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2020-08-03
Juuti, Mika, Szyller, Sebastian, Marchal, Samuel, Asokan, N..  2019.  PRADA: Protecting Against DNN Model Stealing Attacks. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :512–527.
Machine learning (ML) applications are increasingly prevalent. Protecting the confidentiality of ML models becomes paramount for two reasons: (a) a model can be a business advantage to its owner, and (b) an adversary may use a stolen model to find transferable adversarial examples that can evade classification by the original model. Access to the model can be restricted to be only via well-defined prediction APIs. Nevertheless, prediction APIs still provide enough information to allow an adversary to mount model extraction attacks by sending repeated queries via the prediction API. In this paper, we describe new model extraction attacks using novel approaches for generating synthetic queries, and optimizing training hyperparameters. Our attacks outperform state-of-the-art model extraction in terms of transferability of both targeted and non-targeted adversarial examples (up to +29-44 percentage points, pp), and prediction accuracy (up to +46 pp) on two datasets. We provide take-aways on how to perform effective model extraction attacks. We then propose PRADA, the first step towards generic and effective detection of DNN model extraction attacks. It analyzes the distribution of consecutive API queries and raises an alarm when this distribution deviates from benign behavior. We show that PRADA can detect all prior model extraction attacks with no false positives.
Kobayashi, Hiroyuki.  2019.  CEPHEID: the infrastructure-less indoor localization using lighting fixtures' acoustic frequency fingerprints. IECON 2019 - 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. 1:6842–6847.
This paper deals with a new indoor localization scheme called “CEPHEID” by using ceiling lighting fixtures. It is based on the fact that each lighting fixture has its own characteristic flickering pattern. Then, the author proposes a technique to identify individual light by using simple instruments and DNN classifier. Thanks to the less requirements for hardware, CEPHEID can be implemented by a few simple discrete electronic components and an ordinary smartphone. A prototype “CEPHEID dongle” is also introduced in this paper. Finally, the validity of the author's method is examined by indoor positioning experiments.
2020-07-30
Wang, Tianhao, Kerschbaum, Florian.  2019.  Attacks on Digital Watermarks for Deep Neural Networks. ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2622—2626.
Training deep neural networks is a computationally expensive task. Furthermore, models are often derived from proprietary datasets that have been carefully prepared and labelled. Hence, creators of deep learning models want to protect their models against intellectual property theft. However, this is not always possible, since the model may, e.g., be embedded in a mobile app for fast response times. As a countermeasure watermarks for deep neural networks have been developed that embed secret information into the model. This information can later be retrieved by the creator to prove ownership. Uchida et al. proposed the first such watermarking method. The advantage of their scheme is that it does not compromise the accuracy of the model prediction. However, in this paper we show that their technique modifies the statistical distribution of the model. Using this modification we can not only detect the presence of a watermark, but even derive its embedding length and use this information to remove the watermark by overwriting it. We show analytically that our detection algorithm follows consequentially from their embedding algorithm and propose a possible countermeasure. Our findings shall help to refine the definition of undetectability of watermarks for deep neural networks.
2020-07-24
Luzhnov, Vasiliy S., Sokolov, Alexander N., Barinov, Andrey E..  2019.  Simulation of Protected Industrial Control Systems Based on Reference Security Model using Weighted Oriented Graphs. 2019 International Russian Automation Conference (RusAutoCon). :1—5.
With the increase in the number of cyber attacks on industrial control systems, especially in critical infrastructure facilities, the problem of comprehensive analysis of the security of such systems becomes urgent. This, in turn, requires the availability of fundamental mathematical, methodological and instrumental basis for modeling automated systems, modeling attacks on their information resources, which would allow realtime system protection analysis. The paper proposes a basis for simulating protected industrial control systems, based on the developed reference security model, and a model for attacks on information resources of automated systems. On the basis of these mathematical models, a complex model of a protected automated system was developed, which can be used to build protection systems for automated systems used in production.
CUI, A-jun, Fu, Jia-yu, Wang, Wei, Zhang, Hua-feng.  2019.  Construction of Network Active Security Threat Model Based on Offensive and Defensive Differential Game. 2019 12th International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA). :289—294.
Aiming at the shortcomings of the traditional network active security threat model that cannot continuously control the threat process, a network active security threat model based on offensive and defensive differential game is constructed. The attack and defense differential game theory is used to define the parameters of the network active security threat model, on this basis, the network security target is determined, the network active security threat is identified by the attack defense differential equation, and finally the network active security threat is quantitatively evaluated, thus construction of network active security threat model based on offensive and defensive differential game is completed. The experimental results show that compared with the traditional network active security threat model, the proposed model is more feasible in the attack and defense control of the network active security threat process, and can achieve the ideal application effect.
Chernov, Denis, Sychugov, Alexey.  2019.  Development of a Mathematical Model of Threat to Information Security of Automated Process Control Systems. 2019 International Russian Automation Conference (RusAutoCon). :1—5.
The authors carry out the analysis of the process of modeling threats to information security of automated process control systems. Basic principles of security threats model formation are considered. The approach to protection of automated process control systems based on the Shtakelberg game in a strategic form was modeled. An abstract mathematical model of information security threats to automated process control systems was developed. A formalized representation of a threat model is described, taking into account an intruder's potential. Presentation of the process of applying the described threat model in the form of a continuous Deming-Shewhart cycle is proposed.
2020-07-16
Xiao, Jiaping, Jiang, Jianchun.  2018.  Real-time Security Evaluation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems under Data-driven Attacks*. 2018 13th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA). :842—847.

