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Rojali, Rasjid, Zulfany Erlisa, Matthew, Justin Cliff.  2022.  Implementation of Rail Fence Cipher and Myszkowski Algorithms and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-256) for Security and Detecting Digital Image Originality. 2022 International Conference on Informatics, Multimedia, Cyber and Information System (ICIMCIS). :207—212.
The use of digital images is increasingly widespread currently. There is a need for security in digital photos. Cryptography is a technique that can be applied to secure data. In addition to safety, data integrity also needs to be considered to anticipate the image being manipulated. The hash function is a technique that can be used to determine data authentication. In this study, the Rail Fence Cipher and Myszkowski algorithms were used for the encryption and decryption of digital images, as the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-256) algorithm. Rail Fence Cipher Algorithm is a transposition algorithm that is quite simple but still vulnerable. It is combined with the Myszkowski Algorithm, which has a high level of complexity with a simple key. Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-256) is a hash function that accepts an input limit of fewer than 2∧64 bits and produces a fixed hash value of 256 bits. The tested images vary based on image resolution and can be encrypted and decrypted well, with an average MSE value of 4171.16 and an average PSNR value of 11.96 dB. The hash value created is also unique. Keywords—Cryptography, Hash Function, Rail Fence Cipher, Myszkowski, SHA-256, Digital image.
De La Croix, Ntivuguruzwa Jean, Islamy, Chaidir Chalaf, Ahmad, Tohari.  2022.  Secret Message Protection using Fuzzy Logic and Difference Expansion in Digital Images. 2022 IEEE Nigeria 4th International Conference on Disruptive Technologies for Sustainable Development (NIGERCON). :1—5.

Secrete message protection has become a focal point of the network security domain due to the problems of violating the network use policies and unauthorized access of the public network. These problems have led to data protection techniques such as cryptography, and steganography. Cryptography consists of encrypting secrete message to a ciphertext format and steganography consists of concealing the secrete message in codes that make up a digital file, such as an image, audio, and video. Steganography, which is different from cryptography, ensures hiding a secret message for secure transmission over the public network. This paper presents a steganographic approach using digital images for data hiding that aims to providing higher performance by combining fuzzy logic type I to pre-process the cover image and difference expansion techniques. The previous methods have used the original cover image to embed the secrete message. This paper provides a new method that first identifies the edges of a cover image and then proceeds with a difference expansion to embed the secrete message. The experimental results of this work identified an improvement of 10% of the existing method based on increased payload capacity and the visibility of the stego image.

