Visible to the public Biblio

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Anh, Dao Vu, Tran Thi Thanh, Thuy, Huu, Long Nguyen, Dung Truong, Cao, Xuan, Quyen Nguyen.  2021.  Performance Analysis of High-Speed Wavelength Division Multiplexing Communication Between Chaotic Secure and Optical Fiber Channels Using DP-16QAM Scheme. 2020 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Communications and Electronics (ICCE). :33—38.
In this paper, we propose a numerical simulation investigation of the wavelength division multiplexing mechanism between a chaotic secure channel and a traditional fiber channel using the advanced modulation method DP-16QAM at the bitrate of 80Gbps, the fiber length of 80 km and 100 GHz channel spacing in C-band. Our paper investigates correlation coefficients between the transmitter and also the receiver for two forms of communication channels. Our simulation results demonstrate that, in all cases, BER is always below 2.10-4 even when we have not used the forward-error-correction method. Besides, cross-interaction between the chaotic channel and also the non-chaotic channel is negligible showing a highly independent level between two channels.
Liu, Shiqin, Jiang, Ning, Zhang, Yiqun, Peng, Jiafa, Zhao, Anke, Qiu, Kun.  2021.  Security-enhanced Key Distribution Based on Chaos Synchronization Between Dual Path-injected Semiconductor Lasers. 2021 International Conference on UK-China Emerging Technologies (UCET). :109—112.
We propose and numerically demonstrate a novel secure key distribution scheme based on the chaos synchronization of two semiconductor lasers (SLs) subject to symmetrical double chaotic injections, which are outputted by two mutually-coupled semiconductor lasers. The results show that high quality chaos synchronization can be observed between two local SLs with suitable injection strength and identical injection time delays for Alice and Bob. On the basis of satisfactory chaos synchronization and a post-processing technology, identical secret keys for Alice and Bob are successfully generated with bit error ratio (BER) below the HD-FEC threshold of $^\textrm-3\$$\$.
Garcia, Daniel, Liu, Hong.  2021.  A Study of Post Quantum Cipher Suites for Key Exchange. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1—7.
Current cryptographic solutions used in information technologies today like Transport Layer Security utilize algorithms with underlying computationally difficult problems to solve. With the ongoing research and development of quantum computers, these same computationally difficult problems become solvable within reasonable (polynomial) time. The emergence of large-scale quantum computers would put the integrity and confidentiality of today’s data in jeopardy. It then becomes urgent to develop, implement, and test a new suite of cybersecurity measures against attacks from a quantum computer. This paper explores, understands, and evaluates this new category of cryptosystems as well as the many tradeoffs among them. All the algorithms submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for standardization can be categorized into three major categories, each relating to the new underlying hard problem: namely error code correcting, algebraic lattices (including ring learning with errors), and supersingular isogenies. These new mathematical hard problems have shown to be resistant to the same type of quantum attack. Utilizing hardware clock cycle registers, the work sets up the benchmarks of the four Round 3 NIST algorithms in two environments: cloud computing and embedded system. As expected, there are many tradeoffs and advantages in each algorithm for applications. Saber and Kyber are exceedingly fast but have larger ciphertext size for transmission over a wire. McEliece key size and key generation are the largest drawbacks but having the smallest ciphertext size and only slightly decreased performance allow a use case where key reuse is prioritized. NTRU finds a middle ground in these tradeoffs, being better than McEliece performance wise and better than Kyber and Saber in ciphertext size allows for a use case of highly varied environments, which need to value speed and ciphertext size equally. Going forward, the benchmarking system developed could be applied to digital signature, another vital aspect to a cryptosystem.
Asaithambi, Gobika, Gopalakrishnan, Balamurugan.  2021.  Design of Code and Chaotic Frequency Modulation for Secure and High Data rate Communication. 2021 5th International Conference on Computer, Communication and Signal Processing (ICCCSP). :1—6.
In Forward Error Correction (FEC), redundant bits are added for detecting and correcting bit error which increases the bandwidth. To solve this issue we combined FEC method with higher order M-ary modulation to provide a bandwidth efficient system. An input bit stream is mapped to a bi-orthogonal code on different levels based on the code rates (4/16, 3/16, and 2/16) used. The jamming attack on wireless networks are mitigated by Chaotic Frequency Hopping (CFH) spread spectrum technique. In this paper, to achieve better data rate and to transmit the data in a secured manner we combined FEC and CFH technique, represented as Code and Chaotic Frequency Modulation (CCFM). In addition, two rate adaptation algorithms namely Static retransmission rate ARF (SARF) and Fast rate reduction ARF (FARF) are employed in CFH technique to dynamically adapt the code rate based on channel condition to reduce a packet retransmission. Symbol Error Rate (SER) performance of the system is analyzed for different code rate with the conventional OFDM in the presence AWGN and Rayleigh channel and the reliability of CFH method is tested under different jammer.