With rapid advances in the fields of the Internet of Things and autonomous systems, the network security of cyber-physical systems(CPS) becomes more and more important. This paper focuses on the real-time security evaluation for unmanned aircraft systems which are cyber-physical systems relying on information communication and control system to achieve autonomous decision making. Our problem formulation is motivated by scenarios involving autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) working continuously under data-driven attacks when in an open, uncertain, and even hostile environment. Firstly, we investigated the state estimation method in CPS integrated with data-driven attacks model, and then proposed a real-time security scoring algorithm to evaluate the security condition of unmanned aircraft systems under different threat patterns, considering the vulnerability of the systems and consequences brought by data attacks. Our simulation in a UAV illustrated the efficiency and reliability of the algorithm.

Bovo, Cristian, Ilea, Valentin, Rolandi, Claudio.  2018.  A Security-Constrained Islanding Feasibility Optimization Model in the Presence of Renewable Energy Sources. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1—6.

The massive integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into power systems is a major challenge but it also provides new opportunities for network operation. For example, with a large amount of RES available at HV subtransmission level, it is possible to exploit them as controlling resources in islanding conditions. Thus, a procedure for off-line evaluation of islanded operation feasibility in the presence of RES is proposed. The method finds which generators and loads remain connected after islanding to balance the island's real power maximizing the amount of supplied load and assuring the network's long-term security. For each possible islanding event, the set of optimal control actions (load/generation shedding) to apply in case of actual islanding, is found. The procedure is formulated as a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Problem (MINLP) and is solved using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Results, including dynamic simulations, are shown for a representative HV subtransmission grid.

Rudolph, Hendryk, Lan, Tian, Strehl, Konrad, He, Qinwei, Lan, Yuanliang.  2019.  Simulating the Efficiency of Thermoelectrical Generators for Sensor Nodes. 2019 4th IEEE Workshop on the Electronic Grid (eGRID). :1—6.

In order to be more environmentally friendly, a lot of parts and aspects of life become electrified to reduce the usage of fossil fuels. This can be seen in the increased number of electrical vehicles in everyday life. This of course only makes a positive impact on the environment, if the electricity is produced environmentally friendly and comes from renewable sources. But when the green electrical power is produced, it still needs to be transported to where it's needed, which is not necessarily near the production site. In China, one of the ways to do this transport is to use High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology. This of course means, that the current has to be converted to DC before being transported to the end user. That implies that the converter stations are of great importance for the grid security. Therefore, a precise monitoring of the stations is necessary. Ideally, this could be accomplished with wireless sensor nodes with an autarkic energy supply. A role in this energy supply could be played by a thermoelectrical generator (TEG). But to assess the power generated in the specific environment, a simulation would be highly desirable, to evaluate the power gained from the temperature difference in the converter station. This paper proposes a method to simulate the generated power by combining a model for the generator with a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model converter.

Yuan, Haoxuan, Li, Fang, Huang, Xin.  2019.  A Formal Modeling and Verification Framework for Service Oriented Intelligent Production Line Design. 2019 IEEE/ACIS 18th International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS). :173—178.

The intelligent production line is a complex application with a large number of independent equipment network integration. In view of the characteristics of CPS, the existing modeling methods cannot well meet the application requirements of large scale high-performance system. a formal simulation verification framework and verification method are designed for the performance constraints such as the real-time and security of the intelligent production line based on soft bus. A model-based service-oriented integration approach is employed, which adopts a model-centric way to automate the development course of the entire software life cycle. Developing experience indicate that the proposed approach based on the formal modeling and verification framework in this paper can improve the performance of the system, which is also helpful to achieve the balance of the production line and maintain the reasonable use rate of the processing equipment.

