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Deng, Chao, He, Mingxing, Wen, Xinyu, Luo, Qian.  2022.  Support Efficient User Revocation and Identity Privacy in Integrity Auditing of Shared Data. 2022 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :221—229.
The cloud provides storage for users to share their files in the cloud. Nowadays some shared data auditing schemes are proposed for protecting data integrity. However, preserving the identity privacy of group users and secure user revocation usually result in high computational overhead. Then a shared data auditing scheme supporting identity privacy preserving is proposed that enables users to be effectively revoked. To preserve identity privacy during the audit process, we develop an efficient authenticator generation mechanism that enables public auditing. Our solution supports efficient user revocation, where the authenticator of the revoked user does not need to be regenerated and integrity checking can be performed appropriately. At the same time, the group manager maintains two tables to ensure user traceability. When the user updates data, two tables are modified and updated by the group manager promptly. It shows that our scheme is secure by security analysis. Moreover, concrete experiments prove the performance of the system.
Li, Xiuli, Wang, Guoshi, Wang, Chuping, Qin, Yanyan, Wang, Ning.  2022.  Software Source Code Security Audit Algorithm Supporting Incremental Checking. 2022 IEEE 7th International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :53—58.
Source code security audit is an effective technique to deal with security vulnerabilities and software bugs. As one kind of white-box testing approaches, it can effectively help developers eliminate defects in the code. However, it suffers from performance issues. In this paper, we propose an incremental checking mechanism which enables fast source code security audits. And we conduct comprehensive experiments to verify the effectiveness of our approach.
Yuan, Wenyong, Wei, Lixian, Li, Zhengge, Ki, Ruifeng, Yang, Xiaoyuan.  2022.  ID-based Data Integrity Auditing Scheme from RSA with Forward Security. 2022 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :192—197.
Cloud data integrity verification was an important means to ensure data security. We used public key infrastructure (PKI) to manage user keys in Traditional way, but there were problems of certificate verification and high cost of key management. In this paper, RSA signature was used to construct a new identity-based cloud audit protocol, which solved the previous problems caused by PKI and supported forward security, and reduced the loss caused by key exposure. Through security analysis, the design scheme could effectively resist forgery attack and support forward security.
Alimzhanova, Zhanna, Tleubergen, Akzer, Zhunusbayeva, Salamat, Nazarbayev, Dauren.  2022.  Comparative Analysis of Risk Assessment During an Enterprise Information Security Audit. 2022 International Conference on Smart Information Systems and Technologies (SIST). :1—6.
This article discusses a threat and vulnerability analysis model that allows you to fully analyze the requirements related to information security in an organization and document the results of the analysis. The use of this method allows avoiding and preventing unnecessary costs for security measures arising from subjective risk assessment, planning and implementing protection at all stages of the information systems lifecycle, minimizing the time spent by an information security specialist during information system risk assessment procedures by automating this process and reducing the level of errors and professional skills of information security experts. In the initial sections, the common methods of risk analysis and risk assessment software are analyzed and conclusions are drawn based on the results of comparative analysis, calculations are carried out in accordance with the proposed model.
Saloni, Arora, Dilpreet Kaur.  2022.  A Review on The Concerns of Security Audit Using Machine Learning Techniques. 2022 2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering (ICACITE). :835—839.
Successful information and communication technology (ICT) may propel administrative procedures forward quickly. In order to achieve efficient usage of TCT in their businesses, ICT strategies and plans should be examined to ensure that they align with the organization's visions and missions. Efficient software and hardware work together to provide relevant data that aids in the improvement of how we do business, learn, communicate, entertain, and work. This exposes them to a risky environment that is prone to both internal and outside threats. The term “security” refers to a level of protection or resistance to damage. Security can also be thought of as a barrier between assets and threats. Important terms must be understood in order to have a comprehensive understanding of security. This research paper discusses key terms, concerns, and challenges related to information systems and security auditing. Exploratory research is utilised in this study to find an explanation for the observed occurrences, problems, or behaviour. The study's findings include a list of various security risks that must be seriously addressed in any Information System and Security Audit.