Dib, S., Amzert, A. K., Grimes, M., Benchiheb, A., Benmeddour, F..  2022.  Elliptic Curve Cryptography for Medical Image Security. 2022 19th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices (SSD). :1782–1787.
To contribute to medical data security, we propose the application of a modified algorithm on elliptical curves (ECC), initially proposed for text encryption. We implement this algorithm by eliminating the sender-receiver lookup table and grouping the pixel values into pairs to form points on a predefined elliptical curve. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm offers the best compromise between the quality and the speed of cipher / decipher, especially for large images. A comparative study between ECC and AlGamel showed that the proposed algorithm offers better performance and its application, on medical images, is promising. Medical images contain many pieces of information and are often large. If the cryptographic operation is performed on every single pixel it will take more time. So, working on groups of pixels will be strongly recommended to save time and space.
ISSN: 2474-0446
Awasthi, Divyanshu, Srivastava, Vinay Kumar.  2022.  Dual Image Watermarking using Hessenberg decomposition and RDWT-DCT-SVD in YCbCr color space. 2022 International Conference on Computing, Communication, and Intelligent Systems (ICCCIS). :1–6.
A dual-image watermarking approach is presented in this research. The presented work utilizes the properties of Hessenberg decomposition, Redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT), Discrete cosine transform (DCT) and Singular value decomposition (SVD). For watermarking, the YCbCr color space is employed. Two watermark logos are for embedding. A YCbCr format conversion is performed on the RGB input image. The host image's Y and Cb components are divided into various sub-bands using RDWT. The Hessenberg decomposition is applied on high-low and low-high components. After that, SVD is applied to get dominant matrices. Two different logos are used for watermarking. Apply RDWT on both watermark images. After that, apply DCT and SVD to get dominant matrices of logos. Add dominant matrices of input host and watermark images to get the watermarked image. Average PSNR, MSE, Structural similarity index measurement (SSIM) and Normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) are used as the performance parameters. The resilience of the presented work is tested against various attacks such as Gaussian low pass filter, Speckle noise attack, Salt and Pepper, Gaussian noise, Rotation, Median and Average filter, Sharpening, Histogram equalization and JPEG compression. The presented scheme is robust and imperceptible when compared with other schemes.
Tiwari, Anurag, Srivastava, Vinay Kumar.  2022.  A Chaotic Encrypted Reliable Image Watermarking Scheme based on Integer Wavelet Transform-Schur Transform and Singular Value Decomposition. 2022 International Conference on Computing, Communication, and Intelligent Systems (ICCCIS). :581–586.
In the present era of the internet, image watermarking schemes are used to provide content authentication, security and reliability of various multimedia contents. In this paper image watermarking scheme which utilizes the properties of Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT), Schur decomposition and Singular value decomposition (SVD) based is proposed. In the suggested method, the cover image is subjected to a 3-level Integer wavelet transform (IWT), and the HH3 subband is subjected to Schur decomposition. In order to retrieve its singular values, the upper triangular matrix from the HH3 subband’s Schur decomposition is then subjected to SVD. The watermark image is first encrypted using a chaotic map, followed by the application of a 3-level IWT to the encrypted watermark and the usage of singular values of the LL-subband to embed by manipulating the singular values of the processed cover image. The proposed scheme is tested under various attacks like filtering (median, average, Gaussian) checkmark (histogram equalization, rotation, horizontal and vertical flipping) and noise (Gaussian, Salt & Pepper Noise). The suggested scheme provides strong robustness against numerous attacks and chaotic encryption provides security to watermark.
Magfirawaty, Magfirawaty, Budi Setiawan, Fauzan, Yusuf, Muhammad, Kurniandi, Rizki, Nafis, Raihan Fauzan, Hayati, Nur.  2022.  Principal Component Analysis and Data Encryption Model for Face Recognition System. 2022 2nd International Conference on Electronic and Electrical Engineering and Intelligent System (ICE3IS). :381–386.

Face recognition is a biometric technique that uses a computer or machine to facilitate the recognition of human faces. The advantage of this technique is that it can detect faces without direct contact with the device. In its application, the security of face recognition data systems is still not given much attention. Therefore, this study proposes a technique for securing data stored in the face recognition system database. It implements the Viola-Jones Algorithm, the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi Algorithm (KLT), and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm by applying a database security algorithm using XOR encryption. Several tests and analyzes have been performed with this method. The histogram analysis results show no visual information related to encrypted images with plain images. In addition, the correlation value between the encrypted and plain images is weak, so it has high security against statistical attacks with an entropy value of around 7.9. The average time required to carry out the introduction process is 0.7896 s.

Sahoo, Subhaluxmi.  2022.  Cancelable Retinal Biometric method based on maximum bin computation and histogram bin encryption using modified Hill cipher. 2022 IEEE Delhi Section Conference (DELCON). :1–5.

Cancelable biometric is a new era of technology that deals with the protection of the privacy content of a person which itself helps in protecting the identity of a person. Here the biometric information instead of being stored directly on the authentication database is transformed into a non-invertible coded format that will be utilized for providing access. The conversion into an encrypted code requires the provision of an encryption key from the user side. Both invertible and non-invertible coding techniques are there but non-invertible one provides additional security to the user. In this paper, a non-invertible cancelable biometric method has been proposed where the biometric image information is canceled and encoded into a code using a user-provided encryption key. This code is generated from the image histogram after continuous bin updation to the maximal value and then it is encrypted by the Hill cipher. This code is stored on the database instead of biometric information. The technique is applied to a set of retinal information taken from the Indian Diabetic Retinopathy database.