Kërçi, Taulant, Milano, Federico.  2019.  A Framework to embed the Unit Commitment Problem into Time Domain Simulations. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2019 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1—5.

This paper proposes a software framework to embed the unit commitment problem into a power system dynamic simulator. A sub-hourly, mixed-integer linear programming Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) with a rolling horizon is utilized to account for the variations of the net load of the system. The SCUC is then included into time domain simulations to study the impact of the net-load variability and uncertainty on the dynamic behavior of the system using different scheduling time periods. A case study based on the 39-bus system illustrates the features of the proposed software framework.

2020-07-06
Paliath, Vivin, Shakarian, Paulo.  2019.  Reasoning about Sequential Cyberattacks. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM). :855–862.
Cyber adversaries employ a variety of malware and exploits to attack computer systems, usually via sequential or “chained” attacks, that take advantage of vulnerability dependencies. In this paper, we introduce a formalism to model such attacks. We show that the determination of the set of capabilities gained by an attacker, which also translates to extent to which the system is compromised, corresponds with the convergence of a simple fixed-point operator. We then address the problem of determining the optimal/most-dangerous strategy for a cyber-adversary with respect to this model and find it to be an NP-Complete problem. To address this complexity we utilize an A*-based approach with an admissible heuristic, that incorporates the result of the fixed-point operator and uses memoization for greater efficiency. We provide an implementation and show through a suite of experiments, using both simulated and actual vulnerability data, that this method performs well in practice for identifying adversarial courses of action in this domain. On average, we found that our techniques decrease runtime by 82%.
Lakhno, Valeriy, Kasatkin, Dmytro, Blozva, Andriy.  2019.  Modeling Cyber Security of Information Systems Smart City Based on the Theory of Games and Markov Processes. 2019 IEEE International Scientific-Practical Conference Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S T). :497–501.
The article considers some aspects of modeling information security circuits for information and communication systems used in Smart City. As a basic research paradigm, the postulates of game theory and mathematical dependencies based on Markov processes were used. Thus, it is possible to sufficiently substantively describe the procedure for selecting rational variants of cyber security systems used to protect information technologies in Smart City. At the same time, using the model proposed by us, we can calculate the probability of cyber threats for the Smart City systems, as well as the cybernetic risks of diverse threats. Further, on the basis of the described indicators, rational contour options are chosen to protect the information systems used in Smart City.
2020-07-03
Usama, Muhammad, Asim, Muhammad, Qadir, Junaid, Al-Fuqaha, Ala, Imran, Muhammad Ali.  2019.  Adversarial Machine Learning Attack on Modulation Classification. 2019 UK/ China Emerging Technologies (UCET). :1—4.

Modulation classification is an important component of cognitive self-driving networks. Recently many ML-based modulation classification methods have been proposed. We have evaluated the robustness of 9 ML-based modulation classifiers against the powerful Carlini & Wagner (C-W) attack and showed that the current ML-based modulation classifiers do not provide any deterrence against adversarial ML examples. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report the results of the application of the C-W attack for creating adversarial examples against various ML models for modulation classification.

Yan, Haonan, Li, Hui, Xiao, Mingchi, Dai, Rui, Zheng, Xianchun, Zhao, Xingwen, Li, Fenghua.  2019.  PGSM-DPI: Precisely Guided Signature Matching of Deep Packet Inspection for Traffic Analysis. 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1—6.

In the field of network traffic analysis, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) technology is widely used at present. However, the increase in network traffic has brought tremendous processing pressure on the DPI. Consequently, detection speed has become the bottleneck of the entire application. In order to speed up the traffic detection of DPI, a lot of research works have been applied to improve signature matching algorithms, which is the most influential factor in DPI performance. In this paper, we present a novel method from a different angle called Precisely Guided Signature Matching (PGSM). Instead of matching packets with signature directly, we use supervised learning to automate the rules of specific protocol in PGSM. By testing the performance of a packet in the rules, the target packet could be decided when and which signatures should be matched with. Thus, the PGSM method reduces the number of aimless matches which are useless and numerous. After proposing PGSM, we build a framework called PGSM-DPI to verify the effectiveness of guidance rules. The PGSM-DPI framework consists of PGSM method and open source DPI library. The framework is running on a distributed platform with better throughput and computational performance. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that our PGSM-DPI can reduce 59.23% original DPI time and increase 21.31% throughput. Besides, all source codes and experimental results can be accessed on our GitHub.

