Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-04-27
Mane, Y. D., Khot, U. P..  2020.  A Systematic Way to Implement Private Tor Network with Trusted Middle Node. 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1—6.

Initially, legitimate users were working under a normal web browser to do all activities over the internet [1]. To get more secure service and to get protection against Bot activity, the legitimate users switched their activity from Normal web browser to low latency anonymous communication such as Tor Browser. The Traffic monitoring in Tor Network is difficult as the packets are traveling from source to destination in an encrypted fashion and the Tor network hides its identity from destination. But lately, even the illegitimate users such as attackers/criminals started their activity on the Tor browser. The secured Tor network makes the detection of Botnet more difficult. The existing tools for botnet detection became inefficient against Tor-based bots because of the features of the Tor browser. As the Tor Browser is highly secure and because of the ethical issues, doing practical experiments on it is not advisable which could affect the performance and functionality of the Tor browser. It may also affect the endanger users in situations where the failure of Tor's anonymity has severe consequences. So, in the proposed research work, Private Tor Networks (PTN) on physical or virtual machines with dedicated resources have been created along with Trusted Middle Node. The motivation behind the trusted middle node is to make the Private Tor network more efficient and to increase its performance.

2021-04-09
Fadhilah, D., Marzuki, M. I..  2020.  Performance Analysis of IDS Snort and IDS Suricata with Many-Core Processor in Virtual Machines Against Dos/DDoS Attacks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Broadband Communications, Wireless Sensors and Powering (BCWSP). :157—162.
The rapid development of technology makes it possible for a physical machine to be converted into a virtual machine, which can operate multiple operating systems that are running simultaneously and connected to the internet. DoS/DDoS attacks are cyber-attacks that can threaten the telecommunications sector because these attacks cause services to be disrupted and be difficult to access. There are several software tools for monitoring abnormal activities on the network, such as IDS Snort and IDS Suricata. From previous studies, IDS Suricata is superior to IDS Snort version 2 because IDS Suricata already supports multi-threading, while IDS Snort version 2 still only supports single-threading. This paper aims to conduct tests on IDS Snort version 3.0 which already supports multi-threading and IDS Suricata. This research was carried out on a virtual machine with 1 core, 2 core, and 4 core processor settings for CPU, memory, and capture packet attacks on IDS Snort version 3.0 and IDS Suricata. The attack scenario is divided into 2 parts: DoS attack scenario using 1 physical computer, and DDoS attack scenario using 5 physical computers. Based on overall testing, the results are: In general, IDS Snort version 3.0 is better than IDS Suricata. This is based on the results when using a maximum of 4 core processor, in which IDS Snort version 3.0 CPU usage is stable at 55% - 58%, a maximum memory of 3,000 MB, can detect DoS attacks with 27,034,751 packets, and DDoS attacks with 36,919,395 packets. Meanwhile, different results were obtained by IDS Suricata, in which CPU usage is better compared to IDS Snort version 3.0 with only 10% - 40% usage, and a maximum memory of 1,800 MB. However, the capabilities of detecting DoS attacks are smaller with 3,671,305 packets, and DDoS attacks with a total of 7,619,317 packets on a TCP Flood attack test.
2021-02-10
Gomes, F., Correia, M..  2020.  Cryptojacking Detection with CPU Usage Metrics. 2020 IEEE 19th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1—10.
Cryptojacking is currently being exploited by cyber-criminals. This form of malware runs in the computers of victims without their consent. It often infects browsers and does CPU-intensive computations to mine cryptocurrencies on behalf of the cyber-criminal, which takes the profits without paying for the resources consumed. Such attacks degrade computer performance and potentially reduce the hardware lifetime. We introduce a new cryptojacking detection mechanism based on monitoring the CPU usage of the visited web pages. This may look like an unreliable way to detect mining malware since many web sites are heavy computationally and that malware often throttles CPU usage. However, by combining a set of CPU monitoring features and using machine learning, we manage to obtain metrics like precision and recall close to 1.
2021-01-25
Zhang, J., Ji, X., Xu, W., Chen, Y.-C., Tang, Y., Qu, G..  2020.  MagView: A Distributed Magnetic Covert Channel via Video Encoding and Decoding. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :357—366.