Belkhouche, Yassine.  2022.  A language processing-free unified spam detection framework using byte histograms and deep learning. 2022 Fourth International Conference on Transdisciplinary AI (TransAI). :83–86.
In this paper, we established a unified deep learning-based spam filtering method. The proposed method uses the message byte-histograms as a unified representation for all message types (text, images, or any other format). A deep convolutional neural network (CNN) is used to extract high-level features from this representation. A fully connected neural network is used to perform the classification using the extracted CNN features. We validate our method using several open-source text-based and image-based spam datasets.We obtained an accuracy higher than 94% on all datasets.
Kotkar, Aditya, Khadapkar, Shreyas, Gupta, Aniket, Jangale, Smita.  2022.  Multiple layered Security using combination of Cryptography with Rotational, Flipping Steganography and Message Authentication. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Information System (ICDSIS). :1–5.
Data or information are being transferred at an enormous pace and hence protecting and securing this transmission of data are very important and have been very challenging. Cryptography and Steganography are the most broadly used techniques for safeguarding data by encryption of data and hiding the existence of data. A multi-layered secure transmission can be achieved by combining Cryptography with Steganography and by adding message authentication ensuring the confidentiality of the message. Different approach towards Steganography implementation is proposed using rotations and flips to prevent detection of encoded messages. Compression of multimedia files is set up for increasing the speed of encoding and consuming less storage space. The HMAC (Hash-based Authentication Code) algorithm is chosen for message authentication and integrity. The performance of the proposed Steganography methods is concluded using Histogram comparative analysis. Simulations have been performed to back the reliability of the proposed method.
Abdali, Natiq M., Hussain, Zahir M..  2020.  Reference-free Detection of LSB Steganography Using Histogram Analysis. 2020 30th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC). :1—7.
Due to the difficulty of obtaining a database of original images that are required in the classification process to detect tampering, this paper presents a technique for detecting image tampering such as image steganography in the spatial domain. The system depends on deriving the auto-correlation function of the image histogram, then applying a high-pass filter with a threshold. This technique can be used to decide which image is cover or a stego image, without adopting the original image. The results have eventually revealed the validity of this system. Although this study has focused on least-significant-bit (LSB) steganography, we expect that it could be extended to other types of image tapering.
Pan, I-Hui, Liu, Kung-Chin, Liu, Chiang-Lung.  2020.  Chi-Square Detection for PVD Steganography. 2020 International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control (IS3C). :30—33.
Although the Pixel-Value Differencing (PVD) steganography can avoid being detected by the RS steganalysis, the histogram of the pixel-value differences poses an abnormal distribution. Based on this hiding characteristic, this paper proposes a PVD steganalysis based on chi-Square statistics. The degrees of freedom were adopted to be tested for obtaining various detection accuracies (ACs). Experimental results demonstrate the detection accuracies are all above 80%. When the degrees of freedom are set as 10 while the accuracy is the best (AC = 83%). It means that the proposed Chi-Square based method is an efficient detection for PVD steganography.
Sreemol, R, Santosh Kumar, M B, Sreekumar, A.  2021.  Improvement of Security in Multi-Biometric Cryptosystem by Modulus Fuzzy Vault Algorithm. 2021 International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communications (ICACC). :1—7.
Numerous prevalent techniques build a Multi-Modal Biometric (MMB) system that struggles in offering security and also revocability onto the templates. This work proffered a MMB system centred on the Modulus Fuzzy Vault (MFV) aimed at resolving these issues. The methodology proposed includes Fingerprint (FP), Palmprint (PP), Ear and also Retina images. Utilizing the Boosted Double Plateau Histogram Equalization (BDPHE) technique, all images are improved. Aimed at removing the unnecessary things as of the ear and the blood vessels are segmented as of the retina images utilizing the Modified Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchy (MBIRCH) technique. Next, the input traits features are extracted; then the essential features are chosen as of the features extracted utilizing the Bidirectional Deer Hunting optimization Algorithm (BDHOA). The features chosen are merged utilizing the Normalized Feature Level and Score Level (NFLSL) fusion. The features fused are saved securely utilizing Modulus Fuzzy Vault. Upto fusion, the procedure is repeated aimed at the query image template. Next, the de-Fuzzy Vault procedure is executed aimed at the query template, and then the key is detached by matching the query template’s and input biometric template features. The key separated is analogized with the threshold that categorizes the user as genuine or else imposter. The proposed BDPHE and also MFV techniques function efficiently than the existent techniques.
Guo, Shaoying, Xu, Yanyun, Huang, Weiqing, Liu, Bo.  2021.  Specific Emitter Identification via Variational Mode Decomposition and Histogram of Oriented Gradient. 2021 28th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT). :1—6.
Specific emitter identification (SEI) is a physical-layer-based approach for enhancing wireless communication network security. A well-done SEI method can be widely applied in identifying the individual wireless communication device. In this paper, we propose a novel specific emitter identification method based on variational mode decomposition and histogram of oriented gradient (VMD-HOG). The signal is decomposed into specific temporal modes via VMD and HOG features are obtained from the time-frequency spectrum of temporal modes. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated both in single hop and relaying scenarios and under three channels with the number of emitters varying. Results depict that our proposed method provides great identification performance for both simulated signals and realistic data of Zigbee devices and outperforms the two existing methods in identification accuracy and computational complexity.
Li, Xianxian, Fu, Xuemei, Yu, Feng, Shi, Zhenkui, Li, Jie, Yang, Junhao.  2021.  A Private Statistic Query Scheme for Encrypted Electronic Medical Record System. 2021 IEEE 24th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD). :1033—1039.
In this paper, we propose a scheme that supports statistic query and authorized access control on an Encrypted Electronic Medical Records Databases(EMDB). Different from other schemes, it is based on Differential-Privacy(DP), which can protect the privacy of patients. By deploying an improved Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Encryption(MA-ABE) scheme, all authorities can distribute their search capability to clients under different authorities without additional negotiations. To our best knowledge, there are few studies on statistical queries on encrypted data. In this work, we consider that support differentially-private statistical queries. To improve search efficiency, we leverage the Bloom Filter(BF) to judge whether the keywords queried by users exists. Finally, we use experiments to verify and evaluate the feasibility of our proposed scheme.
Azhari Halim, Muhammad Arif, Othman, Mohd. Fairuz Iskandar, Abidin, Aa Zezen Zaenal, Hamid, Erman, Harum, Norharyati, Shah, Wahidah Md.  2021.  Face Recognition-based Door Locking System with Two-Factor Authentication Using OpenCV. 2021 Sixth International Conference on Informatics and Computing (ICIC). :1—7.

