Visible to the public Biblio

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2020-03-30
Thida, Aye, Shwe, Thanda.  2020.  Process Provenance-based Trust Management in Collaborative Fog Environment. 2020 IEEE Conference on Computer Applications(ICCA). :1–5.
With the increasing popularity and adoption of IoT technology, fog computing has been used as an advancement to cloud computing. Although trust management issues in cloud have been addressed, there are still very few studies in a fog area. Trust is needed for collaborating among fog nodes and trust can further improve the reliability by assisting in selecting the fog nodes to collaborate. To address this issue, we present a provenance based trust mechanism that traces the behavior of the process among fog nodes. Our approach adopts the completion rate and failure rate as the process provenance in trust scores of computing workload, especially obvious measures of trustworthiness. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system can effectively be used for collaboration in a fog environment.
2020-03-12
Yousuf, Soha, Svetinovic, Davor.  2019.  Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management: Preliminary Study. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :537–538.

Despite significant research, the supply chain management challenges still have a long way to go with respect to solving the issues such as management of product supply information, product lifecycle, transport history, etc. Given the recent rise of blockchain technology in various industrial sectors, our work explores the issues prevalent in each stage of the supply chain and checks their candidacy for the implementation using blockchain technology. The analysis is performed in terms of the characteristics of trust and decentralization with respect to forming a generalized framework. The main contribution of this work is to create a conceptual overview of the areas where blockchain integrates with supply chain management in order to benefit further research and development.

2020-02-26
Zhong, Xiaoxiong, Lu, Renhao, Li, Li, Wang, Xinghan, Zheng, Yanbin.  2019.  DSOR: A Traffic-Differentiated Secure Opportunistic Routing with Game Theoretic Approach in MANETs. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1–6.

Recently, the increase of different services makes the design of routing protocols more difficult in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), e.g., how to guarantee the QoS of different types of traffics flows in MANETs with resource constrained and malicious nodes. opportunistic routing (OR) can make full use of the broadcast characteristics of wireless channels to improve the performance of MANETs. In this paper, we propose a traffic-differentiated secure opportunistic routing from a game theoretic perspective, DSOR. In the proposed scheme, we use a novel method to calculate trust value, considering node's forwarding capability and the status of different types of flows. According to the resource status of the network, we propose a service price and resource price for the auction model, which is used to select optimal candidate forwarding sets. At the same time, the optimal bid price has been proved and a novel flow priority decision for transmission is presented, which is based on waiting time and requested time. The simulation results show that the network lifetime, packet delivery rate and delay of the DSOR are better than existing works.

2020-02-24
Malik, Nisha, Nanda, Priyadarsi, He, Xiangjian, Liu, RenPing.  2019.  Trust and Reputation in Vehicular Networks: A Smart Contract-Based Approach. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :34–41.
Appending digital signatures and certificates to messages guarantee data integrity and ensure non-repudiation, but do not identify greedy authenticated nodes. Trust evolves if some reputable and trusted node verifies the node, data and evaluates the trustworthiness of the node using an accurate metric. But, even if the verifying party is a trusted centralized party, there is opacity and obscurity in computed reputation rating. The trusted party maps it with the node's identity, but how is it evaluated and what inputs derive the reputation rating remains hidden, thus concealment of transparency leads to privacy. Besides, the malevolent nodes might collude together for defamatory actions against reliable nodes, and eventually bad mouth these nodes or praise malicious nodes collaboratively. Thus, we cannot always assume the fairness of the nodes as the rating they give to any node might not be a fair one. In this paper, we propose a smart contract-based approach to update and query the reputation of nodes, stored and maintained by IPFS distributed storage. The use case particularly deals with an emergency scenario, dealing against colluding attacks. Our scheme is implemented using MATLAB simulation. The results show how smart contracts are capable of accurately identifying trustworthy nodes and record the reputation of a node transparently and immutably.
2020-02-10
Carneiro, Lucas R., Delgado, Carla A.D.M., da Silva, João C.P..  2019.  Social Analysis of Game Agents: How Trust and Reputation can Improve Player Experience. 2019 8th Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems (BRACIS). :485–490.
Video games normally use Artificial Intelligence techniques to improve Non-Player Character (NPC) behavior, creating a more realistic experience for their players. However, rational behavior in general does not consider social interactions between player and bots. Because of that, a new framework for NPCs was proposed, which uses a social bias to mix the default strategy of finding the best possible plays to win with a analysis to decide if other players should be categorized as allies or foes. Trust and reputation models were used together to implement this demeanor. In this paper we discuss an implementation of this framework inside the game Settlers of Catan. New NPC agents are created to this implementation. We also analyze the results obtained from simulations among agents and players to conclude how the use of trust and reputation in NPCs can create a better gaming experience.
2020-01-27
Nakamura, Emilio, Ribeiro, Sérgio.  2019.  Risk-Based Attributed Access Control Modelling in a Health Platform: Results from Project CityZen. 2019 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :391–398.

