# Biblio

With the increasing expansion of wind and solar power plants, these technologies will also have to contribute control reserve to guarantee frequency stability within the next couple of years. In order to maintain the security of supply at the same level in the future, it must be ensured that wind and solar power plants are able to feed in electricity into the distribution grid without bottlenecks when activated. The present work presents a grid state assessment, which takes into account the special features of the control reserve supply. The identification of a future grid state, which is necessary for an ex ante evaluation, poses the challenge of forecasting loads. The Boundary Load Flow method takes load uncertainties into account and is used to estimate a possible interval for all grid parameters. Grid congestions can thus be detected preventively and suppliers of control reserve can be approved or excluded. A validation in combination with an exemplary application shows the feasibility of the overall methodology.

The need to enhance the performance of existing transmission network in line with economic and technical constraints is crucial in a competitive market environment. This paper models the total transfer capacity (TTC) improvement using optimally placed thyristor-controlled series capacitors (TCSC). The system states were evaluated using distributed slack bus (DSB) and continuous power flow (CPF) techniques. Adaptable logic relations was modelled based on security margin (SM), steady state and transient condition collapse voltages (Uss, Uts) and the steady state line power loss (Plss), through which line suitability index (LSI) were obtained. The fuzzy expert system (FES) membership functions (MF) with respective degrees of memberships are defined to obtain the best states. The LSI MF is defined high between 0.2-0.8 to provide enough protection under transient disturbances. The test results on IEEE 30 bus system show that the model is feasible for TTC enhancement under steady state and N-1 conditions.

This paper sheds light on the collaborative efforts in restoring cyber and physical subsystems of a modern power distribution system after the occurrence of an extreme weather event. The extensive cyber-physical interdependencies in the operation of power distribution systems are first introduced for investigating the functionality loss of each subsystem when the dependent subsystem suffers disruptions. A resilience index is then proposed for measuring the effectiveness of restoration activities in terms of restoration rapidity. After modeling operators' decision making for economic dispatch as a second-order cone programming problem, this paper proposes a heuristic approach for prioritizing the activities for restoring both cyber and physical subsystems. In particular, the proposed heuristic approach takes into consideration of cyber-physical interdependencies for improving the operation performance. Case studies are also conducted to validate the collaborative restoration model in the 33-bus power distribution system.

The chances of cyber-attacks have been increased because of incorporation of communication networks and information technology in power system. Main objective of the paper is to prove that attacker can launch the attack vector without the knowledge of complete network information and the injected false data can't be detected by power system operator. This paper also deals with analyzing the impact of multi-attacking strategy on the power system. This false data attacks incurs lot of damage to power system, as it misguides the power system operator. Here, we demonstrate the construction of attack vector and later we have demonstrated multiple attacking regions in IEEE 14 bus system. Impact of attack vector on the power system can be observed and it is proved that the attack cannot be detected by power system operator with the help of residue check method.

In this paper we report preliminary results from the novel coupling of cyber-physical emulation and interdiction optimization to better understand the impact of a CrashOverride malware attack on a notional electric system. We conduct cyber experiments where CrashOverride issues commands to remote terminal units (RTUs) that are controlling substations within a power control area. We identify worst-case loss of load outcomes with cyber interdiction optimization; the proposed approach is a bilevel formulation that incorporates RTU mappings to controllable loads, transmission lines, and generators in the upper-level (attacker model), and a DC optimal power flow (DCOPF) in the lower-level (defender model). Overall, our preliminary results indicate that the interdiction optimization can guide the design of experiments instead of performing a “full factorial” approach. Likewise, for systems where there are important dependencies between SCADA/ICS controls and power grid operations, the cyber-physical emulations should drive improved parameterization and surrogate models that are applied in scalable optimization techniques.

Cascading failure, which can be triggered by both physical and cyber attacks, is among the most critical threats to the security and resilience of power grids. In current literature, researchers investigate the issue of cascading failure on smart grids mainly from the attacker's perspective. From the perspective of a grid defender or operator, however, it is also an important issue to restore the smart grid suffering from cascading failure back to normal operation as soon as possible. In this paper, we consider cascading failure in conjunction with the restoration process involving repairing of the failed nodes/links in a sequential fashion. Based on a realistic power flow cascading failure model, we exploit a Q-learning approach to develop a practical and effective policy to identify the optimal way of sequential restorations for large-scale smart grids. Simulation results on three power grid test benchmarks demonstrate the learning ability and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

The risk of large-scale blackouts and cascading failures in power grids can be due to vulnerable transmission lines and lack of proper remediation techniques after recognizing the first failure. In this paper, we assess the vulnerability of a system using fault chain theory and a power flow-based method, and calculate the probability of large-scale blackout. Further, we consider a Remedial Action Scheme (RAS) to reduce the vulnerability of the system and to harden the critical components against intentional attacks. To identify the most critical lines more efficiently, a new vulnerability index is presented. The effectiveness of the new index and the impact of the applied RAS is illustrated on the IEEE 14-bus test system.