Upadhyaya, Santosh Kumar, Thangaraju, B..  2022.  A Novel Method for Trusted Audit and Compliance for Network Devices by Using Blockchain. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Computing and Communication Technologies (CONECCT). :1—6.
The Network Security and Risk (NSR) management team in an enterprise is responsible for maintaining the network which includes switches, routers, firewalls, controllers, etc. Due to the ever-increasing threat of capitalizing on the vulnerabilities to create cyber-attacks across the globe, a major objective of the NSR team is to keep network infrastructure safe and secure. NSR team ensures this by taking proactive measures of periodic audits of network devices. Further external auditors are engaged in the audit process. Audit information is primarily stored in an internal database of the enterprise. This generic approach could result in a trust deficit during external audits. This paper proposes a method to improve the security and integrity of the audit information by using blockchain technology, which can greatly enhance the trust factor between the auditors and enterprises.
Lobanok, Oleg, Promyslov, Vitaly, Semenkov, Kirill.  2022.  Safety-Driven Approach for Security Audit of I&C Systems of Nuclear Power Plants. 2022 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Applications and Manufacturing (ICIEAM). :545—550.
In this paper, we tried to summarize the practical experience of information security audits of nuclear power plants' automated process control system (I&C). The article presents a methodology for auditing the information security of instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants. The methodology was developed taking into account international and national Russian norms and rules and standards. The audit taxonomy, classification lifecycle are described. The taxonomy of information security audits shows that form, objectives of the I&C information security audit, and procedures can vary widely. A conceptual program is considered and discussed in details. The distinctive feature of the methodology is the mandatory consideration of the impact of information security on nuclear safety.
Bryushinin, Anton O., Dushkin, Alexandr V., Melshiyan, Maxim A..  2022.  Automation of the Information Collection Process by Osint Methods for Penetration Testing During Information Security Audit. 2022 Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ElConRus). :242—246.
The purpose of this article is to consider one of the options for automating the process of collecting information from open sources when conducting penetration testing in an organization's information security audit using the capabilities of the Python programming language. Possible primary vectors for collecting information about the organization, personnel, software, and hardware are shown. The basic principles of operation of the software product are presented in a visual form, which allows automated analysis of information from open sources about the object under study.
Ahmad, Adil, Lee, Sangho, Peinado, Marcus.  2022.  HARDLOG: Practical Tamper-Proof System Auditing Using a Novel Audit Device. 2022 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1791—1807.
Audit systems maintain detailed logs of security-related events on enterprise machines to forensically analyze potential incidents. In principle, these logs should be safely stored in a secure location (e.g., network storage) as soon as they are produced, but this incurs prohibitive slowdown to a monitored machine. Hence, existing audit systems protect batched logs asynchronously (e.g., after tens of seconds), but this allows attackers to tamper with unprotected logs.This paper presents HARDLOG, a practical and effective system that employs a novel audit device to provide fine-grained log protection with minimal performance slowdown. HARDLOG implements criticality-aware log protection: it ensures that logs are synchronously protected in the audit device before an infrequent security-critical event is allowed to execute, but logs are asynchronously protected on frequent non-critical events to minimize performance overhead. Importantly, even on non-critical events, HARDLOG ensures bounded-asynchronous protection: it sends log entries to the audit device within a tiny, bounded delay from their creation using well-known real-time techniques. To demonstrate HARDLOG’S effectiveness, we prototyped an audit device using commodity components and implemented a reference audit system for Linux. Our prototype achieves a bounded protection delay of 15 milliseconds at non-critical events alongside undelayed protection at critical events. We also show that, for diverse real-world programs, HARDLOG incurs a geometric mean performance slowdown of only 6.3%, hence it is suitable for many real-world deployment scenarios.
Chen, Tianlong, Zhang, Zhenyu, Zhang, Yihua, Chang, Shiyu, Liu, Sijia, Wang, Zhangyang.  2022.  Quarantine: Sparsity Can Uncover the Trojan Attack Trigger for Free. 2022 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :588—599.
