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AlEnezi, Ali, AlMeraj, Zainab, Manuel, Paul.  2018.  Challenges of IoT Based Smart-Government Development. 2018 IEEE Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech). :155—160.

Smart governments are known as extensions of e-governments both built on the Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, we classify smart governments into two types (1) new generation and (2) extended smart-government. We then put forth a framework for smart governments implementation and discuss the major challenges in its implementation showing security as the most prominent challenge in USA, mindscaping in Kuwait and investment in India.

Wijesekera, Primal.  2018.  Contextual permission models for better privacy protection. Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) 2008+.

Despite corporate cyber intrusions attracting all the attention, privacy breaches that we, as ordinary users, should be worried about occur every day without any scrutiny. Smartphones, a household item, have inadvertently become a major enabler of privacy breaches. Smartphone platforms use permission systems to regulate access to sensitive resources. These permission systems, however, lack the ability to understand users’ privacy expectations leaving a significant gap between how permission models behave and how users would want the platform to protect their sensitive data. This dissertation provides an in-depth analysis of how users make privacy decisions in the context of Smartphones and how platforms can accommodate user’s privacy requirements systematically. We first performed a 36-person field study to quantify how often applications access protected resources when users are not expecting it. We found that when the application requesting the permission is running invisibly to the user, they are more likely to deny applications access to protected resources. At least 80% of our participants would have preferred to prevent at least one permission request. To explore the feasibility of predicting user’s privacy decisions based on their past decisions, we performed a longitudinal 131-person field study. Based on the data, we built a classifier to make privacy decisions on the user’s behalf by detecting when the context has changed and inferring privacy preferences based on the user’s past decisions. We showed that our approach can accurately predict users’ privacy decisions 96.8% of the time, which is an 80% reduction in error rate compared to current systems. Based on these findings, we developed a custom Android version with a contextually aware permission model. The new model guards resources based on user’s past decisions under similar contextual circumstances. We performed a 38-person field study to measure the efficiency and usability of the new permission model. Based on exit interviews and 5M data points, we found that the new system is effective in reducing the potential violations by 75%. Despite being significantly more restrictive over the default permission systems, participants did not find the new model to cause any usability issues in terms of application functionality.

Oliveira, Luis, Luton, Jacob, Iyer, Sumeet, Burns, Chris, Mouzakitis, Alexandros, Jennings, Paul, Birrell, Stewart.  2018.  Evaluating How Interfaces Influence the User Interaction with Fully Autonomous Vehicles. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. :320–331.
With increasing automation, occupants of fully autonomous vehicles are likely to be completely disengaged from the driving task. However, even with no driving involved, there are still activities that will require interfaces between the vehicle and passengers. This study evaluated different configurations of screens providing operational-related information to occupants for tracking the progress of journeys. Surveys and interviews were used to measure trust, usability, workload and experience after users were driven by an autonomous low speed pod. Results showed that participants want to monitor the state of the vehicle and see details about the ride, including a map of the route and related information. There was a preference for this information to be displayed via an onboard touchscreen device combined with an overhead letterbox display versus a smartphone-based interface. This paper provides recommendations for the design of devices with the potential to improve the user interaction with future autonomous vehicles.
Belk, Marios, Pamboris, Andreas, Fidas, Christos, Katsini, Christina, Avouris, Nikolaos, Samaras, George.  2017.  Sweet-spotting Security and Usability for Intelligent Graphical Authentication Mechanisms. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. :252–259.
This paper investigates the trade-off between security and usability in recognition-based graphical authentication mechanisms. Through a user study (N=103) based on a real usage scenario, it draws insights about the security strength and memorability of a chosen password with respect to the amount of images presented to users during sign-up. In particular, it reveals the users' predisposition in following predictable patterns when selecting graphical passwords, and its effect on practical security strength. It also demonstrates that a "sweet-spot" exists between security and usability in graphical authentication approaches on the basis of adjusting accordingly the image grid size presented to users when creating passwords. The results of the study can be leveraged by researchers and practitioners engaged in designing intelligent graphical authentication user interfaces for striking an appropriate balance between security and usability.
Hibshi, H., Breaux, T. D..  2017.  Reinforcing Security Requirements with Multifactor Quality Measurement. 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE). :144–153.