The identification of transmission sections is used to improve the efficiency of monitoring the operation of the power grid. In order to test the validity of transmission sections identified, an assessment process is necessary. In addition, Transmission betweenness, an index for finding the key transmission lines in the power grid, should also be verified. In this paper, chain attack is assumed to check the weak links in the grid, thus verifying the transmission betweenness implemented for the system. Moreover, the line outage distribution factors (LODFs) are used to quantify the change of power flow when the leading line in transmission sections breaks down, so that the validity of transmission sections can be proved. Case studies based on IEEE 39 and IEEE 118 -bus system proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

In this study, it is proposed to carry out an efficient formulation in order to figure out the stochastic security-constrained generation capacity expansion planning (SC-GCEP) problem. The main idea is related to directly compute the line outage distribution factors (LODF) which could be applied to model the N - m post-contingency analysis. In addition, the post-contingency power flows are modeled based on the LODF and the partial transmission distribution factors (PTDF). The post-contingency constraints have been reformulated using linear distribution factors (PTDF and LODF) so that both the pre- and post-contingency constraints are modeled simultaneously in the SC-GCEP problem using these factors. In the stochastic formulation, the load uncertainty is incorporated employing a two-stage multi-period framework, and a K - means clustering technique is implemented to decrease the number of load scenarios. The main advantage of this methodology is the feasibility to quickly compute the post-contingency factors especially with multiple-line outages (N - m). This concept would improve the security-constraint analysis modeling quickly the outage of m transmission lines in the stochastic SC-GCEP problem. It is carried out several experiments using two electrical power systems in order to validate the performance of the proposed formulation.

This study proposes to apply an efficient formulation to solve the stochastic security-constrained generation capacity expansion planning (GCEP) problem using an improved method to directly compute the generalized generation distribution factors (GGDF) and the line outage distribution factors (LODF) in order to model the pre- and the post-contingency constraints based on the only application of the partial transmission distribution factors (PTDF). The classical DC-based formulation has been reformulated in order to include the security criteria solving both pre- and post-contingency constraints simultaneously. The methodology also takes into account the load uncertainty in the optimization problem using a two-stage multi-period model, and a clustering technique is used as well to reduce load scenarios (stochastic problem). The main advantage of this methodology is the feasibility to quickly compute the LODF especially with multiple-line outages (N-m). This idea could speed up contingency analyses and improve significantly the security-constrained analyses applied to GCEP problems. It is worth to mentioning that this approach is carried out without sacrificing optimality.

Online Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) is a dynamical system widely used for assessing and analyzing an electrical power system. The outcomes of DSA are used in many aspects of the operation of power system, from monitoring the system to determining remedial action schemes (e.g. the amount of generators to be shed at the event of a fault). Measurement from supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and state estimation (SE) results are the inputs for online-DSA, however, the SE error, caused by sudden change in power flow or low convergence rate, could be unnoticed and skew the outcome. Therefore, generator shedding scheme cannot achieve optimum but must have some margin because we don't know how SE error caused by these problems will impact power system stability control. As a method for solving the problem, we developed SE error detection system (EDS), which is enabled by detecting the SE error that will impact power system transient stability. The method is comparing a threshold value and an index calculated by the difference between SE results and PMU observation data, using the distance from the fault point and the power flow value. Using the index, the reliability of the SE results can be verified. As a result, online-DSA can use the SE results while avoiding the bad SE results, assuring the outcome of the DSA assessment and analysis, such as the amount of generator shedding in order to prevent the power system's instability.

This paper presents a new approach for a dynamic curtailment method for renewable energy sources that guarantees fulfilling of (n-1)-security criteria of the system. Therefore, it is applicable to high voltage distribution grids and has compliance to their planning guidelines. The proposed dynamic curtailment method specifically reduces the power feed-in of renewable energy sources up to a level, where no thermal constraint is exceeded in the (n-1)-state of the system. Based on AC distribution factors, a new formulation of line outage distribution factors is presented that is applicable for outages consisting of a single line or multiple segment lines. The proposed method is tested using a planning study of a real German high voltage distribution grid. The results show that any thermal loading limits are exceeded by using the dynamic curtailment approach. Therefore, a significant reduction of the grid reinforcement can be achieved by using a small amount of curtailed annual energy from renewable energy sources.

As societies are becoming more dependent on the power grids, the security issues and blackout threats are more emphasized. This paper proposes a new graph model for online visualization and assessment of power grid security. The proposed model integrates topology and power flow information to estimate and visualize interdependencies between the lines in the form of line dependency graph (LDG) and immediate threats graph (ITG). These models enable the system operator to predict the impact of line outage and identify the most vulnerable and critical links in the power system. Line Vulnerability Index (LVI) and Line Criticality Index (LCI) are introduced as two indices extracted from LDG to aid the operator in decision making and contingency selection. This package can be useful in enhancing situational awareness in power grid operation by visualization and estimation of system threats. The proposed approach is tested for security analysis of IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems and the results are discussed.

The inherent heterogeneity in the uncertainty of variable generations (e.g., wind, solar, tidal and wave-power) in electric grid coupled with the dynamic nature of distributed architecture of sub-systems, and the need for information synchronization has made the problem of resource allocation and monitoring a tremendous challenge for the next-generation smart grid. Unfortunately, the deployment of distributed algorithms across micro grids have been overlooked in the electric grid sector. In particular, centralized methods for managing resources and data may not be sufficient to monitor a complex electric grid. This paper discusses a decentralized constrained decomposition using Linear Programming (LP) that optimizes the inter-area transfer across micro grids that reduces total generation cost for the grid. A test grid of IEEE 14-bus system is sectioned into two and three areas, and its effect on inter-transfer is analyzed.