Air-gapped networks achieve security by using the physical isolation to keep the computers and network from the Internet. However, magnetic covert channels based on CPU utilization have been proposed to help secret data to escape the Faraday-cage and the air-gap. Despite the success of such cover channels, they suffer from the high risk of being detected by the transmitter computer and the challenge of installing malware into such a computer. In this paper, we propose MagView, a distributed magnetic cover channel, where sensitive information is embedded in other data such as video and can be transmitted over the air-gapped internal network. When any computer uses the data such as playing the video, the sensitive information will leak through the magnetic covert channel. The "separation" of information embedding and leaking, combined with the fact that the covert channel can be created on any computer, overcomes these limitations. We demonstrate that CPU utilization for video decoding can be effectively controlled by changing the video frame type and reducing the quantization parameter without video quality degradation. We prototype MagView and achieve up to 8.9 bps throughput with BER as low as 0.0057. Experiments under different environment are conducted to show the robustness of MagView. Limitations and possible countermeasures are also discussed.

2020-12-01
Garbo, A., Quer, S..  2018.  A Fast MPEG’s CDVS Implementation for GPU Featured in Mobile Devices. IEEE Access. 6:52027—52046.
The Moving Picture Experts Group's Compact Descriptors for Visual Search (MPEG's CDVS) intends to standardize technologies in order to enable an interoperable, efficient, and cross-platform solution for internet-scale visual search applications and services. Among the key technologies within CDVS, we recall the format of visual descriptors, the descriptor extraction process, and the algorithms for indexing and matching. Unfortunately, these steps require precision and computation accuracy. Moreover, they are very time-consuming, as they need running times in the order of seconds when implemented on the central processing unit (CPU) of modern mobile devices. In this paper, to reduce computation times and maintain precision and accuracy, we re-design, for many-cores embedded graphical processor units (GPUs), all main local descriptor extraction pipeline phases of the MPEG's CDVS standard. To reach this goal, we introduce new techniques to adapt the standard algorithm to parallel processing. Furthermore, to reduce memory accesses and efficiently distribute the kernel workload, we use new approaches to store and retrieve CDVS information on proper GPU data structures. We present a complete experimental analysis on a large and standard test set. Our experiments show that our GPU-based approach is remarkably faster than the CPU-based reference implementation of the standard, and it maintains a comparable precision in terms of true and false positive rates.
2020-07-20
Stroup, Ronald L., Niewoehner, Kevin R..  2019.  Application of Artificial Intelligence in the National Airspace System – A Primer. 2019 Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Conference (ICNS). :1–14.

The National Airspace System (NAS), as a portion of the US' transportation system, has not yet begun to model or adopt integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology. However, users of the NAS, i.e., Air transport operators, UAS operators, etc. are beginning to use this technology throughout their operations. At issue within the broader aviation marketplace, is the continued search for a solution set to the persistent daily delays and schedule perturbations that occur within the NAS. Despite billions invested through the NAS Modernization Program, the delays persist in the face of reduced demand for commercial routings. Every delay represents an economic loss to commercial transport operators, passengers, freighters, and any business depending on the transportation performance. Therefore, the FAA needs to begin to address from an advanced concepts perspective, what this wave of new technology will affect as it is brought to bear on various operations performance parameters, including safety, security, efficiency, and resiliency solution sets. This paper is the first in a series of papers we are developing to explore the application of AI in the National Airspace System (NAS). This first paper is meant to get everyone in the aviation community on the same page, a primer if you will, to start the technical discussions. This paper will define AI; the capabilities associated with AI; current use cases within the aviation ecosystem; and how to prepare for insertion of AI in the NAS. The next series of papers will look at NAS Operations Theory utilizing AI capabilities and eventually leading to a future intelligent NAS (iNAS) environment.

2020-07-10
Yulianto, Arief Dwi, Sukarno, Parman, Warrdana, Aulia Arif, Makky, Muhammad Al.  2019.  Mitigation of Cryptojacking Attacks Using Taint Analysis. 2019 4th International Conference on Information Technology, Information Systems and Electrical Engineering (ICITISEE). :234—238.