2020-06-26
Wang, Manxi, Liu, Bingjie, Xu, Haitao.  2019.  Resource Allocation for Threat Defense in Cyber-security IoT system. 2019 28th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC). :1—3.
In this paper, we design a model for resource allocation in IoT system considering the cyber security, to achieve optimal resource allocation when defend the attack and threat. The resource allocation problem is constructed as a dynamic game, where the threat level is the state and the defend cost is the objective function. Open loop solution and feedback solutions are both given to the defender as the optimal control variables under different solutions situations. The optimal allocated resource and the optimal threat level for the defender is simulated through the numerical simulations.
Babenko, Mikhail, Redvanov, Aziz Salimovich, Deryabin, Maxim, Chervyakov, Nikolay, Nazarov, Anton, Al-Galda, Safwat Chiad, Vashchenko, Irina, Dvoryaninova, Inna, Nepretimova, Elena.  2019.  Efficient Implementation of Cryptography on Points of an Elliptic Curve in Residue Number System. 2019 International Conference on Engineering and Telecommunication (EnT). :1—5.

The article explores the question of the effective implementation of arithmetic operations with points of an elliptic curve given over a prime field. Given that the basic arithmetic operations with points of an elliptic curve are the operations of adding points and doubling points, we study the question of implementing the arithmetic operations of adding and doubling points in various coordinate systems using the weighted number system and using the Residue Number System (RNS). We have shown that using the fourmodule RNS allows you to get an average gain for the operation of adding points of the elliptic curve of 8.67% and for the operation of doubling the points of the elliptic curve of 8.32% compared to the implementation using the operation of modular multiplication with special moduli from NIST FIPS 186.

Abir, Md. Towsif, Rahman, Lamiya, Miftah, Samit Shahnawaz, Sarker, Sudipta, Al Imran, Md. Ibrahim, Shafiqul Islam, Md..  2019.  Image Encryption and Decryption using Enigma Algorithm. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). :1—5.

The main objective of this paper is to present a more secured and computationally efficient procedure of encrypting and decrypting images using the enigma algorithm in comparison to the existing methods. Available literature on image encryptions and descriptions are not highly secured in every case.To achieve more secured image processing for highly advanced technologies, a proposed algorithm can be the process used in enigma machine for image encryption and decryption. Enigma machine is piece of spook hardware that was used frequently during the World War II by the Germans. This paper describes the detailed algorithm along with proper demonstration of several essential components present in an enigma machine that is required for image security. Each pixel in a colorful picture can be represented by RGB (Red, Green, Blue) value. The range of RGB values is 0 to 255 that states the red, green and blue intensity of a particular picture.These RGB values are accessed one by one and changed into another by various steps and hence it is not possible to track the original RGB value. In order to retrieve the original image, the receiver needs to know the setting of the enigma. To compare the decrypted image with the original one,these two images are subtracted and their results are also discussed in this paper.

2020-06-22
Van, Luu Xuan, Hong Dung, Luu.  2019.  Constructing a Digital Signature Algorithm Based on the Difficulty of Some Expanded Root Problems. 2019 6th NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science (NICS). :190–195.
This paper presents the proposed method of building a digital signature algorithm which is based on the difficulty of solving root problem and some expanded root problems on Zp. The expanded root problem is a new form of difficult problem without the solution, also originally proposed and applied to build digital signature algorithms. This proposed method enable to build a high-security digital signature platform for practical applications.
2020-06-15
Gorbachov, Valeriy, Batiaa, Abdulrahman Kataeba, Ponomarenko, Olha, Kotkova, Oksana.  2019.  Impact Evaluation of Embedded Security Mechanisms on System Performance. 2019 IEEE International Scientific-Practical Conference Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S T). :407–410.
Experience in designing general-purpose systems that enforce security goals shows that achieving universality, security, and performance remains a very difficult challenge. As a result, two directions emerged in designing, one of which focused on universality and performance with limited security mechanisms, and another - on robust security with reasonable performance for limited sets of applications. In the first case, popular but unsecure systems were created, and various efforts were subsequently made to upgrade the protected infrastructure for such systems. In the work, the latter approach is considered. It is obvious that the inclusion of built-in security mechanisms leads to a decrease in system performance. The paper considers a reference monitor and the assessment of its impact on system performance. For this purpose, the functional structure of reference monitor is built and the analytical model of impact evaluation on system performance is proposed.
2020-06-12
Min, Congwen, Li, Yi, Fang, Li, Chen, Ping.  2019.  Conditional Generative Adversarial Network on Semi-supervised Learning Task. 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1448—1452.