This project develops a face recognition-based door locking system with two-factor authentication using OpenCV. It uses Raspberry Pi 4 as the microcontroller. Face recognition-based door locking has been around for many years, but most of them only provide face recognition without any added security features, and they are costly. The design of this project is based on human face recognition and the sending of a One-Time Password (OTP) using the Twilio service. It will recognize the person at the front door. Only people who match the faces stored in its dataset and then inputs the correct OTP will have access to unlock the door. The Twilio service and image processing algorithm Local Binary Pattern Histogram (LBPH) has been adopted for this system. Servo motor operates as a mechanism to access the door. Results show that LBPH takes a short time to recognize a face. Additionally, if an unknown face is detected, it will log this instance into a "Fail" file and an accompanying CSV sheet.

Arabian, H., Wagner-Hartl, V., Geoffrey Chase, J., Möller, K..  2021.  Facial Emotion Recognition Focused on Descriptive Region Segmentation. 2021 43rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC). :3415—3418.
Facial emotion recognition (FER) is useful in many different applications and could offer significant benefit as part of feedback systems to train children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who struggle to recognize facial expressions and emotions. This project explores the potential of real time FER based on the use of local regions of interest combined with a machine learning approach. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) was implemented for feature extraction, along with 3 different classifiers, 2 based on k-Nearest Neighbor and 1 using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. Model performance was compared using accuracy of randomly selected validation sets after training on random training sets of the Oulu-CASIA database. Image classes were distributed evenly, and accuracies of up to 98.44% were observed with small variation depending on data distributions. The region selection methodology provided a compromise between accuracy and number of extracted features, and validated the hypothesis a focus on smaller informative regions performs just as well as the entire image.
Vanitha, C. N., Malathy, S., Anitha, K., Suwathika, S..  2021.  Enhanced Security using Advanced Encryption Standards in Face Recognition. 2021 2nd International Conference on Communication, Computing and Industry 4.0 (C2I4). :1–5.
Nowadays, face recognition is used everywhere in all fields. Though the face recognition is used for security purposes there is also chance in hacking the faces which is used for face recognition. For enhancing the face security, encryption and decryption technique is used. Face cognizance has been engaged in more than a few security-connected purposes such as supervision, e-passport, and etc… The significant use of biometric raises vital private concerns, in precise if the biometric same method is carried out at a central or unfrosted servers, and calls for implementation of Privacy improving technologies. For privacy concerns the encoding and decoding is used. For achieving the result we are using the Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) tool. With the help of this tool we are going to cipher the face and decode the face with advanced encryption standards techniques. OpenCV is the tool used in this project
Jie, Lucas Chong Wei, Chong, Siew-Chin.  2021.  Histogram of Oriented Gradient Random Template Protection for Face Verification. 2021 9th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT). :192—196.
Privacy preserving scheme for face verification is a biometric system embedded with template protection to protect the data in ensuring data integrity. This paper proposes a new method called Histogram of Oriented Gradient Random Template Protection (HOGRTP). The proposed method utilizes Histogram of Oriented Gradient approach as a feature extraction technique and is combined with Random Template Protection method. The proposed method acts as a multi-factor authentication technique and adds a layer of data protection to avoid the compromising biometric issue because biometric is irreplaceable. The performance accuracy of HOGRTP is tested on the unconstrained face images using the benchmarked dataset, Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW). A promising result is obtained to prove that HOGRTP achieves a higher verification rate in percentage than the pure biometric scheme.