Trojan attacks threaten deep neural networks (DNNs) by poisoning them to behave normally on most samples, yet to produce manipulated results for inputs attached with a particular trigger. Several works attempt to detect whether a given DNN has been injected with a specific trigger during the training. In a parallel line of research, the lottery ticket hypothesis reveals the existence of sparse sub-networks which are capable of reaching competitive performance as the dense network after independent training. Connecting these two dots, we investigate the problem of Trojan DNN detection from the brand new lens of sparsity, even when no clean training data is available. Our crucial observation is that the Trojan features are significantly more stable to network pruning than benign features. Leveraging that, we propose a novel Trojan network detection regime: first locating a “winning Trojan lottery ticket” which preserves nearly full Trojan information yet only chance-level performance on clean inputs; then recovering the trigger embedded in this already isolated sub-network. Extensive experiments on various datasets, i.e., CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet, with different network architectures, i.e., VGG-16, ResNet-18, ResNet-20s, and DenseNet-100 demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal. Codes are available at
Roy, Arunava, Dasgupta, Dipankar.  2022.  A Robust Framework for Adaptive Selection of Filter Ensembles to Detect Adversarial Inputs. 2022 52nd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :59—67.
Existing defense strategies against adversarial attacks (AAs) on AI/ML are primarily focused on examining the input data streams using a wide variety of filtering techniques. For instance, input filters are used to remove noisy, misleading, and out-of-class inputs along with a variety of attacks on learning systems. However, a single filter may not be able to detect all types of AAs. To address this issue, in the current work, we propose a robust, transferable, distribution-independent, and cross-domain supported framework for selecting Adaptive Filter Ensembles (AFEs) to minimize the impact of data poisoning on learning systems. The optimal filter ensembles are determined through a Multi-Objective Bi-Level Programming Problem (MOBLPP) that provides a subset of diverse filter sequences, each exhibiting fair detection accuracy. The proposed framework of AFE is trained to model the pristine data distribution to identify the corrupted inputs and converges to the optimal AFE without vanishing gradients and mode collapses irrespective of input data distributions. We presented preliminary experiments to show the proposed defense outperforms the existing defenses in terms of robustness and accuracy.
Siriwardhana, Yushan, Porambage, Pawani, Liyanage, Madhusanka, Ylianttila, Mika.  2022.  Robust and Resilient Federated Learning for Securing Future Networks. 2022 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit (EuCNC/6G Summit). :351—356.
Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques are widely adopted in the telecommunication industry, especially to automate beyond 5G networks. Federated Learning (FL) recently emerged as a distributed ML approach that enables localized model training to keep data decentralized to ensure data privacy. In this paper, we identify the applicability of FL for securing future networks and its limitations due to the vulnerability to poisoning attacks. First, we investigate the shortcomings of state-of-the-art security algorithms for FL and perform an attack to circumvent FoolsGold algorithm, which is known as one of the most promising defense techniques currently available. The attack is launched with the addition of intelligent noise at the poisonous model updates. Then we propose a more sophisticated defense strategy, a threshold-based clustering mechanism to complement FoolsGold. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the attack scenario and the performance of the defense mechanism.
Erbil, Pinar, Gursoy, M. Emre.  2022.  Detection and Mitigation of Targeted Data Poisoning Attacks in Federated Learning. 2022 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :1—8.
Federated learning (FL) has emerged as a promising paradigm for distributed training of machine learning models. In FL, several participants train a global model collaboratively by only sharing model parameter updates while keeping their training data local. However, FL was recently shown to be vulnerable to data poisoning attacks, in which malicious participants send parameter updates derived from poisoned training data. In this paper, we focus on defending against targeted data poisoning attacks, where the attacker’s goal is to make the model misbehave for a small subset of classes while the rest of the model is relatively unaffected. To defend against such attacks, we first propose a method called MAPPS for separating malicious updates from benign ones. Using MAPPS, we propose three methods for attack detection: MAPPS + X-Means, MAPPS + VAT, and their Ensemble. Then, we propose an attack mitigation approach in which a "clean" model (i.e., a model that is not negatively impacted by an attack) can be trained despite the existence of a poisoning attempt. We empirically evaluate all of our methods using popular image classification datasets. Results show that we can achieve \textgreater 95% true positive rates while incurring only \textless 2% false positive rate. Furthermore, the clean models that are trained using our proposed methods have accuracy comparable to models trained in an attack-free scenario.