Kaur, Satwinder, Kuttan, Deepak B, Mittal, Nitin.  2021.  An Energy-saving Approach for Error control Codes in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2021 2nd International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :313—316.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have limited energy resource which requires authentic data transmission at a minimum cost. The major challenge is to deploy WSN with limited energy and lifetime of nodes while taking care of secure data communication. The transmission of data from the wireless channels may cause many losses such as fading, noise, bit error rate increases as well as deplete the energy resource from the nodes. To reduce the adverse effects of losses and to save power usage, error control coding (ECC) techniques are widely used and it also brings coding gain. Since WSN have limited energy resource so the selection of ECC is very difficult as both power consumption, as well as BER, has also taken into consideration. This research paper reviews different types of models, their applications, limitations of the sensor networks, and what are different types of future works going to overcome the limitations.
Silvério, Tiago, Figueiredo, Gonçalo, André, Paulo S., Ferreira, Rute A.S..  2021.  Privacy Increase in VLC System Based on Hyperchaotic Map. 2021 Telecoms Conference (Conf℡E). :1—4.
Visible light communications (VLC) have been the focus of many recent investigations due to its potential for transmitting data at a higher bitrate than conventional communication systems. Alongside the advantages of being energy efficient through the use of LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes), it is imperative that these systems also take in consideration privacy and security measures available. This work highlights the technical aspects of a typical 16-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) VLC system incorporating an enhanced privacy feature using an hyperchaotic map to scramble the symbols. The results obtained in this study showed a low dispersion symbol constellation while communicating at 100 Baud and with a 1 m link. Using the measured EVM (Error Vector Magnitude) of the constellation, the BER (Bit Error Rate) of this system was estimated to be bellow 10−12 which is lower than the threshold limit of 3.8.10−3 that corresponds to the 7% hard-decision forward error correction (HD- FEC) for optimal transmission, showing that this technique can be implemented with higher bitrates and with a higher modulation index.
Mishra, Suman, Radhika, K, Babu, Y.Murali Mohan.  2021.  Error Detection And Correction In TCAMS Based SRAM. 2021 6th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC). :283—287.
Ternary content addressable memories (TCAMs) widely utilized in network systems to enforce the labeling of packets. For example, they are used for packet forwarding, security, and software-defined networks (SDNs). TCAMs are typically deployed as standalone instruments or as an embedded intellectual property component on application-specific integrated circuits. However, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) do not have TCAM bases. However, FPGAs’ versatility allows them to appeal for SDN deployment, and most FPGA vendors have SDN production kits. Those need to help TCAM features and then simulate TCAMs using the FPGA logic blocks. Several methods to reproduction TCAMs on FPGAs have been introduced in recent years. Some of them use a huge multiple storage blocks within modern FPGAs to incorporate TCAMs. A trouble while remembrances are that soft errors that corrupt stored bits can affect them. Memories may be covered by a parity test to identify errors or by an error correction code, although this involves extra bits in a word frame. This brief considers memory security used to simulate TCAMs. It is shown in particular that by leveraging the assumption its part of potential memory information is true, most single-bit errors can be resolved when memoirs are emulated with a parity bit.
Cheng, Junyuan, Jiang, Xue-Qin, Bai, Enjian, Wu, Yun, Hai, Han, Pan, Feng, Peng, Yuyang.  2021.  Rate Adaptive Reconciliation Based on Reed-Solomon Codes. 2021 6th International Conference on Communication, Image and Signal Processing (CCISP). :245—249.
Security of physical layer key generation is based on the randomness and reciprocity of wireless fading channel, which has attracted more and more attention in recent years. This paper proposes a rate adaptive key agreement scheme and utilizes the received signal strength (RSS) of the channel between two wireless devices to generate the key. In conventional information reconciliation process, the bit inconsistency rate is usually eliminated by using the filter method, which increases the possibility of exposing the generated key bit string. Building on the strengths of existing secret key extraction approaches, this paper develops a scheme that uses Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, one of forward error correction channel codes, for information reconciliation. Owing to strong error correction performance of RS codes, the proposed scheme can solve the problem of inconsistent key bit string in the process of channel sensing. At the same time, the composition of RS codes can help the scheme realize rate adaptation well due to the construction principle of error correction code, which can freely control the code rate and achieve the reconciliation method of different key bit string length. Through experiments, we find that when the number of inconsistent key bits is not greater than the maximum error correction number of RS codes, it can well meet the purpose of reconciliation.