Cryptojacking (also called malicious cryptocurrency mining or cryptomining) is a new threat model using CPU resources covertly “mining” a cryptocurrency in the browser. The impact is a surge in CPU Usage and slows the system performance. In this research, in-browsercryptojacking mitigation has been built as an extension in Google Chrome using Taint analysis method. The method used in this research is attack modeling with abuse case using the Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack as a testing for mitigation. The proposed model is designed so that users will be notified if a cryptojacking attack occurs. Hence, the user is able to check the script characteristics that run on the website background. The results of this research show that the taint analysis is a promising method to mitigate cryptojacking attacks. From 100 random sample websites, the taint analysis method can detect 19 websites that are infcted by cryptojacking.

2019-01-16
Khan, F., Quweider, M., Torres, M., Goldsmith, C., Lei, H., Zhang, L..  2018.  Block Level Streaming Based Alternative Approach for Serving a Large Number of Workstations Securely and Uniformly. 2018 1st International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :92–98.
There are different traditional approaches to handling a large number of computers or workstations in a campus setting, ranging from imaging to virtualized environments. The common factor among the traditional approaches is to have a user workstation with a local hard drive (nonvolatile storage), scratchpad volatile memory, a CPU (Central Processing Unit) and connectivity to access resources on the network. This paper presents the use of block streaming, normally used for storage, to serve operating system and applications on-demand over the network to a workstation, also referred to as a client, a client computer, or a client workstation. In order to avoid per seat licensing, an Open Source solution is used, and in order to minimize the field maintenance and meet security privacy constraints, a workstation need not have a permanent storage such as a hard disk drive. A complete blue print, based on performance analyses, is provided to determine the type of network architecture, servers, workstations per server, and minimum workstation configuration, suitable for supporting such a solution. The results of implementing the proposed solution campus wide, supporting more than 450 workstations, are presented as well.
2018-11-19
Eskandari, S., Leoutsarakos, A., Mursch, T., Clark, J..  2018.  A First Look at Browser-Based Cryptojacking. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :58–66.

In this paper, we examine the recent trend to- wards in-browser mining of cryptocurrencies; in particular, the mining of Monero through Coinhive and similar code- bases. In this model, a user visiting a website will download a JavaScript code that executes client-side in her browser, mines a cryptocurrency - typically without her consent or knowledge - and pays out the seigniorage to the website. Websites may consciously employ this as an alternative or to supplement advertisement revenue, may offer premium content in exchange for mining, or may be unwittingly serving the code as a result of a breach (in which case the seigniorage is collected by the attacker). The cryptocurrency Monero is preferred seemingly for its unfriendliness to large-scale ASIC mining that would drive browser-based efforts out of the market, as well as for its purported privacy features. In this paper, we survey this landscape, conduct some measurements to establish its prevalence and profitability, outline an ethical framework for considering whether it should be classified as an attack or business opportunity, and make suggestions for the detection, mitigation and/or prevention of browser-based mining for non- consenting users.

2018-09-12
Khazankin, G. R., Komarov, S., Kovalev, D., Barsegyan, A., Likhachev, A..  2017.  System architecture for deep packet inspection in high-speed networks. 2017 Siberian Symposium on Data Science and Engineering (SSDSE). :27–32.

To solve the problems associated with large data volume real-time processing, heterogeneous systems using various computing devices are increasingly used. The characteristic of solving this class of problems is related to the fact that there are two directions for improving methods of real-time data analysis: the first is the development of algorithms and approaches to analysis, and the second is the development of hardware and software. This article reviews the main approaches to the architecture of a hardware-software solution for traffic capture and deep packet inspection (DPI) in data transmission networks with a bandwidth of 80 Gbit/s and higher. At the moment there are software and hardware tools that allow designing the architecture of capture system and deep packet inspection: 1) Using only the central processing unit (CPU); 2) Using only the graphics processing unit (GPU); 3) Using the central processing unit and graphics processing unit simultaneously (CPU + GPU). In this paper, we consider these key approaches. Also attention is paid to both hardware and software requirements for the architecture of solutions. Pain points and remedies are described.