Feng, Yu, Ma, Benteng, Zhang, Jing, Zhao, Shanshan, Xia, Yong, Tao, Dacheng.  2022.  FIBA: Frequency-Injection based Backdoor Attack in Medical Image Analysis. 2022 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :20844—20853.
In recent years, the security of AI systems has drawn increasing research attention, especially in the medical imaging realm. To develop a secure medical image analysis (MIA) system, it is a must to study possible backdoor attacks (BAs), which can embed hidden malicious behaviors into the system. However, designing a unified BA method that can be applied to various MIA systems is challenging due to the diversity of imaging modalities (e.g., X-Ray, CT, and MRI) and analysis tasks (e.g., classification, detection, and segmentation). Most existing BA methods are designed to attack natural image classification models, which apply spatial triggers to training images and inevitably corrupt the semantics of poisoned pixels, leading to the failures of attacking dense prediction models. To address this issue, we propose a novel Frequency-Injection based Backdoor Attack method (FIBA) that is capable of delivering attacks in various MIA tasks. Specifically, FIBA leverages a trigger function in the frequency domain that can inject the low-frequency information of a trigger image into the poisoned image by linearly combining the spectral amplitude of both images. Since it preserves the semantics of the poisoned image pixels, FIBA can perform attacks on both classification and dense prediction models. Experiments on three benchmarks in MIA (i.e., ISIC-2019 [4] for skin lesion classification, KiTS-19 [17] for kidney tumor segmentation, and EAD-2019 [1] for endoscopic artifact detection), validate the effectiveness of FIBA and its superiority over stateof-the-art methods in attacking MIA models and bypassing backdoor defense. Source code will be available at code.
Fan, Jiaxin, Yan, Qi, Li, Mohan, Qu, Guanqun, Xiao, Yang.  2022.  A Survey on Data Poisoning Attacks and Defenses. 2022 7th IEEE International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :48—55.
With the widespread deployment of data-driven services, the demand for data volumes continues to grow. At present, many applications lack reliable human supervision in the process of data collection, which makes the collected data contain low-quality data or even malicious data. This low-quality or malicious data make AI systems potentially face much security challenges. One of the main security threats in the training phase of machine learning is data poisoning attacks, which compromise model integrity by contaminating training data to make the resulting model skewed or unusable. This paper reviews the relevant researches on data poisoning attacks in various task environments: first, the classification of attacks is summarized, then the defense methods of data poisoning attacks are sorted out, and finally, the possible research directions in the prospect.
Zhu, Yanxu, Wen, Hong, Zhang, Peng, Han, Wen, Sun, Fan, Jia, Jia.  2022.  Poisoning Attack against Online Regression Learning with Maximum Loss for Edge Intelligence. 2022 International Conference on Computing, Communication, Perception and Quantum Technology (CCPQT). :169—173.
Recent trends in the convergence of edge computing and artificial intelligence (AI) have led to a new paradigm of “edge intelligence”, which are more vulnerable to attack such as data and model poisoning and evasion of attacks. This paper proposes a white-box poisoning attack against online regression model for edge intelligence environment, which aim to prepare the protection methods in the future. Firstly, the new method selects data points from original stream with maximum loss by two selection strategies; Secondly, it pollutes these points with gradient ascent strategy. At last, it injects polluted points into original stream being sent to target model to complete the attack process. We extensively evaluate our proposed attack on open dataset, the results of which demonstrate the effectiveness of the novel attack method and the real implications of poisoning attack in a case study electric energy prediction application.
Franci, Adriano, Cordy, Maxime, Gubri, Martin, Papadakis, Mike, Traon, Yves Le.  2022.  Influence-Driven Data Poisoning in Graph-Based Semi-Supervised Classifiers. 2022 IEEE/ACM 1st International Conference on AI Engineering – Software Engineering for AI (CAIN). :77—87.