Wang, Zhaoyuan, Wang, Dan, Duan, Qing, Sha, Guanglin, Ma, Chunyan, Zhao, Caihong.  2020.  Missing Load Situation Reconstruction Based on Generative Adversarial Networks. 2020 IEEE/IAS Industrial and Commercial Power System Asia (I CPS Asia). :1528—1534.
The completion and the correction of measurement data are the foundation of the ubiquitous power internet of things construction. However, data missing may occur during the data transporting process. Therefore, a model of missing load situation reconstruction based on the generative adversarial networks is proposed in this paper to overcome the disadvantage of depending on data of other relevant factors in conventional methods. Through the unsupervised training, the proposed model can automatically learn the complex features of loads that are difficult to model explicitly to fill the incomplete load data without using other relevant data. Meanwhile, a method of online correction is put forward to improve the robustness of the reconstruction model in different scenarios. The proposed method is fully data-driven and contains no explicit modeling process. The test results indicate that the proposed algorithm is well-matched for the various scenarios, including the discontinuous missing load reconstruction and the continuous missing load reconstruction even massive data missing. Specifically, the reconstruction error rate of the proposed algorithm is within 4% under the absence of 50% load data.
Čečil, Roman, Šetka, Vlastimil, Tolar, David, Sikora, Axel.  2020.  RETIS – Real-Time Sensitive Wireless Communication Solution for Industrial Control Applications. 2020 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Smart and Wireless Systems within the Conferences on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems (IDAACS-SWS). :1—9.
Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) has been always a vital component of many industrial applications. The paper proposes a new wireless URLLC solution called RETIS, which is suitable for factory automation and fast process control applications, where low latency, low jitter, and high data exchange rates are mandatory. In the paper, we describe the communication protocol as well as the hardware structure of the network nodes for implementing the required functionality. Many techniques enabling fast, reliable wireless transmissions are used - short Transmission Time Interval (TTI), TimeDivision Multiple Access (TDMA), MIMO, optional duplicated data transfer, Forward Error Correction (FEC), ACK mechanism. Preliminary tests show that reliable endto-end latency down to 350 μs and packet exchange rate up to 4 kHz can be reached (using quadruple MIMO and standard IEEE 802.15.4 PHY at 250 kbit/s).
Bonafini, Stefano, Bassoli, Riccardo, Granelli, Fabrizio, Fitzek, Frank H.P., Sacchi, Claudio.  2020.  Virtual Baseband Unit Splitting Exploiting Small Satellite Platforms. 2020 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1—14.
Recently, border monitoring and security has become an important topic since current methods against illegal immigration are expensive and inefficient. In particular, inefficiency and ineffectiveness increase when monitoring operations are focused on complex borders, where there is no available/reliable connectivity. In the last decade, the deployment of different kinds of unmanned aerial vehicles was seen as the main paradigm to provide on-demand wireless network access. Significant research work has been done on so called mobile base stations. Nevertheless, drones have specific technical limitations in terms, for example, of battery life and carried weight. Given above fundamental limits, network virtualization becomes a fundamental paradigm for system realization. In the last years, baseband processing was not seen any more as a monolithic block but has been studied as a chain of virtual functions. Especially, baseband unit can be split into five sub-blocks belonging to layer 1 to layer 3, where each degree of splitting implies more and more stringent requirements to be guaranteed, mainly in terms of throughput and latency. Split E is the logic separation of hybrid automatic repeat request from lower layers, which imposes the most flexible requirements. On the other hand, Split D (forward error correction, encoding/decoding logic functions) sets more stringent bounds on throughput and latency so that it requires careful study and detailed analysis for a correct system-level design. The main objective of this article is to study theoretically and numerically (i.e. via simulations) Split D to make it feasible with the help of small satellites. The paper will study the structure and the capabilities of small satellites to be used as small data centers to host radio access virtual network functions like forward error correction. The theoretical analysis is supported by simulations in order to highlight advantages and challenges of the proposed approach.