This paper presents an access control modelling that integrates risk assessment elements in the attribute-based model to organize the identification, authentication and authorization rules. Access control is complex in integrated systems, which have different actors accessing different information in multiple levels. In addition, systems are composed by different components, much of them from different developers. This requires a complete supply chain trust to protect the many existent actors, their privacy and the entire ecosystem. The incorporation of the risk assessment element introduces additional variables like the current environment of the subjects and objects, time of the day and other variables to help produce more efficient and effective decisions in terms of granting access to specific objects. The risk-based attributed access control modelling was applied in a health platform, Project CityZen.

2020-01-21
Aldairi, Maryam, Karimi, Leila, Joshi, James.  2019.  A Trust Aware Unsupervised Learning Approach for Insider Threat Detection. 2019 IEEE 20th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :89–98.

With the rapidly increasing connectivity in cyberspace, Insider Threat is becoming a huge concern. Insider threat detection from system logs poses a tremendous challenge for human analysts. Analyzing log files of an organization is a key component of an insider threat detection and mitigation program. Emerging machine learning approaches show tremendous potential for performing complex and challenging data analysis tasks that would benefit the next generation of insider threat detection systems. However, with huge sets of heterogeneous data to analyze, applying machine learning techniques effectively and efficiently to such a complex problem is not straightforward. In this paper, we extract a concise set of features from the system logs while trying to prevent loss of meaningful information and providing accurate and actionable intelligence. We investigate two unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms for insider threat detection and draw a comparison between different structures of the system logs including daily dataset and periodically aggregated one. We use the generated anomaly score from the previous cycle as the trust score of each user fed to the next period's model and show its importance and impact in detecting insiders. Furthermore, we consider the psychometric score of users in our model and check its effectiveness in predicting insiders. As far as we know, our model is the first one to take the psychometric score of users into consideration for insider threat detection. Finally, we evaluate our proposed approach on CERT insider threat dataset (v4.2) and show how it outperforms previous approaches.

2020-01-07
Hammami, Hamza, Brahmi, Hanen, Ben Yahia, Sadok.  2018.  Secured Outsourcing towards a Cloud Computing Environment Based on DNA Cryptography. 2018 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :31-36.

Cloud computing denotes an IT infrastructure where data and software are stored and processed remotely in a data center of a cloud provider, which are accessible via an Internet service. This new paradigm is increasingly reaching the ears of companies and has revolutionized the marketplace of today owing to several factors, in particular its cost-effective architectures covering transmission, storage and intensive data computing. However, like any new technology, the cloud computing technology brings new problems of security, which represents the main restrain on turning to this paradigm. For this reason, users are reluctant to resort to the cloud because of security and protection of private data as well as lack of trust in cloud service providers. The work in this paper allows the readers to familiarize themselves with the field of security in the cloud computing paradigm while suggesting our contribution in this context. The security schema we propose allowing a distant user to ensure a completely secure migration of all their data anywhere in the cloud through DNA cryptography. Carried out experiments showed that our security solution outperforms its competitors in terms of integrity and confidentiality of data.

