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2020-03-12
Salmani, Hassan, Hoque, Tamzidul, Bhunia, Swarup, Yasin, Muhammad, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan JV, Karimi, Naghmeh.  2019.  Special Session: Countering IP Security Threats in Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE 37th VLSI Test Symposium (VTS). :1–9.

The continuing decrease in feature size of integrated circuits, and the increase of the complexity and cost of design and fabrication has led to outsourcing the design and fabrication of integrated circuits to third parties across the globe, and in turn has introduced several security vulnerabilities. The adversaries in the supply chain can pirate integrated circuits, overproduce these circuits, perform reverse engineering, and/or insert hardware Trojans in these circuits. Developing countermeasures against such security threats is highly crucial. Accordingly, this paper first develops a learning-based trust verification framework to detect hardware Trojans. To tackle Trojan insertion, IP piracy and overproduction, logic locking schemes and in particular stripped functionality logic locking is discussed and its resiliency against the state-of-the-art attacks is investigated.

Gorodnichev, Mikhail G., Nazarova, Anastasia N., Moseva, Marina S..  2019.  Development of Platform for Confirming and Storing Supply Data Using Blockchain Technology. 2019 International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :182–185.

This article is devoted to the development of a platform for reliable storage of information on supplies based on blockchain technology. The article discusses the main approaches to the work of decentralized applications, as well as the main problems.

Liang, Shiaofang, Li, Mingchen, Li, Wenjing.  2019.  Research on Traceability Algorithm of Logistics Service Transaction Based on Blockchain. 2019 18th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Applications for Business Engineering and Science (DCABES). :186–189.

The traditional logistics transaction lacks a perfect traceability mechanism, and the data information's integrity and safety are not guaranteed in the existing traceability system. In order to solve the problem of main body responsibility caused by the participation of many stakeholders and the uncompleted supervision system in the process of logistics service transaction, This paper proposes a traceability algorithm for logistics service transactions based on blockchain. Based on the logistics service supply chain and alliance chain, the paper firstly investigates the traditional logistics service supply chain, analyzes the existing problems, and combines the structural characteristics of the blockchain to propose a decentralized new logistics service supply chain concept model based on blockchain. Then, using Globe sandara 1 to standardize the physical products and data circulating in the new logistics service supply chain, form unified and standard traceable data, and propose a multi-dimensional traceable data model based on logistics service supply chain. Based on the proposed model, combined with the business process of the logistics service supply chain and asymmetric encryption, a blockchain-based logistics service transaction traceability algorithm is designed. Finally, the simulation results show that the algorithm realizes the end-to-end traceability of the logistics service supply chain, and the service transaction is transparent while ensuring the integrity and security of the data.

Yousuf, Soha, Svetinovic, Davor.  2019.  Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management: Preliminary Study. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :537–538.

Despite significant research, the supply chain management challenges still have a long way to go with respect to solving the issues such as management of product supply information, product lifecycle, transport history, etc. Given the recent rise of blockchain technology in various industrial sectors, our work explores the issues prevalent in each stage of the supply chain and checks their candidacy for the implementation using blockchain technology. The analysis is performed in terms of the characteristics of trust and decentralization with respect to forming a generalized framework. The main contribution of this work is to create a conceptual overview of the areas where blockchain integrates with supply chain management in order to benefit further research and development.

Kumar, Randhir, Tripathi, Rakesh.  2019.  Traceability of Counterfeit Medicine Supply Chain through Blockchain. 2019 11th International Conference on Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS). :568–570.

The main issues with drug safety in the counterfeit medicine supply chain, are to do with how the drugs are initially manufactured. The traceability of right and active pharmaceutical ingredients during actual manufacture is a difficult process, so detecting drugs that do not contain the intended active ingredients can ultimately lead to end-consumer patient harm or even death. Blockchain's advanced features make it capable of providing a basis for complete traceability of drugs, from manufacturer to end consumer, and the ability to identify counterfeit-drug. This paper aims to address the issue of drug safety using Blockchain and encrypted QR(quick response) code security.

Zhang, Haibo, Nakamura, Toru, Sakurai, Kouichi.  2019.  Security and Trust Issues on Digital Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :338–343.