Wang, Xiaodong, Jiao, Wenzhe, Yang, Huan, Guo, Lin, Ye, Xiaoxue, Guo, Yangming.  2020.  Algebraic Signature Based Data Possession Checking Method with Cloud Storage. 2020 11th International Conference on Prognostics and System Health Management (PHM-2020 Jinan). :11—16.
Cloud computing has been envisioned as a next generation information technology (IT) paradigm. The risk of losing data stored with any untrustworthy service provider is the key barrier to widespread uptake of cloud computing. This paper proposes an algebraic signature based remote data possession checking (RDPC) scheme to verify the integrity of the data stored in the cloud. This scheme integrates forward error-correcting codes to enhance the data possession guarantee, which can recover the data when a small amount of file has been deleted. The scheme allows verification without the need for the auditor to compare against the original data, which reduces the communication complexity dramatically. The storage complexity of cloud user is reduced to several bytes' information. Extensive security analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is highly provably secure. Finally, experiment results reveal that the computation performance is effective, and bounded by disk I/O.
Liu, Siqi, Liu, Shuangyue, Tang, Xizi, Guo, Mengqi, Lu, Yueming, Qiao, Yaojun.  2020.  QPSK-Assisted MIMO Equalization for 800-Gb/s/λ DP-256QAM Systems. 2020 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP) and International Conference on Information Photonics and Optical Communications (IPOC). :1—3.
A QPSK-assisted MIMO equalization is investigated to compensate bandwidth limitation for 800-Gb/s/λ DP-256QAM systems with only 25G-class optics. Compared with conventional MIMO equalization, the proposed equalization scheme exhibits 1.8-dB OSNR improvement at 15% FEC limit.
Wong, Lauren J., Altland, Emily, Detwiler, Joshua, Fermin, Paolo, Kuzin, Julia Mahon, Moeliono, Nathan, Abdalla, Abdelrahman Said, Headley, William C., Michaels, Alan J..  2020.  Resilience Improvements for Space-Based Radio Frequency Machine Learning. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—5.
Recent work has quantified the degradations that occur in convolutional neural nets (CNN) deployed in harsh environments like space-based image or radio frequency (RF) processing applications. Such degradations yield a robust correlation and causality between single-event upset (SEU) induced errors in memory weights of on-orbit CNN implementations. However, minimal considerations have been given to how the resilience of CNNs can be improved algorithmically as opposed to via enhanced hardware. This paper focuses on RF-processing CNNs and performs an in-depth analysis of applying software-based error detection and correction mechanisms, which may subsequently be combined with protections of radiation-hardened processor platforms. These techniques are more accessible for low cost smallsat platforms than ruggedized hardware. Additionally, methods for minimizing the memory and computational complexity of the resulting resilience techniques are identified. Combined with periodic scrubbing, the resulting techniques are shown to improve expected lifetimes of CNN-based RF-processing algorithms by several orders of magnitude.
DelVecchio, Matthew, Flowers, Bryse, Headley, William C..  2020.  Effects of Forward Error Correction on Communications Aware Evasion Attacks. 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. :1—7.
Recent work has shown the impact of adversarial machine learning on deep neural networks (DNNs) developed for Radio Frequency Machine Learning (RFML) applications. While these attacks have been shown to be successful in disrupting the performance of an eavesdropper, they fail to fully support the primary goal of successful intended communication. To remedy this, a communications-aware attack framework was recently developed that allows for a more effective balance between the opposing goals of evasion and intended communication through the novel use of a DNN to intelligently create the adversarial communication signal. Given the near ubiquitous usage of for-ward error correction (FEC) coding in the majority of deployed systems to correct errors that arise, incorporating FEC in this framework is a natural extension of this prior work and will allow for improved performance in more adverse environments. This work therefore provides contributions to the framework through improved loss functions and design considerations to incorporate inherent knowledge of the usage of FEC codes within the transmitted signal. Performance analysis shows that FEC coding improves the communications aware adversarial attack even if no explicit knowledge of the coding scheme is assumed and allows for improved performance over the prior art in balancing the opposing goals of evasion and intended communications.
Harley, Peter M. B., Tummala, Murali, McEachen, John C..  2019.  High-Throughput Covert Channels in Adaptive Rate Wireless Communication Systems. 2019 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC). :1—7.

