservation and digital forensics. This is because the datasets have a wide range of recent normal and attack features and observations, as well as authentic ground truth events. The datasets can be publicly accessed from this link [1].

Widulinski, P., Wawryn, K..  2020.  A Human Immunity Inspired Intrusion Detection System to Search for Infections in an Operating System. 2020 27th International Conference on Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and System (MIXDES). :187—191.

In the paper, an intrusion detection system to safeguard computer software is proposed. The detection is based on negative selection algorithm, inspired by the human immunity mechanism. It is composed of two stages, generation of receptors and anomaly detection. Experimental results of the proposed system are presented, analyzed, and concluded.

Ratti, R., Singh, S. R., Nandi, S..  2020.  Towards implementing fast and scalable Network Intrusion Detection System using Entropy based Discretization Technique. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.

With the advent of networking technologies and increasing network attacks, Intrusion Detection systems are apparently needed to stop attacks and malicious activities. Various frameworks and techniques have been developed to solve the problem of intrusion detection, still there is need for new frameworks as per the challenging scenario of enormous scale in data size and nature of attacks. Current IDS systems pose challenges on the throughput to work with high speed networks. In this paper we address the issue of high computational overhead of anomaly based IDS and propose the solution using discretization as a data preprocessing step which can drastically reduce the computation overhead. We propose method to provide near real time detection of attacks using only basic flow level features that can easily be extracted from network packets.

Park, S. H., Park, H. J., Choi, Y..  2020.  RNN-based Prediction for Network Intrusion Detection. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC). :572—574.
We investigate a prediction model using RNN for network intrusion detection in industrial IoT environments. For intrusion detection, we use anomaly detection methods that estimate the next packet, measure and score the distance measurement in real packets to distinguish whether it is a normal packet or an abnormal packet. When the packet was learned in the LSTM model, two-gram and sliding window of N-gram showed the best performance in terms of errors and the performance of the LSTM model was the highest compared with other data mining regression techniques. Finally, cosine similarity was used as a scoring function, and anomaly detection was performed by setting a boundary for cosine similarity that consider as normal packet.
Al-Emadi, S., Al-Mohannadi, A., Al-Senaid, F..  2020.  Using Deep Learning Techniques for Network Intrusion Detection. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Informatics, IoT, and Enabling Technologies (ICIoT). :171—176.
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in network intrusion attacks which raises a great concern from the privacy and security aspects. Due to the advancement of the technology, cyber-security attacks are becoming very complex such that the current detection systems are not sufficient enough to address this issue. Therefore, an implementation of an intelligent and effective network intrusion detection system would be crucial to solve this problem. In this paper, we use deep learning techniques, namely, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) to design an intelligent detection system which is able to detect different network intrusions. Additionally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed solution using different evaluation matrices and we present a comparison between the results of our proposed solution to find the best model for the network intrusion detection system.
Ashraf, S., Ahmed, T..  2020.  Sagacious Intrusion Detection Strategy in Sensor Network. 2020 International Conference on UK-China Emerging Technologies (UCET). :1—4.
Almost all smart appliances are operated through wireless sensor networks. With the passage of time, due to various applications, the WSN becomes prone to various external attacks. Preventing such attacks, Intrusion Detection strategy (IDS) is very crucial to secure the network from the malicious attackers. The proposed IDS methodology discovers the pattern in large data corpus which works for different types of algorithms to detect four types of Denial of service (DoS) attacks, namely, Grayhole, Blackhole, Flooding, and TDMA. The state-of-the-art detection algorithms, such as KNN, Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and ANN are applied to the data corpus and analyze the performance in detecting the attacks. The analysis shows that these algorithms are applicable for the detection and prediction of unavoidable attacks and can be recommended for network experts and analysts.