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Ge, X., Pan, Y., Fan, Y., Fang, C..  2019.  AMDroid: Android Malware Detection Using Function Call Graphs. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :71—77.

With the rapid development of the mobile Internet, Android has been the most popular mobile operating system. Due to the open nature of Android, c countless malicious applications are hidden in a large number of benign applications, which pose great threats to users. Most previous malware detection approaches mainly rely on features such as permissions, API calls, and opcode sequences. However, these approaches fail to capture structural semantics of applications. In this paper, we propose AMDroid that leverages function call graphs (FCGs) representing the behaviors of applications and applies graph kernels to automatically learn the structural semantics of applications from FCGs. We evaluate AMDroid on the Genome Project, and the experimental results show that AMDroid is effective to detect Android malware with 97.49% detection accuracy.

Wu, Y., Li, X., Zou, D., Yang, W., Zhang, X., Jin, H..  2019.  MalScan: Fast Market-Wide Mobile Malware Scanning by Social-Network Centrality Analysis. 2019 34th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE). :139—150.

Malware scanning of an app market is expected to be scalable and effective. However, existing approaches use either syntax-based features which can be evaded by transformation attacks or semantic-based features which are usually extracted by performing expensive program analysis. Therefor, in this paper, we propose a lightweight graph-based approach to perform Android malware detection. Instead of traditional heavyweight static analysis, we treat function call graphs of apps as social networks and perform social-network-based centrality analysis to represent the semantic features of the graphs. Our key insight is that centrality provides a succinct and fault-tolerant representation of graph semantics, especially for graphs with certain amount of inaccurate information (e.g., inaccurate call graphs). We implement a prototype system, MalScan, and evaluate it on datasets of 15,285 benign samples and 15,430 malicious samples. Experimental results show that MalScan is capable of detecting Android malware with up to 98% accuracy under one second which is more than 100 times faster than two state-of-the-art approaches, namely MaMaDroid and Drebin. We also demonstrate the feasibility of MalScan on market-wide malware scanning by performing a statistical study on over 3 million apps. Finally, in a corpus of dataset collected from Google-Play app market, MalScan is able to identify 18 zero-day malware including malware samples that can evade detection of existing tools.

Xylogiannopoulos, Konstantinos F., Karampelas, Panagiotis, Alhajj, Reda.  2019.  Text Mining for Malware Classification Using Multivariate All Repeated Patterns Detection. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM). :887—894.

Mobile phones have become nowadays a commodity to the majority of people. Using them, people are able to access the world of Internet and connect with their friends, their colleagues at work or even unknown people with common interests. This proliferation of the mobile devices has also been seen as an opportunity for the cyber criminals to deceive smartphone users and steel their money directly or indirectly, respectively, by accessing their bank accounts through the smartphones or by blackmailing them or selling their private data such as photos, credit card data, etc. to third parties. This is usually achieved by installing malware to smartphones masking their malevolent payload as a legitimate application and advertise it to the users with the hope that mobile users will install it in their devices. Thus, any existing application can easily be modified by integrating a malware and then presented it as a legitimate one. In response to this, scientists have proposed a number of malware detection and classification methods using a variety of techniques. Even though, several of them achieve relatively high precision in malware classification, there is still space for improvement. In this paper, we propose a text mining all repeated pattern detection method which uses the decompiled files of an application in order to classify a suspicious application into one of the known malware families. Based on the experimental results using a real malware dataset, the methodology tries to correctly classify (without any misclassification) all randomly selected malware applications of 3 categories with 3 different families each.

Jiang, Jianguo, Li, Song, Yu, Min, Li, Gang, Liu, Chao, Chen, Kai, Liu, Hui, Huang, Weiqing.  2019.  Android Malware Family Classification Based on Sensitive Opcode Sequence. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1—7.

Android malware family classification is an advanced task in Android malware analysis, detection and forensics. Existing methods and models have achieved a certain success for Android malware detection, but the accuracy and the efficiency are still not up to the expectation, especially in the context of multiple class classification with imbalanced training data. To address those challenges, we propose an Android malware family classification model by analyzing the code's specific semantic information based on sensitive opcode sequence. In this work, we construct a sensitive semantic feature-sensitive opcode sequence using opcodes, sensitive APIs, STRs and actions, and propose to analyze the code's specific semantic information, generate a semantic related vector for Android malware family classification based on this feature. Besides, aiming at the families with minority, we adopt an oversampling technique based on the sensitive opcode sequence. Finally, we evaluate our method on Drebin dataset, and select the top 40 malware families for experiments. The experimental results show that the Total Accuracy and Average AUC (Area Under Curve, AUC) reach 99.50% and 98.86% with 45. 17s per Android malware, and even if the number of malware families increases, these results remain good.

Chen, Lingwei, Hou, Shifu, Ye, Yanfang.  2017.  SecureDroid: Enhancing Security of Machine Learning-Based Detection Against Adversarial Android Malware Attacks. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :362–372.

With smart phones being indispensable in people's everyday life, Android malware has posed serious threats to their security, making its detection of utmost concern. To protect legitimate users from the evolving Android malware attacks, machine learning-based systems have been successfully deployed and offer unparalleled flexibility in automatic Android malware detection. In these systems, based on different feature representations, various kinds of classifiers are constructed to detect Android malware. Unfortunately, as classifiers become more widely deployed, the incentive for defeating them increases. In this paper, we explore the security of machine learning in Android malware detection on the basis of a learning-based classifier with the input of a set of features extracted from the Android applications (apps). We consider different importances of the features associated with their contributions to the classification problem as well as their manipulation costs, and present a novel feature selection method (named SecCLS) to make the classifier harder to be evaded. To improve the system security while not compromising the detection accuracy, we further propose an ensemble learning approach (named SecENS) by aggregating the individual classifiers that are constructed using our proposed feature selection method SecCLS. Accordingly, we develop a system called SecureDroid which integrates our proposed methods (i.e., SecCLS and SecENS) to enhance security of machine learning-based Android malware detection. Comprehensive experiments on the real sample collections from Comodo Cloud Security Center are conducted to validate the effectiveness of SecureDroid against adversarial Android malware attacks by comparisons with other alternative defense methods. Our proposed secure-learning paradigm can also be readily applied to other malware detection tasks.

Ali Alatwi, Huda, Oh, Tae, Fokoue, Ernest, Stackpole, Bill.  2016.  Android Malware Detection Using Category-Based Machine Learning Classifiers. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Information Technology Education. :54–59.

Android malware growth has been increasing dramatically as well as the diversity and complicity of their developing techniques. Machine learning techniques have been applied to detect malware by modeling patterns of static features and dynamic behaviors of malware. The accuracy rates of the machine learning classifiers differ depending on the quality of the features. We increase the quality of the features by relating between the apps' features and the features that are required to deliver its category's functionality. To measure the benign app references, the features of the top rated apps in a specific category are utilized to train a malware detection classifier for that given category. Android apps stores such as Google Play organize apps into different categories. Each category has its distinct functionalities which means the apps under a specific category are similar in their static and dynamic features. In other words, benign apps under a certain category tend to share a common set of features. On the contrary, malicious apps tend to have abnormal features, which are uncommon for the category that they belong to. This paper proposes category-based machine learning classifiers to enhance the performance of classification models at detecting malicious apps under a certain category. The intensive machine learning experiments proved that category-based classifiers report a remarkable higher average performance compared to non-category based.