In this paper, we outline a novel, forward error correction-based information hiding technique for adaptive rate wireless communication systems. Specifically, we propose leveraging the functionality of wireless local area network modulation and coding schemes (MCS) and link adaptation mechanisms to significantly increase covert channel throughput. After describing our generalized information hiding model, we detail implementation of this technique within the IEEE 802.11ad, directional multi-Gigabit standard. Simulation results demonstrate the potential of the proposed techniques to develop reliable, high-throughput covert channels under multiple MCS rates and embedding techniques. Covert channel performance is evaluated in terms of the observed packet error ratio of the underlying communication system as well as the bit error ratio of the hidden data.

Maeda, Hideki, Kawahara, Hiroki, Saito, Kohei, Seki, Takeshi, Kani, Junichi.  2019.  Performance Degradation of SD-FEC Due to XPM Phase Noise in WDM Transmission System with Low-Speed Optical Supervisory Channel. 2019 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC). :1—2.

An experiment and numerical simulations analyze low-speed OSC derived XPM-induced phase noise penalty in 100-Gbps WDM systems. WDM transmission performance exhibits signal bit-pattern dependence on OSC, which is due to deterioration in SD-FEC performance.

Shapiro, Jeffrey H., Boroson, Don M., Dixon, P. Ben, Grein, Matthew E., Hamilton, Scott A..  2019.  Quantum Low Probability of Intercept. 2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1—2.

Quantum low probability of intercept transmits ciphertext in a way that prevents an eavesdropper possessing the decryption key from recovering the plaintext. It is capable of Gbps communication rates on optical fiber over metropolitan-area distances.

Tanizawa, Ken, Futami, Fumio.  2019.  Digital Coherent 20-Gbit/s DP-PSK Y-00 Quantum Stream Cipher Transmission over 800-km SSMF. 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC). :1—3.

We demonstrate secure fiber-optic transmission utilizing quantum-noise signal masking by 217-level random phase modulation. Masking of 157 signal phase levels at a BER of HD-FEC threshold is achieved without significant impacts on the transmission performance.

Novak, Marek, Skryja, Petr.  2019.  Efficient Partial Firmware Update for IoT Devices with Lua Scripting Interface. 2019 29th International Conference Radioelektronika (RADIOELEKTRONIKA). :1—4.

The paper introduces a method of efficient partial firmware update with several advantages compared to common methods. The amount of data to transfer for an update is reduced, the energetic efficiency is increased and as the method is designed for over the air update, the radio spectrum occupancy is decreased. Herein described approach uses Lua scripting interface to introduce updatable fragments of invokable native code. This requires a dedicated memory layout, which is herein introduced. This method allows not only to distribute patches for deployed systems, but also on demand add-ons. At the end, the security aspects of proposed firmware update system is discussed and its limitations are presented.

Garrido, Pablo, Sanchez, Isabel, Ferlin, Simone, Aguero, Ramon, Alay, Ozgu.  2019.  Poster: rQUIC - integrating FEC with QUIC for robust wireless communications. 2019 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking). :1—2.

Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC) is an experimental transport protocol designed to primarily reduce connection establishment and transport latency, as well as to improve security standards with default end-to-end encryption in HTTPbased applications. QUIC is a multiplexed and secure transport protocol fostered by Google and its design emerged from the urgent need of innovation in the transport layer, mainly due to difficulties extending TCP and deploying new protocols. While still under standardisation, a non-negligble fraction of the Internet's traffic, more than 7% of a European Tier1-ISP, is already running over QUIC and it constitutes more than 30% of Google's egress traffic [1].