2017-12-04
Rodrigues, P., Sreedharan, S., Basha, S. A., Mahesh, P. S..  2017.  Security threat identification using energy points. 2017 2nd International Conference on Anti-Cyber Crimes (ICACC). :52–54.

This research paper identifies security issues; especially energy based security attacks and enhances security of the system. It is very essential to consider Security of the system to be developed in the initial Phases of the software Cycle of Software Development (SDLC) as many billions of bucks are drained owing to security flaws in software caused due to improper or no security process. Security breaches that occur on software system are in umpteen numbers. Scientific Literature propose many solutions to overcome security issues, all security mechanisms are reactive in nature. In this paper new security solution is proposed that is proactive in nature especially for energy based denial of service attacks which is frequent in the recent past. Proposed solution is based on energy consumption by system known as energy points.

2015-05-06
Cheng-Hung Wu, Kuen-Jong Lee, Wei-Cheng Lien.  2014.  An efficient diagnosis method to deal with multiple fault-pairs simultaneously using a single circuit model. VLSI Test Symposium (VTS), 2014 IEEE 32nd. :1-6.

This paper proposes an efficient diagnosis-aware ATPG method that can quickly identify equivalent-fault pairs and generate diagnosis patterns for nonequivalent-fault pairs, where an (non)equivalent-fault pair contains two stuck-at faults that are (not) equivalent. A novel fault injection method is developed which allows one to embed all fault pairs undistinguished by the conventional test patterns into a circuit model with only one copy of the original circuit. Each pair of faults to be processed is transformed to a stuck-at fault and all fault pairs can be dealt with by invoking an ordinary ATPG tool for stuck-at faults just once. High efficiency of diagnosis pattern generation can be achieved due to 1) the circuit to be processed is read only once, 2) the data structure for ATPG process is constructed only once, 3) multiple fault pairs can be processed at a time, and 4) only one copy of the original circuit is needed. Experimental results show that this is the first reported work that can achieve 100% diagnosis resolutions for all ISCAS'89 and IWLS'05 benchmark circuits using an ordinary ATPG tool. Furthermore, we also find that the total number of patterns required to deal with all fault pairs in our method is smaller than that of the current state-of-the-art work.
 

2015-05-05
Bande, V., Pop, S., Pitica, D..  2014.  Smart diagnose procedure for data acquisition systems inside dams. Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging (SIITME), 2014 IEEE 20th International Symposium for. :179-182.

This scientific paper reveals an intelligent system for data acquisition for dam monitoring and diagnose. This system is built around the RS485 communication standard and uses its own communication protocol [2]. The aim of the system is to monitor all signal levels inside the communication bus, respectively to detect the out of action data loggers. The diagnose test extracts the following functional parameters: supply voltage and the absolute value and common mode value for differential signals used in data transmission (denoted with “A” and “B”). Analyzing this acquired information, it's possible to find short-circuits or open-circuits across the communication bus. The measurement and signal processing functions, for flaws, are implemented inside the system's central processing unit. The next testing step is finding the out of action data loggers and is being made by trying to communicate with every data logger inside the network. The lack of any response from a data logger is interpreted as an error and using the code of the data logger's microcontroller, it is possible to find its exact position inside the dam infrastructure. The novelty of this procedure is the fact that it completely automates the diagnose procedure, which, until now, was made visually by checking every data logger.
 

2014-09-26
Parno, B., McCune, J.M., Perrig, A.  2010.  Bootstrapping Trust in Commodity Computers. Security and Privacy (SP), 2010 IEEE Symposium on. :414-429.

Trusting a computer for a security-sensitive task (such as checking email or banking online) requires the user to know something about the computer's state. We examine research on securely capturing a computer's state, and consider the utility of this information both for improving security on the local computer (e.g., to convince the user that her computer is not infected with malware) and for communicating a remote computer's state (e.g., to enable the user to check that a web server will adequately protect her data). Although the recent "Trusted Computing" initiative has drawn both positive and negative attention to this area, we consider the older and broader topic of bootstrapping trust in a computer. We cover issues ranging from the wide collection of secure hardware that can serve as a foundation for trust, to the usability issues that arise when trying to convey computer state information to humans. This approach unifies disparate research efforts and highlights opportunities for additional work that can guide real-world improvements in computer security.