Gülmez, Sibel, Sogukpinar, Ibrahim.  2021.  Graph-Based Malware Detection Using Opcode Sequences. 2021 9th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1–5.
The impact of malware grows for IT (information technology) systems day by day. The number, the complexity, and the cost of them increase rapidly. While researchers are developing new and better detection algorithms, attackers are also evolving malware to fail the current detection techniques. Therefore malware detection becomes one of the most challenging tasks in cyber security. To increase the performance of the detection techniques, researchers benefit from different approaches. But some of them might cost a lot both in time and hardware resources. This situation puts forward fast and cheap detection methods. In this context, static analysis provides these utilities but it is important to keep detection accuracy high while reducing resource consumption. Opcodes (operational codes) are commonly used in static analysis but sometimes feature extraction from opcodes might be difficult since an opcode sequence might have a great length. Furthermore, most of the malware developers use obfuscation and encryption techniques to avoid detection methods based on static analysis. This kind of malware is called packed malware and according to common belief, packed malware should be either unpacked or analyzed dynamically in order to detect them. In this study, a graph-based malware detection method has been proposed to overcome these problems. The proposed method relies on obtaining the opcode graph of every executable file in the dataset and using them for future extraction. In this way, the proposed method reaches up to 98% detection accuracy. In addition to the accuracy rate, the proposed method makes it possible to detect packed malware without the need for unpacking or dynamic analysis.
Ge, Chonghui, Sun, Jian, Sun, Yuxin, Di, Yunlong, Zhu, Yongjin, Xie, Linfeng, Zhang, Yingzhou.  2020.  Reversible Database Watermarking Based on Random Forest and Genetic Algorithm. 2020 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :239—247.
The advancing information technology is playing more and more important role in data mining of relational database.1 The transfer and sharing of databases cause the copyright-related security threats. Database watermarking technology can effectively solve the problem with copyright protection and traceability, which has been attracting researchers' attention. In this paper, we proposed a novel, robust and reversible database watermarking technique, named histogram shifting watermarking based on random forest and genetic algorithm (RF-GAHCSW). It greatly improves the watermark capacity by means of histogram width reduction and eliminates the impact of the prediction error attack. Meanwhile, random forest algorithm is used to select important attributes for watermark embedding, and genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimal secret key for the database grouping and determine the position of watermark embedding to improve the watermark capacity and reduce data distortion. The experimental results show that the robustness of RF-GAHCSW is greatly improved, compared with the original HSW, and the distortion has little effect on the usability of database.
Wahyudono, Bintang, Ogi, Dion.  2020.  Implementation of Two Factor Authentication based on RFID and Face Recognition using LBP Algorithm on Access Control System. 2020 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS). CFP2013V-ART:1—6.
Studies on two-factor authentication based on RFID and face recognition have been carried out on a large scale. However, these studies didn't discuss the way to overcome the weaknesses of face recognition authentication in the access control systems. In this study, two authentication factors, RFID and face recognition, were implemented using the LBP (Local Binary Pattern) algorithm to overcome weaknesses of face recognition authentication in the access control system. Based on the results of performance testing, the access control system has 100% RFID authentication and 80% face recognition authentication. The average time for the RFID authentication process is 0.03 seconds, the face recognition process is 6.3885 seconds and the verification of the face recognition is 0.1970 seconds. The access control system can still work properly after three days without being switched off. The results of security testing showed that the capabilities spoofing detection has 100% overcome the photo attack.
Ateş, Ç, Özdel, S., Anarim, E..  2020.  DDoS Detection Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Logic. 2020 28th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1—4.