Demir, Mehmet özgÜn, Alp Topal, Ozan, Dartmann, Guido, Schmeink, Anke, Ascheid, Gerd, Kurt, GüneŞ, Pusane, Ali Emre.  2019.  Using Perfect Codes in Relay Aided Networks: A Security Analysis. 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob). :1—6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are state-of-the-art communication environments that offer various applications with distinct requirements. However, security in CPS is a nonnegotiable concept, since without a proper security mechanism the applications of CPS may risk human lives, the privacy of individuals, and system operations. In this paper, we focus on PHY-layer security approaches in CPS to prevent passive eavesdropping attacks, and we propose an integration of physical layer operations to enhance security. Thanks to the McEliece cryptosystem, error injection is firstly applied to information bits, which are encoded with the forward error correction (FEC) schemes. Golay and Hamming codes are selected as FEC schemes to satisfy power and computational efficiency. Then obtained codewords are transmitted across reliable intermediate relays to the legitimate receiver. As a performance metric, the decoding frame error rate of the eavesdropper is analytically obtained for the fragmentary existence of significant noise between relays and Eve. The simulation results validate the analytical calculations, and the obtained results show that the number of low-quality channels and the selected FEC scheme affects the performance of the proposed model.

Michel, François, De Coninck, Quentin, Bonaventure, Olivier.  2019.  QUIC-FEC: Bringing the benefits of Forward Erasure Correction to QUIC. 2019 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking). :1—9.

Originally implemented by Google, QUIC gathers a growing interest by providing, on top of UDP, the same service as the classical TCP/TLS/HTTP/2 stack. The IETF will finalise the QUIC specification in 2019. A key feature of QUIC is that almost all its packets, including most of its headers, are fully encrypted. This prevents eavesdropping and interferences caused by middleboxes. Thanks to this feature and its clean design, QUIC is easier to extend than TCP. In this paper, we revisit the reliable transmission mechanisms that are included in QUIC. More specifically, we design, implement and evaluate Forward Erasure Correction (FEC) extensions to QUIC. These extensions are mainly intended for high-delays and lossy communications such as In-Flight Communications. Our design includes a generic FEC frame and our implementation supports the XOR, Reed-Solomon and Convolutional RLC error-correcting codes. We also conservatively avoid hindering the loss-based congestion signal by distinguishing the packets that have been received from the packets that have been recovered by the FEC. We evaluate its performance by applying an experimental design covering a wide range of delay and packet loss conditions with reproducible experiments. These confirm that our modular design allows the protocol to adapt to the network conditions. For long data transfers or when the loss rate and delay are small, the FEC overhead negatively impacts the download completion time. However, with high packet loss rates and long delays or smaller files, FEC allows drastically reducing the download completion time by avoiding costly retransmission timeouts. These results show that there is a need to use FEC adaptively to the network conditions.

Khandani, Amir K., Bateni, E..  2019.  A Practical, Provably Unbreakable Approach to Physical Layer Security. 2019 16th Canadian Workshop on Information Theory (CWIT). :1—6.

This article presents a practical approach for secure key exchange exploiting reciprocity in wireless transmission. The method relies on the reciprocal channel phase to mask points of a Phase Shift Keying (PSK) constellation. Masking is achieved by adding (modulo 2π) the measured reciprocal channel phase to the PSK constellation points carrying some of the key bits. As the channel phase is uniformly distributed in [0, 2π], knowing the sum of the two phases does not disclose any information about any of its two components. To enlarge the key size over a static or slow fading channel, the Radio Frequency (RF) propagation path is perturbed to create independent realizations of multi-path fading. Prior techniques have relied on quantizing the reciprocal channel state measured at the two ends and thereby suffer from information leakage in the process of key consolidation (ensuring the two ends have access to the same key). The proposed method does not suffer from such shortcomings as raw key bits can be equipped with Forward Error Correction (FEC) without affecting the masking (zero information leakage) property. To eavesdrop a phase value shared in this manner, the Eavesdropper (Eve) would require to solve a system of linear equations defined over angles, each equation corresponding to a possible measurement by the Eve. Channel perturbation is performed such that each new channel state creates an independent channel realization for the legitimate nodes, as well as for each of Eves antennas. As a result, regardless of the Eves Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and number of antennas, Eve will always face an under-determined system of equations. On the other hand, trying to solve any such under-determined system of linear equations in terms of an unknown phase will not reveal any useful information about the actual answer, meaning that the distribution of the answer remains uniform in [0, 2π].