This exploratory investigation aims to discuss current status and challenges, especially in aspect of security and trust problems, of digital supply chain management system with applying some advanced information technologies, such as Internet of Things, cloud computing and blockchain, for improving various system performance and properties, i.e. transparency, visibility, accountability, traceability and reliability. This paper introduces the general histories and definitions, in terms of information science, of the supply chain and relevant technologies which have been applied or are potential to be applied on supply chain with purpose of lowering cost, facilitating its security and convenience. It provides a comprehensive review of current relative research work and industrial cases from several famous companies. It also illustrates requirements or performance of digital supply chain system, security management and trust issues. Finally, this paper concludes several potential or existing security issues and challenges which supply chain management is facing.

Wu, Hanqing, Cao, Jiannong, Yang, Yanni, Tung, Cheung Leong, Jiang, Shan, Tang, Bin, Liu, Yang, Wang, Xiaoqing, Deng, Yuming.  2019.  Data Management in Supply Chain Using Blockchain: Challenges and a Case Study. 2019 28th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1–8.

Supply chain management (SCM) is fundamental for gaining financial, environmental and social benefits in the supply chain industry. However, traditional SCM mechanisms usually suffer from a wide scope of issues such as lack of information sharing, long delays for data retrieval, and unreliability in product tracing. Recent advances in blockchain technology show great potential to tackle these issues due to its salient features including immutability, transparency, and decentralization. Although there are some proof-of-concept studies and surveys on blockchain-based SCM from the perspective of logistics, the underlying technical challenges are not clearly identified. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analysis of potential opportunities, new requirements, and principles of designing blockchain-based SCM systems. We summarize and discuss four crucial technical challenges in terms of scalability, throughput, access control, data retrieval and review the promising solutions. Finally, a case study of designing blockchain-based food traceability system is reported to provide more insights on how to tackle these technical challenges in practice.

Gawanmeh, Amjad, Parvin, Sazia, Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi, de Souza-Daw, Tony, Kang, James, Kaspi, Samuel, Jackson, Joanna.  2019.  A Framework for Integrating Big Data Security Into Agricultural Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications (BigDataService). :191–194.

In the era of mass agriculture to keep up with the increasing demand for food production, advanced monitoring systems are required in order to handle several challenges such as perishable products, food waste, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. The evolution of Internet of Things have provided means for collecting, processing, and communicating data associated with agricultural processes. This have opened several opportunities to sustain, improve productivity and reduce waste in every step in the food supply chain system. On the hand, this resulted in several new challenges, such as, the security of the data, recording and representation of data, providing real time control, reliability of the system, and dealing with big data. This paper proposes an architecture for security of big data in the agricultural supply chain management system. This can help in reducing food waste, increasing the reliability of the supply chain, and enhance the performance of the food supply chain system.

2020-02-26
Tychalas, Dimitrios, Keliris, Anastasis, Maniatakos, Michail.  2019.  LED Alert: Supply Chain Threats for Stealthy Data Exfiltration in Industrial Control Systems. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :194–199.

Industrial Internet-of-Things has been touted as the next revolution in the industrial domain, offering interconnectivity, independence, real-time operation, and self-optimization. Integration of smart systems, however, bridges the gap between information and operation technology, creating new avenues for attacks from the cyber domain. The dismantling of this air-gap, in conjunction with the devices' long lifespan -in the range of 20-30 years-, motivates us to bring the attention of the community to emerging advanced persistent threats. We demonstrate a threat that bridges the air-gap by leaking data from memory to analog peripherals through Direct Memory Access (DMA), delivered as a firmware modification through the supply chain. The attack automatically adapts to a target device by leveraging the Device Tree and resides solely in the peripherals, completely transparent to the main CPU, by judiciously short-circuiting specific components. We implement this attack on a commercial Programmable Logic Controller, leaking information over the available LEDs. We evaluate the presented attack vector in terms of stealthiness, and demonstrate no observable overhead on both CPU performance and DMA transfer speed. Since traditional anomaly detection techniques would fail to detect this firmware trojan, this work highlights the need for industrial control system-appropriate techniques that can be applied promptly to installed devices.