While internet technologies are developing day by day, threats against them are increasing at the same speed. One of the most serious and common types of attacks is Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. The DDoS intrusion detection approach proposed in this study is based on fuzzy logic and entropy. The network is modeled as a graph and graphics-based features are used to distinguish attack traffic from non-attack traffic. Fuzzy clustering is applied based on these properties to indicate the tendency of IP addresses or port numbers to be in the same cluster. Based on this uncertainty, attack and non-attack traffic were modeled. The detection stage uses the fuzzy relevance function. This algorithm was tested on real data collected from Boğaziçi University network.

Kornaropoulos, E. M., Papamanthou, C., Tamassia, R..  2020.  The State of the Uniform: Attacks on Encrypted Databases Beyond the Uniform Query Distribution. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1223–1240.
Recent foundational work on leakage-abuse attacks on encrypted databases has broadened our understanding of what an adversary can accomplish with a standard leakage profile. Nevertheless, all known value reconstruction attacks succeed under strong assumptions that may not hold in the real world. The most prevalent assumption is that queries are issued uniformly at random by the client. We present the first value reconstruction attacks that succeed without any knowledge about the query or data distribution. Our approach uses the search-pattern leakage, which exists in all known structured encryption schemes but has not been fully exploited so far. At the core of our method lies a support size estimator, a technique that utilizes the repetition of search tokens with the same response to estimate distances between encrypted values without any assumptions about the underlying distribution. We develop distribution-agnostic reconstruction attacks for both range queries and k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) queries based on information extracted from the search-pattern leakage. Our new range attack follows a different algorithmic approach than state-of-the-art attacks, which are fine-tuned to succeed under the uniformly distributed queries. Instead, we reconstruct plaintext values under a variety of skewed query distributions and even outperform the accuracy of previous approaches under the uniform query distribution. Our new k-NN attack succeeds with far fewer samples than previous attacks and scales to much larger values of k. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our attacks by experimentally testing them on a wide range of query distributions and database densities, both unknown to the adversary.
Karmakar, J., Mandal, M. K..  2020.  Chaos-based Image Encryption using Integer Wavelet Transform. 2020 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN). :756–760.
Since the last few decades, several chaotic encryption techniques are reported by different researchers. Although the cryptanalysis of some techniques shows the feebler resistance of those algorithms against any weaker attackers. However, different hyper-chaotic based and DNA-coding based encrypting methods are introduced recently. Though, these methods are efficient against several attacks, but, increase complexity as well. On account of these drawbacks, we have proposed a novel technique of chaotic encryption of an image using the integer wavelet transform (IWT) and global bit scrambling (GBS). Here, the image is transformed and decomposed by IWT. Thereafter, a chaotic map is used in the encryption algorithm. A key-dependent bit scrambling (GBS) is introduced rather than pixel scrambling to make the encryption stronger. It enhances key dependency along with the increased resistance against intruder attacks. To check the fragility and dependability of the algorithm, a sufficient number of tests are done, which have given reassuring results. Some tests are done to check the similarity between the original and decrypted image to ensure the excellent outcome of the decryption algorithm. The outcomes of the proposed algorithm are compared with some recent works' outputs to demonstrate its eligibility.
Xu, H., Jiang, H..  2019.  An Image Encryption Schema Based on Hybrid Optimized Chaotic System. 2019 3rd International Conference on Electronic Information Technology and Computer Engineering (EITCE). :784–788.

The purpose of this paper is to improve the safety of chaotic image encryption algorithm. Firstly, to achieve this goal, it put forward two improved chaotic system logistic and henon, which covered an promoted henon chaotic system with better probability density, and an 2-dimension logistic chaotic system with high Lyapunov exponents. Secondly, the chaotic key stream was generated by the new 2D logistic chaotic system and optimized henon mapping, which mixed in dynamic proportions. The conducted sequence has better randomness and higher safety for image cryptosystem. Thirdly, we proposed algorithm takes advantage of the compounded chaotic system Simulation experiment results and security analysis showed that the proposed scheme was more effective and secure. It can resist various typical attacks, has high security, satisfies the requirements of image encryption theoretical.