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Dong, Yuhao, Kim, Woojung, Boutaba, Raouf.  2018.  Conifer: Centrally-Managed PKI with Blockchain-Rooted Trust. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :1092–1099.
Secure naming systems, or more narrowly public key infrastructures (PKIs), form the basis of secure communications over insecure networks. All security guarantees against active attackers come from a trustworthy binding between user-facing names, such as domain names, to cryptographic identities, such as public keys. By offering a secure, distributed ledger with highly decentralized trust, blockchains such as Bitcoin show promise as the root of trust for naming systems with no central trusted parties. PKIs based upon blockchains, such as Namecoin and Blockstack, have greatly improved security and resilience compared to traditional centralized PKIs. Yet blockchain PKIs tend to significantly sacrifice scalability and flexibility in pursuit of decentralization, hindering large-scale deployability on the Internet. We propose Conifer, a novel PKI with an architecture based upon CONIKS, a centralized transparency-based PKI, and Catena, a blockchain-agnostic way of embedding a permissioned log, but with a different lookup strategy. In doing so, Conifer achieves decentralized trust with security at least as strong as existing blockchain-based naming systems, yet without sacrificing the flexibility and performance typically found in centralized PKIs. We also present our reference implementation of Conifer, demonstrating how it can easily be integrated into applications. Finally, we use experiments to evaluate the performance of Conifer compared with other naming systems, both centralized and blockchain-based, demonstrating that it incurs only a modest overhead compared to traditional centralized-trust systems while being far more scalable and performant than purely blockchain-based solutions.
West, Andrew G..  2017.  Analyzing the Keystroke Dynamics of Web Identifiers. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Web Science Conference. :181–190.

Web identifiers such as usernames, hashtags, and domain names serve important roles in online navigation, communication, and community building. Therefore the entities that choose such names must ensure that end-users are able to quickly and accurately enter them in applications. Uniqueness requirements, a desire for short strings, and an absence of delimiters often constrain this name selection process. To gain perspective on the speed and correctness of name entry, we crowdsource the typing of 51,000+ web identifiers. Surface level analysis reveals, for example, that typing speed is generally a linear function of identifier length. Examining keystroke dynamics at finer granularity proves more interesting. First, we identify features predictive of typing time/accuracy, finding: (1) the commonality of character bi-grams inside a name, and (2) the degree of ambiguity when tokenizing a name - to be most indicative. A machine-learning model built over 10 such features exhibits moderate predictive capability. Second, we evaluate our hypothesis that users subconsciously insert pauses in their typing cadence where text delimiters (e.g., spaces) would exist, if permitted. The data generally supports this claim, suggesting its application alongside algorithmic tokenization methods, and possibly in name suggestion frameworks.

K. F. Hong, C. C. Chen, Y. T. Chiu, K. S. Chou.  2015.  "Scalable command and control detection in log data through UF-ICF analysis". 2015 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :293-298.

During an advanced persistent threat (APT), an attacker group usually establish more than one C&C server and these C&C servers will change their domain names and corresponding IP addresses over time to be unseen by anti-virus software or intrusion prevention systems. For this reason, discovering and catching C&C sites becomes a big challenge in information security. Based on our observations and deductions, a malware tends to contain a fixed user agent string, and the connection behaviors generated by a malware is different from that by a benign service or a normal user. This paper proposed a new method comprising filtering and clustering methods to detect C&C servers with a relatively higher coverage rate. The experiments revealed that the proposed method can successfully detect C&C Servers, and the can provide an important clue for detecting APT.