Choosing how to write natural language scenarios is challenging, because stakeholders may over-generalize their descriptions or overlook or be unaware of alternate scenarios. In security, for example, this can result in weak security constraints that are too general, or missing constraints. Another challenge is that analysts are unclear on where to stop generating new scenarios. In this paper, we introduce the Multifactor Quality Method (MQM) to help requirements analysts to empirically collect system constraints in scenarios based on elicited expert preferences. The method combines quantitative statistical analysis to measure system quality with qualitative coding to extract new requirements. The method is bootstrapped with minimal analyst expertise in the domain affected by the quality area, and then guides an analyst toward selecting expert-recommended requirements to monotonically increase system quality. We report the results of applying the method to security. This include 550 requirements elicited from 69 security experts during a bootstrapping stage, and subsequent evaluation of these results in a verification stage with 45 security experts to measure the overall improvement of the new requirements. Security experts in our studies have an average of 10 years of experience. Our results show that using our method, we detect an increase in the security quality ratings collected in the verification stage. Finally, we discuss how our proposed method helps to improve security requirements elicitation, analysis, and measurement.

Kulyk, O., Reinheimer, B. M., Gerber, P., Volk, F., Volkamer, M., Mühlhäuser, M..  2017.  Advancing Trust Visualisations for Wider Applicability and User Acceptance. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :562–569.
There are only a few visualisations targeting the communication of trust statements. Even though there are some advanced and scientifically founded visualisations-like, for example, the opinion triangle, the human trust interface, and T-Viz-the stars interface known from e-commerce platforms is by far the most common one. In this paper, we propose two trust visualisations based on T-Viz, which was recently proposed and successfully evaluated in large user studies. Despite being the most promising proposal, its design is not primarily based on findings from human-computer interaction or cognitive psychology. Our visualisations aim to integrate such findings and to potentially improve decision making in terms of correctness and efficiency. A large user study reveals that our proposed visualisations outperform T-Viz in these factors.
Kiseleva, Julia, Williams, Kyle, Jiang, Jiepu, Hassan Awadallah, Ahmed, Crook, Aidan C., Zitouni, Imed, Anastasakos, Tasos.  2016.  Understanding User Satisfaction with Intelligent Assistants. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Conference on Human Information Interaction and Retrieval. :121–130.

Voice-controlled intelligent personal assistants, such as Cortana, Google Now, Siri and Alexa, are increasingly becoming a part of users' daily lives, especially on mobile devices. They introduce a significant change in information access, not only by introducing voice control and touch gestures but also by enabling dialogues where the context is preserved. This raises the need for evaluation of their effectiveness in assisting users with their tasks. However, in order to understand which type of user interactions reflect different degrees of user satisfaction we need explicit judgements. In this paper, we describe a user study that was designed to measure user satisfaction over a range of typical scenarios of use: controlling a device, web search, and structured search dialogue. Using this data, we study how user satisfaction varied with different usage scenarios and what signals can be used for modeling satisfaction in the different scenarios. We find that the notion of satisfaction varies across different scenarios, and show that, in some scenarios (e.g. making a phone call), task completion is very important while for others (e.g. planning a night out), the amount of effort spent is key. We also study how the nature and complexity of the task at hand affects user satisfaction, and find that preserving the conversation context is essential and that overall task-level satisfaction cannot be reduced to query-level satisfaction alone. Finally, we shed light on the relative effectiveness and usefulness of voice-controlled intelligent agents, explaining their increasing popularity and uptake relative to the traditional query-response interaction.