Graph-based Semi-Supervised Learning (GSSL) is a practical solution to learn from a limited amount of labelled data together with a vast amount of unlabelled data. However, due to their reliance on the known labels to infer the unknown labels, these algorithms are sensitive to data quality. It is therefore essential to study the potential threats related to the labelled data, more specifically, label poisoning. In this paper, we propose a novel data poisoning method which efficiently approximates the result of label inference to identify the inputs which, if poisoned, would produce the highest number of incorrectly inferred labels. We extensively evaluate our approach on three classification problems under 24 different experimental settings each. Compared to the state of the art, our influence-driven attack produces an average increase of error rate 50% higher, while being faster by multiple orders of magnitude. Moreover, our method can inform engineers of inputs that deserve investigation (relabelling them) before training the learning model. We show that relabelling one-third of the poisoned inputs (selected based on their influence) reduces the poisoning effect by 50%. ACM Reference Format: Adriano Franci, Maxime Cordy, Martin Gubri, Mike Papadakis, and Yves Le Traon. 2022. Influence-Driven Data Poisoning in Graph-Based Semi-Supervised Classifiers. In 1st Conference on AI Engineering - Software Engineering for AI (CAIN’22), May 16–24, 2022, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 11 pages.
Rasch, Martina, Martino, Antonio, Drobics, Mario, Merenda, Massimo.  2022.  Short-Term Time Series Forecasting based on Edge Machine Learning Techniques for IoT devices. 2022 7th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies (SpliTech). :1—5.
As the effects of climate change are becoming more and more evident, the importance of improved situation awareness is also gaining more attention, both in the context of preventive environmental monitoring and in the context of acute crisis response. One important aspect of situation awareness is the correct and thorough monitoring of air pollutants. The monitoring is threatened by sensor faults, power or network failures, or other hazards leading to missing or incorrect data transmission. For this reason, in this work we propose two complementary approaches for predicting missing sensor data and a combined technique for detecting outliers. The proposed solution can enhance the performance of low-cost sensor systems, closing the gap of missing measurements due to network unavailability, detecting drift and outliers thus paving the way to its use as an alert system for reportable events. The techniques have been deployed and tested also in a low power microcontroller environment, verifying the suitability of such a computing power to perform the inference locally, leading the way to an edge implementation of a virtual sensor digital twin.
Wolsing, Konrad, Saillard, Antoine, Bauer, Jan, Wagner, Eric, van Sloun, Christian, Fink, Ina Berenice, Schmidt, Mari, Wehrle, Klaus, Henze, Martin.  2022.  Network Attacks Against Marine Radar Systems: A Taxonomy, Simulation Environment, and Dataset. 2022 IEEE 47th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :114—122.
Shipboard marine radar systems are essential for safe navigation, helping seafarers perceive their surroundings as they provide bearing and range estimations, object detection, and tracking. Since onboard systems have become increasingly digitized, interconnecting distributed electronics, radars have been integrated into modern bridge systems. But digitization increases the risk of cyberattacks, especially as vessels cannot be considered air-gapped. Consequently, in-depth security is crucial. However, particularly radar systems are not sufficiently protected against harmful network-level adversaries. Therefore, we ask: Can seafarers believe their eyes? In this paper, we identify possible attacks on radar communication and discuss how these threaten safe vessel operation in an attack taxonomy. Furthermore, we develop a holistic simulation environment with radar, complementary nautical sensors, and prototypically implemented cyberattacks from our taxonomy. Finally, leveraging this environment, we create a comprehensive dataset (RadarPWN) with radar network attacks that provides a foundation for future security research to secure marine radar communication.