2019-12-09
Tomić, Ivana, Chen, Po-Yu, Breza, Michael J., McCann, Julie A..  2018.  Antilizer: Run Time Self-Healing Security for Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the 15th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services. :107–116.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications range from domestic Internet of Things systems like temperature monitoring of homes to the monitoring and control of large-scale critical infrastructures. The greatest risk with the use of WSNs in critical infrastructure is their vulnerability to malicious network level attacks. Their radio communication network can be disrupted, causing them to lose or delay data which will compromise system functionality. This paper presents Antilizer, a lightweight, fully-distributed solution to enable WSNs to detect and recover from common network level attack scenarios. In Antilizer each sensor node builds a self-referenced trust model of its neighbourhood using network overhearing. The node uses the trust model to autonomously adapt its communication decisions. In the case of a network attack, a node can make neighbour collaboration routing decisions to avoid affected regions of the network. Mobile agents further bound the damage caused by attacks. These agents enable a simple notification scheme which propagates collaborative decisions from the nodes to the base station. A filtering mechanism at the base station further validates the authenticity of the information shared by mobile agents. We evaluate Antilizer in simulation against several routing attacks. Our results show that Antilizer reduces data loss down to 1% (4% on average), with operational overheads of less than 1% and provides fast network-wide convergence.
Rani, Rinki, Kumar, Sushil, Dohare, Upasana.  2019.  Trust Evaluation for Light Weight Security in Sensor Enabled Internet of Things: Game Theory Oriented Approach. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:8421–8432.
In sensor-enabled Internet of Things (IoT), nodes are deployed in an open and remote environment, therefore, are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Recently, trust-based schemes have played a pivotal role in addressing nodes' misbehavior attacks in IoT. However, the existing trust-based schemes apply network wide dissemination of the control packets that consume excessive energy in the quest of trust evaluation, which ultimately weakens the network lifetime. In this context, this paper presents an energy efficient trust evaluation (EETE) scheme that makes use of hierarchical trust evaluation model to alleviate the malicious effects of illegitimate sensor nodes and restricts network wide dissemination of trust requests to reduce the energy consumption in clustered-sensor enabled IoT. The proposed EETE scheme incorporates three dilemma game models to reduce additional needless transmissions while balancing the trust throughout the network. Specially: 1) a cluster formation game that promotes the nodes to be cluster head (CH) or cluster member to avoid the extraneous cluster; 2) an optimal cluster formation dilemma game to affirm the minimum number of trust recommendations for maintaining the balance of the trust in a cluster; and 3) an activity-based trust dilemma game to compute the Nash equilibrium that represents the best strategy for a CH to launch its anomaly detection technique which helps in mitigation of malicious activity. Simulation results show that the proposed EETE scheme outperforms the current trust evaluation schemes in terms of detection rate, energy efficiency and trust evaluation time for clustered-sensor enabled IoT.
Robert, Henzel, Georg, Herzwurm.  2018.  A preliminary approach towards the trust issue in cloud manufacturing using grounded theory: Defining the problem domain. 2018 4th International Conference on Universal Village (UV). :1–6.
In Cloud Manufacturing trust is an important, under investigated issue. This paper proceeds the noncommittal phase of the grounded theory method approach by investigating the trust topic in several research streams, defining the problem domain. This novel approach fills a research gap and can be treated as a snapshot and blueprint of research. Findings were accomplished by a structured literature review and are able to help future researchers in pursuing the integrative phase in Grounded Theory by building on the preliminary result of this paper.
Tucker, Scot.  2018.  Engineering Trust: A Graph-Based Algorithm for Modeling, Validating, and Evaluating Trust. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :1–9.
Trust is an important topic in today's interconnected world. Breaches of trust in today's systems has had profound effects upon us all, and they are very difficult and costly to fix especially when caused by flaws in the system's architecture. Trust modeling can expose these types of issues, but modeling trust in complex multi-tiered system architectures can be very difficult. Often experts have differing views of trust and how it applies to systems within their domain. This work presents a graph-based modeling methodology that normalizes the application of trust across disparate system domains allowing the modeling of complex intersystem trust relationships. An algorithm is proposed that applies graph theory to model, validate and evaluate trust in system architectures. Also, it provides the means to apply metrics to compare and prioritize the effectiveness of trust management in system and component architectures. The results produced by the algorithm can be used in conjunction with systems engineering processes to ensure both trust and the efficient use of resources.
2019-10-28
Huang, Jingwei.  2018.  From Big Data to Knowledge: Issues of Provenance, Trust, and Scientific Computing Integrity. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :2197–2205.
This paper addresses the nature of data and knowledge, the relation between them, the variety of views as a characteristic of Big Data regarding that data may come from many different sources/views from different viewpoints, and the associated essential issues of data provenance, knowledge provenance, scientific computing integrity, and trust in the data science process. Towards the direction of data-intensive science and engineering, it is of paramount importance to ensure Scientific Computing Integrity (SCI). A failure of SCI may be caused by malicious attacks, natural environmental changes, faults of scientists, operations mistakes, faults of supporting systems, faults of processes, and errors in the data or theories on which a research relies. The complexity of scientific workflows and large provenance graphs as well as various causes for SCI failures make ensuring SCI extremely difficult. Provenance and trust play critical role in evaluating SCI. This paper reports our progress in building a model for provenance-based trust reasoning about SCI.
2019-09-09
Jim, L. E., Gregory, M. A..  2018.  AIS Reputation Mechanism in MANET. 2018 28th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC). :1-6.