Kuo, Man-Hsuan, Hu, Chun-Ming, Lee, Kuen-Jong.  2019.  Time-Related Hardware Trojan Attacks on Processor Cores. 2019 IEEE International Test Conference in Asia (ITC-Asia). :43–48.

Real-time clock circuits are widely used in modern electronic systems to provide time information to the systems at the beginning of the system power-on. In this paper, we present two types of Hardware Trojan designs that employ the time information as the trigger conditions. One is a real-time based Trojan, which will attack a system at some specific realworld time. The other is a relative-time based Trojan, which will be triggered when a specific time period passes after the system is powered on. In either case when a Trojan is triggered its payload may corrupt the system or leakage internal information to the outside world. Experimental results show that the extra power consumption, area overhead and delay time are all quite small and thus the detection of the Trojans is difficult by using traditional side-channel detection methods.

Guo, Xiaolong, Zhu, Huifeng, Jin, Yier, Zhang, Xuan.  2019.  When Capacitors Attack: Formal Method Driven Design and Detection of Charge-Domain Trojans. 2019 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1727–1732.

The rapid growth and globalization of the integrated circuit (IC) industry put the threat of hardware Trojans (HTs) front and center among all security concerns in the IC supply chain. Current Trojan detection approaches always assume HTs are composed of digital circuits. However, recent demonstrations of analog attacks, such as A2 and Rowhammer, invalidate the digital assumption in previous HT detection or testing methods. At the system level, attackers can utilize the analog properties of the underlying circuits such as charge-sharing and capacitive coupling effects to create information leakage paths. These new capacitor-based vulnerabilities are rarely covered in digital testings. To address these stealthy yet harmful threats, we identify a large class of such capacitor-enabled attacks and define them as charge-domain Trojans. We are able to abstract the detailed charge-domain models for these Trojans and expose the circuit-level properties that critically contribute to their information leakage paths. Aided by the abstract models, an information flow tracking (IFT) based solution is developed to detect charge-domain leakage paths and then identify the charge-domain Trojans/vulnerabilities. Our proposed method is validated on an experimental RISC microcontroller design injected with different variants of charge-domain Trojans. We demonstrate that successful detection can be accomplished with an automatic tool which realizes the IFT-based solution.

Shi, Qihang, Vashistha, Nidish, Lu, Hangwei, Shen, Haoting, Tehranipoor, Bahar, Woodard, Damon L, Asadizanjani, Navid.  2019.  Golden Gates: A New Hybrid Approach for Rapid Hardware Trojan Detection Using Testing and Imaging. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :61–71.

Hardware Trojans are malicious modifications on integrated circuits (IC), which pose a grave threat to the security of modern military and commercial systems. Existing methods of detecting hardware Trojans are plagued by the inability of detecting all Trojans, reliance on golden chip that might not be available, high time cost, and low accuracy. In this paper, we present Golden Gates, a novel detection method designed to achieve a comparable level of accuracy to full reverse engineering, yet paying only a fraction of its cost in time. The proposed method inserts golden gate circuits (GGC) to achieve superlative accuracy in the classification of all existing gate footprints using rapid scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backside ultra thinning. Possible attacks against GGC as well as malicious modifications on interconnect layers are discussed and addressed with secure built-in exhaustive test infrastructure. Evaluation with real SEM images demonstrate high classification accuracy and resistance to attacks of the proposed technique.

Nejat, Arash, Kazemi, Zahra, Beroulle, Vincent, Hely, David, Fazeli, Mahdi.  2019.  Restricting Switching Activity Using Logic Locking to Improve Power Analysis-Based Trojan Detection. 2019 IEEE 4th International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :49–54.

Nowadays due to economic reasons most of the semiconductor companies prefer to outsource the manufacturing part of their designs to third fabrication foundries, the so-called fabs. Untrustworthy fabs can extract circuit blocks, the called intellectual properties (IPs), from the layouts and then pirate them. Such fabs are suspected of hardware Trojan (HT) threat in which malicious circuits are added to the layouts for sabotage objectives. HTs lead up to increase power consumption in HT-infected circuits. However, due to process variations, the power of HTs including few gates in million-gate circuits is not detectable in power consumption analysis (PCA). Thus, such circuits should be considered as a collection of small sub-circuits, and PCA must be individually performed for each one of them. In this article, we introduce an approach facilitating PCA-based HT detection methods. Concerning this approach, we propose a new logic locking method and algorithm. Logic locking methods and algorithm are usually employed against IP piracy. They modify circuits such that they do not correctly work without applying a correct key to. Our experiments at the gate level and post-synthesis show that the proposed locking method and algorithm increase the proportion of HT activity and consequently HT power to circuit power.