Sharma, Himanshu, Kumar, Neeraj, Tekchandani, Raj Kumar, Mohammad, Nazeeruddin.  2022.  Deep Learning enabled Channel Secrecy Codes for Physical Layer Security of UAVs in 5G and beyond Networks. ICC 2022 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1—6.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are drawing enormous attention in both commercial and military applications to facilitate dynamic wireless communications and deliver seamless connectivity due to their flexible deployment, inherent line-of-sight (LOS) air-to-ground (A2G) channels, and high mobility. These advantages, however, render UAV-enabled wireless communication systems susceptible to eavesdropping attempts. Hence, there is a strong need to protect the wireless channel through which most of the UAV-enabled applications share data with each other. There exist various error correction techniques such as Low Density Parity Check (LDPC), polar codes that provide safe and reliable data transmission by exploiting the physical layer but require high transmission power. Also, the security gap achieved by these error-correction techniques must be reduced to improve the security level. In this paper, we present deep learning (DL) enabled punctured LDPC codes to provide secure and reliable transmission of data for UAVs through the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel irrespective of the computational power and channel state information (CSI) of the Eavesdropper. Numerical result analysis shows that the proposed scheme reduces the Bit Error Rate (BER) at Bob effectively as compared to Eve and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) per bit value of 3.5 dB is achieved at the maximum threshold value of BER. Also, the security gap is reduced by 47.22 % as compared to conventional LDPC codes.
Tabak, Z., Keko, H., Sučić, S..  2022.  Semantic data integration in upgrading hydro power plants cyber security. 2022 45th Jubilee International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO). :50—54.
In the recent years, we have witnessed quite notable cyber-attacks targeting industrial automation control systems. Upgrading their cyber security is a challenge, not only due to long equipment lifetimes and legacy protocols originally designed to run in air-gapped networks. Even where multiple data sources are available and collection established, data interpretation usable across the different data sources remains a challenge. A modern hydro power plant contains the data sources that range from the classical distributed control systems to newer IoT- based data sources, embedded directly within the plant equipment and deeply integrated in the process. Even abundant collected data does not solve the security problems by itself. The interpretation of data semantics is limited as the data is effectively siloed. In this paper, the relevance of semantic integration of diverse data sources is presented in the context of a hydro power plant. The proposed semantic integration would increase the data interoperability, unlocking the data siloes and thus allowing ingestion of complementary data sources. The principal target of the data interoperability is to support the data-enhanced cyber security in an operational hydro power plant context. Furthermore, the opening of the data siloes would enable additional usage of the existing data sources in a structured semantically enriched form.
Xu, Huikai, Yu, Miao, Wang, Yanhao, Liu, Yue, Hou, Qinsheng, Ma, Zhenbang, Duan, Haixin, Zhuge, Jianwei, Liu, Baojun.  2022.  Trampoline Over the Air: Breaking in IoT Devices Through MQTT Brokers. 2022 IEEE 7th European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P). :171—187.
MQTT is widely adopted by IoT devices because it allows for the most efficient data transfer over a variety of communication lines. The security of MQTT has received increasing attention in recent years, and several studies have demonstrated the configurations of many MQTT brokers are insecure. Adversaries are allowed to exploit vulnerable brokers and publish malicious messages to subscribers. However, little has been done to understanding the security issues on the device side when devices handle unauthorized MQTT messages. To fill this research gap, we propose a fuzzing framework named ShadowFuzzer to find client-side vulnerabilities when processing incoming MQTT messages. To avoiding ethical issues, ShadowFuzzer redirects traffic destined for the actual broker to a shadow broker under the control to monitor vulnerabilities. We select 15 IoT devices communicating with vulnerable brokers and leverage ShadowFuzzer to find vulnerabilities when they parse MQTT messages. For these devices, ShadowFuzzer reports 34 zero-day vulnerabilities in 11 devices. We evaluated the exploitability of these vulnerabilities and received a total of 44,000 USD bug bounty rewards. And 16 CVE/CNVD/CN-NVD numbers have been assigned to us.
Shaikh, Rizwan Ahmed, Sohaib Khan, Muhammad, Rashid, Imran, Abbas, Haidar, Naeem, Farrukh, Siddiqi, Muhammad Haroon.  2022.  A Framework for Human Error, Weaknesses, Threats & Mitigation Measures in an Airgapped Network. 2022 2nd International Conference on Digital Futures and Transformative Technologies (ICoDT2). :1—8.