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) the nodes act as a host as well as a router thereby forming a self-organizing network that does not rely upon fixed infrastructure, other than gateways to other networks. MANET provides a quick to deploy flexible networking capability with a dynamic topology due to node mobility. MANET nodes transmit, relay and receive traffic from neighbor nodes as the network topology changes. Security is important for MANET and trust computation is used to improve collaboration between nodes. MANET trust frameworks utilize real-time trust computations to maintain the trust state for nodes in the network. If the trust computation is not resilient against attack, the trust values computed could be unreliable. This paper proposes an Artificial Immune System based approach to compute trust and thereby provide a resilient reputation mechanism.

2019-08-05
Vanickis, R., Jacob, P., Dehghanzadeh, S., Lee, B..  2018.  Access Control Policy Enforcement for Zero-Trust-Networking. 2018 29th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1-6.

The evolution of the enterprise computing landscape towards emerging trends such as fog/edge computing and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) are leading to a change of approach to securing computer networks to deal with challenges such as mobility, virtualized infrastructures, dynamic and heterogeneous user contexts and transaction-based interactions. The uncertainty introduced by such dynamicity introduces greater uncertainty into the access control process and motivates the need for risk-based access control decision making. Thus, the traditional perimeter-based security paradigm is increasingly being abandoned in favour of a so called "zero trust networking" (ZTN). In ZTN networks are partitioned into zones with different levels of trust required to access the zone resources depending on the assets protected by the zone. All accesses to sensitive information is subject to rigorous access control based on user and device profile and context. In this paper we outline a policy enforcement framework to address many of open challenges for risk-based access control for ZTN. We specify the design of required policy languages including a generic firewall policy language to express firewall rules. We design a mechanism to map these rules to specific firewall syntax and to install the rules on the firewall. We show the viability of our design with a small proof-of-concept.

Ghugar, U., Pradhan, J..  2018.  NL-IDS: Trust Based Intrusion Detection System for Network Layer in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2018 Fifth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC). :512-516.

From the last few years, security in wireless sensor network (WSN) is essential because WSN application uses important information sharing between the nodes. There are large number of issues raised related to security due to open deployment of network. The attackers disturb the security system by attacking the different protocol layers in WSN. The standard AODV routing protocol faces security issues when the route discovery process takes place. The data should be transmitted in a secure path to the destination. Therefore, to support the process we have proposed a trust based intrusion detection system (NL-IDS) for network layer in WSN to detect the Black hole attackers in the network. The sensor node trust is calculated as per the deviation of key factor at the network layer based on the Black hole attack. We use the watchdog technique where a sensor node continuously monitors the neighbor node by calculating a periodic trust value. Finally, the overall trust value of the sensor node is evaluated by the gathered values of trust metrics of the network layer (past and previous trust values). This NL-IDS scheme is efficient to identify the malicious node with respect to Black hole attack at the network layer. To analyze the performance of NL-IDS, we have simulated the model in MATLAB R2015a, and the result shows that NL-IDS is better than Wang et al. [11] as compare of detection accuracy and false alarm rate.

Nabipourshiri, Rouzbeh, Abu-Salih, Bilal, Wongthongtham, Pornpit.  2018.  Tree-Based Classification to Users' Trustworthiness in OSNs. Proceedings of the 2018 10th International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering. :190-194.