Wang, Yuze, Han, Tao, Han, Xiaoxia, Liu, Peng.  2019.  Ensemble-Learning-Based Hardware Trojans Detection Method by Detecting the Trigger Nets. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.

With the globalization of integrated circuit (IC) design and manufacturing, malicious third-party vendors can easily insert hardware Trojans into their intellect property (IP) cores during IC design phase, threatening the security of IC systems. It is strongly required to develop hardware-Trojan detection methods especially for the IC design phase. As the particularity of Trigger nets in Trojan circuits, in this paper, we propose an ensemble-learning-based hardware-Trojan detection method by detecting the Trigger nets at the gate level. We extract the Trigger-net features for each net from known netlists and use the ensemble learning method to train two detection models according to the Trojan types. The detection models are used to identify suspicious Trigger nets in an unknown detected netlist and give results of suspiciousness values for each detected net. By flagging the top n% suspicious nets of each detection model as the suspicious Trigger nets based on the suspiciousness values, the proposed method can achieve, on average, 88% true positive rate, 90% true negative rate, and 90% Accuracy.

Inaba, Koutaro, Yoneda, Tomohiro, Kanamoto, Toshiki, Kurokawa, Atsushi, Imai, Masashi.  2019.  Hardware Trojan Insertion and Detection in Asynchronous Circuits. 2019 25th IEEE International Symposium on Asynchronous Circuits and Systems (ASYNC). :134–143.

Hardware Trojan threats caused by malicious designers and untrusted manufacturers have become one of serious issues in modern VLSI systems. In this paper, we show some experimental results to insert hardware Trojans into asynchronous circuits. As a result, the overhead of hardware Trojan insertion in asynchronous circuits may be small for malicious designers who have enough knowledge about the asynchronous circuits. In addition, we also show several Trojan detection methods using deep learning schemes which have been proposed to detect synchronous hardware Trojan in the netlist level. We apply them to asynchronous hardware Trojan circuits and show their results. They have a great potential to detect a hardware Trojan in asynchronous circuits.

Danger, Jean-Luc, Fribourg, Laurent, Kühne, Ulrich, Naceur, Maha.  2019.  LAOCOÖN: A Run-Time Monitoring and Verification Approach for Hardware Trojan Detection. 2019 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :269–276.

Hardware Trojan Horses and active fault attacks are a threat to the safety and security of electronic systems. By such manipulations, an attacker can extract sensitive information or disturb the functionality of a device. Therefore, several protections against malicious inclusions have been devised in recent years. A prominent technique to detect abnormal behavior in the field is run-time verification. It relies on dedicated monitoring circuits and on verification rules generated from a set of temporal properties. An important question when dealing with such protections is the effectiveness of the protection against unknown attacks. In this paper, we present a methodology based on automatic generation of monitoring and formal verification techniques that can be used to validate and analyze the quality of a set of temporal properties when used as protection against generic attackers of variable strengths.

Han, Tao, Wang, Yuze, Liu, Peng.  2019.  Hardware Trojans Detection at Register Transfer Level Based on Machine Learning. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.

To accurately detect Hardware Trojans in integrated circuits design process, a machine-learning-based detection method at the register transfer level (RTL) is proposed. In this method, circuit features are extracted from the RTL source codes and a training database is built using circuits in a Hardware Trojans library. The training database is used to train an efficient detection model based on the gradient boosting algorithm. In order to expand the Hardware Trojans library for detecting new types of Hardware Trojans and update the detection model in time, a server-client mechanism is used. The proposed method can achieve 100% true positive rate and 89% true negative rate, on average, based on the benchmark from Trust-Hub.