Semi-supervised learning has recently gained increasingly attention because it can combine abundant unlabeled data with carefully labeled data to train deep neural networks. However, common semi-supervised methods deeply rely on the quality of pseudo labels. In this paper, we proposed a new semi-supervised learning method based on Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), by using discriminator to learn the feature of both labeled and unlabeled data, instead of generating pseudo labels that cannot all be correct. Our approach, semi-supervised conditional GAN (SCGAN), builds upon the conditional GAN model, extending it to semi-supervised learning by changing the discriminator's output to a classification output and a real or false output. We evaluate our approach with basic semi-supervised model on MNIST dataset. It shows that our approach achieves the classification accuracy with 84.15%, outperforming the basic semi-supervised model with 72.94%, when labeled data are 1/600 of all data.

2020-06-08
van den Berg, Eric, Robertson, Seth.  2019.  Game-Theoretic Planning to Counter DDoS in NEMESIS. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1–6.
NEMESIS provides powerful and cost-effective defenses against extreme Distributed Denial of Service (DDos) attacks through a number of network maneuvers. However, selection of which maneuvers to deploy when and with what parameters requires great care to achieve optimal outcomes in the face of overwhelming attack. Analytical wargaming allows game theoretic optimal Courses of Action (COA) to be created real-time during live operations, orders of magnitude faster than packet-level simulation and with equivalent outcomes to even expert human hand-crafted COAs.
2020-06-01
Kapoor, Chavi.  2019.  Routing Table Management using Dynamic Information with Routing Around Connectivity Holes (RACH) for IoT Networks. 2019 International Conference on Automation, Computational and Technology Management (ICACTM). :174—177.

The internet of things (IoT) is the popular wireless network for data collection applications. The IoT networks are deployed in dense or sparse architectures, out of which the dense networks are vastly popular as these are capable of gathering the huge volumes of data. The collected data is analyzed using the historical or continuous analytical systems, which uses the back testing or time-series analytics to observe the desired patterns from the target data. The lost or bad interval data always carries the high probability to misguide the analysis reports. The data is lost due to a variety of reasons, out of which the most popular ones are associated with the node failures and connectivity holes, which occurs due to physical damage, software malfunctioning, blackhole/wormhole attacks, route poisoning, etc. In this paper, the work is carried on the new routing scheme for the IoTs to avoid the connectivity holes, which analyzes the activity of wireless nodes and takes the appropriate actions when required.

2020-05-22
Kang, Hyunjoong, Hong, Sanghyun, Lee, Kookjin, Park, Noseong, Kwon, Soonhyun.  2018.  On Integrating Knowledge Graph Embedding into SPARQL Query Processing. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). :371—374.
SPARQL is a standard query language for knowledge graphs (KGs). However, it is hard to find correct answer if KGs are incomplete or incorrect. Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) enables answering queries on such KGs by inferring unknown knowledge and removing incorrect knowledge. Hence, our long-term goal in this line of research is to propose a new framework that integrates KGE and SPARQL, which opens various research problems to be addressed. In this paper, we solve one of the most critical problems, that is, optimizing the performance of nearest neighbor (NN) search. In our evaluations, we demonstrate that the search time of state-of-the-art NN search algorithms is improved by 40% without sacrificing answer accuracy.
Song, Fuyuan, Qin, Zheng, Liu, Qin, Liang, Jinwen, Ou, Lu.  2019.  Efficient and Secure k-Nearest Neighbor Search Over Encrypted Data in Public Cloud. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.
Cloud computing has become an important and popular infrastructure for data storage and sharing. Typically, data owners outsource their massive data to a public cloud that will provide search services to authorized data users. With privacy concerns, the valuable outsourced data cannot be exposed directly, and should be encrypted before outsourcing to the public cloud. In this paper, we focus on k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) search over encrypted data. We propose efficient and secure k-NN search schemes based on matrix similarity to achieve efficient and secure query services in public cloud. In our basic scheme, we construct the traces of two diagonal multiplication matrices to denote the Euclidean distance of two data points, and perform secure k-NN search by comparing traces of corresponding similar matrices. In our enhanced scheme, we strengthen the security property by decomposing matrices based on our basic scheme. Security analysis shows that our schemes protect the data privacy and query privacy under attacking with different levels of background knowledge. Experimental evaluations show that both schemes are efficient in terms of computation complexity as well as computational cost.