In the light of the information revolution, and the propagation of big social data, the dissemination of misleading information is certainly difficult to control. This is due to the rapid and intensive flow of information through unconfirmed sources under the propaganda and tendentious rumors. This causes confusion, loss of trust between individuals and groups and even between governments and their citizens. This necessitates a consolidation of efforts to stop penetrating of false information through developing theoretical and practical methodologies aim to measure the credibility of users of these virtual platforms. This paper presents an approach to domain-based prediction to user's trustworthiness of Online Social Networks (OSNs). Through incorporating three machine learning algorithms, the experimental results verify the applicability of the proposed approach to classify and predict domain-based trustworthy users of OSNs.

Zhuang, Wei, Zeng, Qingfeng.  2018.  A Trust-Based Framework for Internet Word of Mouth Effect in B2C Environment. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Computer Science and Application Engineering. :151:1-151:5.

As a valuable source of information, Word Of Mouth1 has always been valued by consumers and business marketers. The Internet provides a new medium for Word Of Mouth communication. Consumers share their views and comments on products, services, brands and enterprises through online platforms, thus forming Internet Word Of Mouth, which will be of great importance to B2C enterprises. However, disturbing and even false information as well as uncertainties and risks existing in the online communication environment lead to the crisis of online trust. Accordingly, this study constructs a trust mechanism model of Internet Word Of Mouth effect, which shows that the professionalism of communicators, online relationship strength, communication channels, and product involvement are key factors significantly affecting the Word Of Mouth effect. This model can provide theoretical guidance in the word-of-mouth marketing and the operation of B2C e-commerce enterprises.

2019-07-01
Nwebonyi, Francis N., Martins, Rolando, Correia, Manuel E..  2018.  Reputation-Based Security System For Edge Computing. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :39:1-39:8.

Given the centralized architecture of cloud computing, there is a genuine concern about its ability to adequately cope with the demands of connecting devices which are sharply increasing in number and capacity. This has led to the emergence of edge computing technologies, including but not limited to mobile edge-clouds. As a branch of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, mobile edge-clouds inherits disturbing security concerns which have not been adequately addressed in previous methods. P2P security systems have featured many trust-based methods owing to their suitability and cost advantage, but these approaches still lack in a number of ways. They mostly focus on protecting client nodes from malicious service providers, but downplay the security of service provider nodes, thereby creating potential loopholes for bandwidth attack. Similarly, trust bootstrapping is often via default scores, or based on heuristics that does not reflect the identity of a newcomer. This work has patched these inherent loopholes and improved fairness among participating peers. The use cases of mobile edge-clouds have been particularly considered and a scalable reputation based security mechanism was derived to suit them. BitTorrent protocol was modified to form a suitable test bed, using Peersim simulator. The proposed method was compared to some related methods in the literature through detailed simulations. Results show that the new method can foster trust and significantly improve network security, in comparison to previous similar systems.

2019-05-20
Caminha, J., Perkusich, A., Perkusich, M..  2018.  A smart middleware to detect on-off trust attacks in the Internet of Things. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–2.

Security is a key concern in Internet of Things (IoT) designs. In a heterogeneous and complex environment, service providers and service requesters must trust each other. On-off attack is a sophisticated trust threat in which a malicious device can perform good and bad services randomly to avoid being rated as a low trust node. Some countermeasures demands prior level of trust knowing and time to classify a node behavior. In this paper, we introduce a Smart Middleware that automatically assesses the IoT resources trust, evaluating service providers attributes to protect against On-off attacks.

2019-04-05
Konorski, J..  2018.  Double-Blind Reputation vs. Intelligent Fake VIP Attacks in Cloud-Assisted Interactions. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :1637-1641.

We consider a generic model of Client-Server interactions in the presence of Sender and Relay, conceptual agents acting on behalf of Client and Server, respectively, and modeling cloud service providers in the envisaged "QoS as a Service paradigm". Client generates objects which Sender tags with demanded QoS level, whereas Relay assigns the QoS level to be provided at Server. To verify an object's right to a QoS level, Relay detects its signature that neither Client nor Sender can modify. Since signature detection is costly, Relay tends to occasionally skip it and trust an object; this prompts Sender to occasionally launch a Fake VIP attack, i.e., demand undue QoS level. In a Stackelberg game setting, Relay employs a trust strategy in the form of a double-blind reputation scheme so as to minimize the signature detection cost and undue QoS provision, anticipating a best-response Fake VIP attack strategy on the part of Sender. We ask whether the double-blind reputation scheme, previously proved resilient to a probabilistic Fake VIP attack strategy, is equally resilient to more intelligent Sender behavior. Two intelligent attack strategies are proposed and analyzed using two-dimensional Markov chains.