Gountia, Debasis, Roy, Sudip.  2019.  Checkpoints Assignment on Cyber-Physical Digital Microfluidic Biochips for Early Detection of Hardware Trojans. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :16–21.

Present security study involving analysis of manipulation of individual droplets of samples and reagents by digital microfluidic biochip has remarked that the biochip design flow is vulnerable to piracy attacks, hardware Trojans attacks, overproduction, Denial-of-Service attacks, and counterfeiting. Attackers can introduce bioprotocol manipulation attacks against biochips used for medical diagnosis, biochemical analysis, and frequent diseases detection in healthcare industry. Among these attacks, hardware Trojans have created a major threatening issue in its security concern with multiple ways to crack the sensitive data or alter original functionality by doing malicious operations in biochips. In this paper, we present a systematic algorithm for the assignment of checkpoints required for error-recovery of available bioprotocols in case of hardware Trojans attacks in performing operations by biochip. Moreover, it can guide the placement and timing of checkpoints so that the result of an attack is reduced, and hence enhance the security concerns of digital microfluidic biochips. Comparative study with traditional checkpoint schemes demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm without overhead of the bioprotocol completion time with higher error detection accuracy.

2020-01-27
Yang, Kun, Forte, Domenic, Tehranipoor, Mark M..  2017.  CDTA: A Comprehensive Solution for Counterfeit Detection, Traceability, and Authentication in the IoT Supply Chain. ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems (TODAES). 22:42:1-42:31.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming the way we live and work by increasing the connectedness of people and things on a scale that was once unimaginable. However, the vulnerabilities in the IoT supply chain have raised serious concerns about the security and trustworthiness of IoT devices and components within them. Testing for device provenance, detection of counterfeit integrated circuits (ICs) and systems, and traceability of IoT devices are challenging issues to address. In this article, we develop a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based system suitable for counterfeit detection, traceability, and authentication in the IoT supply chain called CDTA. CDTA is composed of different types of on-chip sensors and in-system structures that collect necessary information to detect multiple counterfeit IC types (recycled, cloned, etc.), track and trace IoT devices, and verify the overall system authenticity. Central to CDTA is an RFID tag employed as storage and a channel to read the information from different types of chips on the printed circuit board (PCB) in both power-on and power-off scenarios. CDTA sensor data can also be sent to the remote server for authentication via an encrypted Ethernet channel when the IoT device is deployed in the field. A novel board ID generator is implemented by combining outputs of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) embedded in the RFID tag and different chips on the PCB. A light-weight RFID protocol is proposed to enable mutual authentication between RFID readers and tags. We also implement a secure interchip communication on the PCB. Simulations and experimental results using Spartan 3E FPGAs demonstrate the effectiveness of this system. The efficiency of the radio-frequency (RF) communication has also been verified via a PCB prototype with a printed slot antenna.

Sinclair, Dara, Shahriar, Hossain, Zhang, Chi.  2019.  Security Requirement Prototyping with Hyperledger Composer for Drug Supply Chain: A Blockchain Application. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy. :158–163.

Blockchain may have a potential to prove its value for the new US FDA regulatory requirements defined in the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA) as innovative solutions are needed to support the highly complex pharmaceutical industry supply chain as it seeks to comply. In this paper, we examine how blockchain can be applied to meet with the security compliance requirement for the pharmaceutical supply chain. We explore the online playground of Hyperledger Composer, a set of tools for building blockchain business networks, to model the data and access control rules for the drug supply chain. Our experiment shows that this solution can provide a prototyping opportunity for compliance checking with certain limitations.

2020-01-21
Hou, Ye, Such, Jose, Rashid, Awais.  2019.  Understanding Security Requirements for Industrial Control System Supply Chains. 2019 IEEE/ACM 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS). :50–53.

We address the need for security requirements to take into account risks arising from complex supply chains underpinning cyber-physical infrastructures such as industrial control systems (ICS). We present SEISMiC (SEcurity Industrial control SysteM supply Chains), a framework that takes into account the whole spectrum of security risks - from technical aspects through to human and organizational issues - across an ICS supply chain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of SEISMiC through a supply chain risk assessment of Natanz, Iran's nuclear facility that was the subject of the Stuxnet attack.