Many organizations process and store classified data within their computer networks. Owing to the value of data that they hold; such organizations are more vulnerable to targets from adversaries. Accordingly, the sensitive organizations resort to an ‘air-gap’ approach on their networks, to ensure better protection. However, despite the physical and logical isolation, the attackers have successfully manifested their capabilities by compromising such networks; examples of Stuxnet and Agent.btz in view. Such attacks were possible due to the successful manipulation of human beings. It has been observed that to build up such attacks, persistent reconnaissance of the employees, and their data collection often forms the first step. With the rapid integration of social media into our daily lives, the prospects for data-seekers through that platform are higher. The inherent risks and vulnerabilities of social networking sites/apps have cultivated a rich environment for foreign adversaries to cherry-pick personal information and carry out successful profiling of employees assigned with sensitive appointments. With further targeted social engineering techniques against the identified employees and their families, attackers extract more and more relevant data to make an intelligent picture. Finally, all the information is fused to design their further sophisticated attacks against the air-gapped facility for data pilferage. In this regard, the success of the adversaries in harvesting the personal information of the victims largely depends upon the common errors committed by legitimate users while on duty, in transit, and after their retreat. Such errors would keep on repeating unless these are aligned with their underlying human behaviors and weaknesses, and the requisite mitigation framework is worked out.
Daughety, Nathan, Pendleton, Marcus, Perez, Rebeca, Xu, Shouhuai, Franco, John.  2022.  Auditing a Software-Defined Cross Domain Solution Architecture. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :96—103.
In the context of cybersecurity systems, trust is the firm belief that a system will behave as expected. Trustworthiness is the proven property of a system that is worthy of trust. Therefore, trust is ephemeral, i.e. trust can be broken; trustworthiness is perpetual, i.e. trustworthiness is verified and cannot be broken. The gap between these two concepts is one which is, alarmingly, often overlooked. In fact, the pressure to meet with the pace of operations for mission critical cross domain solution (CDS) development has resulted in a status quo of high-risk, ad hoc solutions. Trustworthiness, proven through formal verification, should be an essential property in any hardware and/or software security system. We have shown, in "vCDS: A Virtualized Cross Domain Solution Architecture", that developing a formally verified CDS is possible. virtual CDS (vCDS) additionally comes with security guarantees, i.e. confidentiality, integrity, and availability, through the use of a formally verified trusted computing base (TCB). In order for a system, defined by an architecture description language (ADL), to be considered trustworthy, the implemented security configuration, i.e. access control and data protection models, must be verified correct. In this paper we present the first and only security auditing tool which seeks to verify the security configuration of a CDS architecture defined through ADL description. This tool is useful in mitigating the risk of existing solutions by ensuring proper security enforcement. Furthermore, when coupled with the agile nature of vCDS, this tool significantly increases the pace of system delivery.
Shahjee, Deepesh, Ware, Nilesh.  2022.  Designing a Framework of an Integrated Network and Security Operation Center: A Convergence Approach. 2022 IEEE 7th International conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1—4.
Cyber-security incidents have grown significantly in modern networks, far more diverse and highly destructive and disruptive. According to the 2021 Cyber Security Statistics Report [1], cybercrime is up 600% during this COVID pandemic, the top attacks are but are not confined to (a) sophisticated phishing emails, (b) account and DNS hijacking, (c) targeted attacks using stealth and air gap malware, (d) distributed denial of services (DDoS), (e) SQL injection. Additionally, 95% of cyber-security breaches result from human error, according to Cybint Report [2]. The average time to identify a breach is 207 days as per Ponemon Institute and IBM, 2022 Cost of Data Breach Report [3]. However, various preventative controls based on cyber-security risk estimation and awareness results decrease most incidents, but not all. Further, any incident detection delay and passive actions to cyber-security incidents put the organizational assets at risk. Therefore, the cyber-security incident management system has become a vital part of the organizational strategy. Thus, the authors propose a framework to converge a "Security Operation Center" (SOC) and a "Network Operations Center" (NOC) in an "Integrated Network Security Operation Center" (INSOC), to overcome cyber-threat detection and mitigation inefficiencies in the near-real-time scenario. We applied the People, Process, Technology, Governance and Compliance (PPTGC) approach to develop the INSOC conceptual framework, according to the requirements we formulated for its operation [4], [5]. The article briefly describes the INSOC conceptual framework and its usefulness, including the central area of the PPTGC approach while designing the framework.