2019-03-22
bt Yusof Ali, Hazirah Bee, bt Abdullah, Lili Marziana, Kartiwi, Mira, Nordin, Azlin.  2018.  Risk Assessment for Big Data in Cloud: Security, Privacy and Trust. Proceedings of the 2018 Artificial Intelligence and Cloud Computing Conference. :63-67.

The alarming rate of big data usage in the cloud makes data exposed easily. Cloud which consists of many servers linked to each other is used for data storage. Having owned by third parties, the security of the cloud needs to be looked at. Risks of storing data in cloud need to be checked further on the severity level. There should be a way to access the risks. Thus, the objective of this paper is to use SLR so that we can have extensive background of literatures on risk assessment for big data in cloud computing environment from the perspective of security, privacy and trust.

2019-03-11
Habib, S. M., Alexopoulos, N., Islam, M. M., Heider, J., Marsh, S., Müehlhäeuser, M..  2018.  Trust4App: Automating Trustworthiness Assessment of Mobile Applications. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :124–135.

Smartphones have become ubiquitous in our everyday lives, providing diverse functionalities via millions of applications (apps) that are readily available. To achieve these functionalities, apps need to access and utilize potentially sensitive data, stored in the user's device. This can pose a serious threat to users' security and privacy, when considering malicious or underskilled developers. While application marketplaces, like Google Play store and Apple App store, provide factors like ratings, user reviews, and number of downloads to distinguish benign from risky apps, studies have shown that these metrics are not adequately effective. The security and privacy health of an application should also be considered to generate a more reliable and transparent trustworthiness score. In order to automate the trustworthiness assessment of mobile applications, we introduce the Trust4App framework, which not only considers the publicly available factors mentioned above, but also takes into account the Security and Privacy (S&P) health of an application. Additionally, it considers the S&P posture of a user, and provides an holistic personalized trustworthiness score. While existing automatic trustworthiness frameworks only consider trustworthiness indicators (e.g. permission usage, privacy leaks) individually, Trust4App is, to the best of our knowledge, the first framework to combine these indicators. We also implement a proof-of-concept realization of our framework and demonstrate that Trust4App provides a more comprehensive, intuitive and actionable trustworthiness assessment compared to existing approaches.

Raj, R. V., Balasubramanian, K., Nandhini, T..  2018.  Establishing Trust by Detecting Malicious Nodes in Delay Tolerant Network. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1385–1390.
A Network consists of many nodes among which there may be a presence of misbehavior nodes. Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) is a network where the disconnections occur frequently. Store, carry and forward method is followed in DTN. The serious threat against routing in DTN is the selfish behavior. The main intention of selfish node is to save its own energy. Detecting the selfish node in DTN is very difficult. In this paper, a probabilistic misbehavior detection scheme called MAXTRUST has been proposed. Trusted Authority (TA) has been introduced in order to detect the behavior of the nodes periodically based on the task, forwarding history and contact history evidence. After collecting all the evidences from the nodes, the TA would check the inspection node about its behavior. The actions such as punishment or compensation would be given to that particular node based on its behavior. The TA performs probabilistic checking, in order to ensure security at a reduced cost. To further improve the efficiency, dynamic probabilistic inspection has been demonstrated using game theory analysis. The simulation results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the MAXTRUST scheme.
Mehta, R., Parmar, M. M..  2018.  Trust based mechanism for Securing IoT Routing Protocol RPL against Wormhole amp;Grayhole Attacks. 2018 3rd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–6.
Internet of Things is attracting a lot of interest in the modern world and has become a part of daily life leading to a large scale of distribution of Low power and Lossy Networks (LLN). For such networks constrained by low power and storage, IETF has proposed RPL an open standard routing protocol. However RPL protocol is exposed to a number of attacks which may degrade the performance and resources of the network leading to incorrect output. In this paper, to address Wormhole and Grayhole attack we propose a light weight Trust based mechanism. The proposed method uses direct trust which is computed based on node properties and Indirect Trust which is based on opinion of the neighboring nodes. The proposed method is energy friendly and does not impose excessive overhead on network traffic.