2019-02-18
Caballero-Gil, Pino, Caballero-Gil, Cándido, Molina-Gil, Jezabel.  2018.  Ubiquitous System to Monitor Transport and Logistics. Proceedings of the 15th ACM International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, & Ubiquitous Networks. :71–75.
In the management of transport and logistics, which includes the delivery, movement and collection of goods through roads, ports and airports, participate, in general, many different actors. The most critical aspects of supply chain systems include time, space and interdependencies. Besides, there are several security challenges that can be caused both by unintentional and intentional errors. With all this in mind, this work proposes the combination of technologies such as RFID, GPS, WiFi Direct and LTE/3G to automate product authentication and merchandise tracking, reducing the negative effects caused either by mismanagement or attacks against the process of the supply chain. In this way, this work proposes a ubiquitous management scheme for the monitoring through the cloud of freight and logistics systems, including demand management, customization and automatic replenishment of out-of-stock goods. The proposal implies an improvement in the efficiency of the systems, which can be quantified in a reduction of time and cost in the inventory and distribution processes, and in a greater facility for the detection of counterfeit versions of branded articles. In addition, it can be used to create safer and more efficient schemes that help companies and organizations to improve the quality of the service and the traceability of the transported goods.
Mann, Suruchi, Potdar, Vidyasagar, Gajavilli, Raj Shekhar, Chandan, Anulipt.  2018.  Blockchain Technology for Supply Chain Traceability, Transparency and Data Provenance. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Blockchain Technology and Application. :22–26.
The mining and metals industry is a critical component of the global economy. However, many operational and commercial practices remain inefficient and antiquated, leading to critical data omissions, security vulnerabilities, and even corruption. Mining supply chain faces several challenges like traceability, transparency, interoperability between supplier platforms and so on. Traditional systems are inefficient and hence this paper explores the use of an emerging digital technology named blockchain. The blockchain is a distributed digital ledger that keeps a record of every transaction securely and reliably without the need of third parties that reduces the exposure of the data to hackers. Blockchain technology improves productivity by replacing the standard contract with smart contracts. This paper outlines several key applications of blockchain for the mining industry.
Wang, Yuxin, Hulstijn, Joris, Tan, Yao-hua.  2018.  Regulatory Supervision with Computational Audit in International Supply Chains. Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age. :1:1–1:10.
Nowadays, as international trade with cross-border logistics increases, the administrative burden of regulatory authorities has been dramatically raised. In order to reduce repetitive and redundant supervisory controls and promote automatic administration procedures, electronic data interchange (EDI)1 and other forms of information sharing are introduced and implemented. Compliance monitoring ensures data quality for information exchange and audit purpose. However, failure to be compliant with various regulations is still a general phenomenon globally among stakeholders in supply chains, leading to more problems such as delay of goods delivery, missing inventory, and security issues. To address these problems, traditional physical auditing methods are widely used but turned out to be time-consuming and costly, especially when multiple stakeholders are involved. Since there is limited empirical research on compliance monitoring for regulatory supervision in international supply chains, we propose a compliance monitoring framework that can be applied with data sharing and analytics. The framework implementation is validated by an extensive case study on customs supervision in the Netherlands using process mining techniques. Practically, both public and private sectors will benefit from our descriptive and prescriptive analytics for audit purposes. Theoretically, our control strategies developed at the operational level facilitates mitigation of risks at root causes.
Hilt, Michael, Shao, Daniel, Yang, Baijian.  2018.  RFID Security, Verification, and Blockchain: Vulnerabilities Within the Supply Chain for Food Security. Proceedings of the 19th Annual SIG Conference on Information Technology Education. :145–145.

Over the past few decades, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been an important factor in securing products along the agri-food supply chain. However, there still exist security vulnerabilities when registering products to a specific RFID tag, particularly regarding the ease at which tags can be cloned. In this paper, a potential attack, labeled the "Hilt Shao attack", is identified which could occur during the initial phases of product registration, and demonstrate the type of attack using UID and CUID tags. Furthermore, a system is proposed using blockchain technology in order for the attacker to hide the cloned tag information. Results show that this attack, if carried out, can negate the profits of distributors along the supply chain, and negatively affect the consumer.