Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is cyber resilience  [Clear All Filters]
2021-05-25
Hopkins, Stephen, Kalaimannan, Ezhil, John, Caroline Sangeetha.  2020.  Cyber Resilience using State Estimation Updates Based on Cyber Attack Matrix Classification. 2020 IEEE Kansas Power and Energy Conference (KPEC). :1—6.
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) maintain operation, reliability, and safety performance using state estimation and control methods. Internet connectivity and Internet of Things (IoT) devices are integrated with CPS, such as in smart grids. This integration of Operational Technology (OT) and Information Technology (IT) brings with it challenges for state estimation and exposure to cyber-threats. This research establishes a state estimation baseline, details the integration of IT, evaluates the vulnerabilities, and develops an approach for detecting and responding to cyber-attack data injections. Where other approaches focus on integration of IT cyber-controls, this research focuses on development of classification tools using data currently available in state estimation methods to quantitatively determine the presence of cyber-attack data. The tools may increase computational requirements but provide methods which can be integrated with existing state estimation methods and provide for future research in state estimation based cyber-attack incident response. A robust cyber-resilient CPS includes the ability to detect and classify a cyber-attack, determine the true system state, and respond to the cyber-attack. The purpose of this paper is to establish a means for a cyber aware state estimator given the existence of sub-erroneous outlier detection, cyber-attack data weighting, cyber-attack data classification, and state estimation cyber detection.
2020-11-16
Hagan, M., Siddiqui, F., Sezer, S..  2019.  Enhancing Security and Privacy of Next-Generation Edge Computing Technologies. 2019 17th International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1–5.
The advent of high performance fog and edge computing and high bandwidth connectivity has brought about changes to Internet-of-Things (IoT) service architectures, allowing for greater quantities of high quality information to be extracted from their environments to be processed. However, recently introduced international regulations, along with heightened awareness among consumers, have strengthened requirements to ensure data security, with significant financial and reputational penalties for organisations who fail to protect customers' data. This paper proposes the leveraging of fog and edge computing to facilitate processing of confidential user data, to reduce the quantity and availability of raw confidential data at various levels of the IoT architecture. This ultimately reduces attack surface area, however it also increases efficiency of the architecture by distributing processing amongst nodes and transmitting only processed data. However, such an approach is vulnerable to device level attacks. To approach this issue, a proposed System Security Manager is used to continuously monitor system resources and ensure confidential data is confined only to parts of the device that require it. In event of an attack, critical data can be isolated and the system informed, to prevent data confidentiality breach.
Dwivedi, A..  2018.  Implementing Cyber Resilient Designs through Graph Analytics Assisted Model Based Systems Engineering. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :607–616.
Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) adds efficiency during all phases of the design lifecycle. MBSE tools enforce design policies and rules to capture the design elements, inter-element relationships, and their attributes in a consistent manner. The system elements, and attributes are captured and stored in a centralized MBSE database for future retrieval. Systems that depend on computer networks can be designed using MBSE to meet cybersecurity and resilience requirements. At each step of a structured systems engineering methodology, decisions need to be made regarding the selection of architecture and designs that mitigate cyber risk and enhance cyber resilience. Detailed risk and decision analysis methods involve complex models and computations which are often characterized as a Big Data analytic problem. In this paper, we argue in favor of using graph analytic methods with model based systems engineering to support risk and decision analyses when engineering cyber resilient systems.
2020-10-06
Jacobs, Nicholas, Hossain-McKenzie, Shamina, Vugrin, Eric.  2018.  Measurement and Analysis of Cyber Resilience for Control Systems: An Illustrative Example. 2018 Resilience Week (RWS). :38—46.

Control systems for critical infrastructure are becoming increasingly interconnected while cyber threats against critical infrastructure are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to defend against. Historically, cyber security has emphasized building defenses to prevent loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability in digital information and systems, but in recent years cyber attacks have demonstrated that no system is impenetrable and that control system operation may be detrimentally impacted. Cyber resilience has emerged as a complementary priority that seeks to ensure that digital systems can maintain essential performance levels, even while capabilities are degraded by a cyber attack. This paper examines how cyber security and cyber resilience may be measured and quantified in a control system environment. Load Frequency Control is used as an illustrative example to demonstrate how cyber attacks may be represented within mathematical models of control systems, to demonstrate how these events may be quantitatively measured in terms of cyber security or cyber resilience, and the differences and similarities between the two mindsets. These results demonstrate how various metrics are applied, the extent of their usability, and how it is important to analyze cyber-physical systems in a comprehensive manner that accounts for all the various parts of the system.

2020-10-05
Siddiqui, Fahad, Hagan, Matthew, Sezer, Sakir.  2019.  Establishing Cyber Resilience in Embedded Systems for Securing Next-Generation Critical Infrastructure. 2019 32nd IEEE International System-on-Chip Conference (SOCC). :218–223.

The mass integration and deployment of intelligent technologies within critical commercial, industrial and public environments have a significant impact on business operations and society as a whole. Though integration of these critical intelligent technologies pose serious embedded security challenges for technology manufacturers which are required to be systematically approached, in-line with international security regulations.This paper establish security foundation for such intelligent technologies by deriving embedded security requirements to realise the core security functions laid out by international security authorities, and proposing microarchitectural characteristics to establish cyber resilience in embedded systems. To bridge the research gap between embedded and operational security domains, a detailed review of existing embedded security methods, microarchitectures and design practises is presented. The existing embedded security methods have been found ad-hoc, passive and strongly rely on building and maintaining trust. To the best of our knowledge to date, no existing embedded security microarchitecture or defence mechanism provides continuity of data stream or security once trust has broken. This functionality is critical for embedded technologies deployed in critical infrastructure to enhance and maintain security, and to gain evidence of the security breach to effectively evaluate, improve and deploy active response and mitigation strategies. To this end, the paper proposes three microarchitectural characteristics that shall be designed and integrated into embedded architectures to establish, maintain and improve cyber resilience in embedded systems for next-generation critical infrastructure.

2020-08-28
Haque, Md Ariful, Shetty, Sachin, Krishnappa, Bheshaj.  2019.  ICS-CRAT: A Cyber Resilience Assessment Tool for Industrial Control Systems. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :273—281.

In this work, we use a subjective approach to compute cyber resilience metrics for industrial control systems. We utilize the extended form of the R4 resilience framework and span the metrics over physical, technical, and organizational domains of resilience. We develop a qualitative cyber resilience assessment tool using the framework and a subjective questionnaire method. We make sure the questionnaires are realistic, balanced, and pertinent to ICS by involving subject matter experts into the process and following security guidelines and standards practices. We provide detail mathematical explanation of the resilience computation procedure. We discuss several usages of the qualitative tool by generating simulation results. We provide a system architecture of the simulation engine and the validation of the tool. We think the qualitative simulation tool would give useful insights for industrial control systems' overall resilience assessment and security analysis.

2020-07-20
Haque, Md Ariful, Shetty, Sachin, Krishnappa, Bheshaj.  2019.  Modeling Cyber Resilience for Energy Delivery Systems Using Critical System Functionality. 2019 Resilience Week (RWS). 1:33–41.

In this paper, we analyze the cyber resilience for the energy delivery systems (EDS) using critical system functionality (CSF). Some research works focus on identification of critical cyber components and services to address the resiliency for the EDS. Analysis based on the devices and services excluding the system behavior during an adverse event would provide partial analysis of cyber resilience. To address the gap, in this work, we utilize the vulnerability graph representation of EDS to compute the system functionality under adverse condition. We use network criticality metric to determine CSF. We estimate the criticality metric using graph Laplacian matrix and network performance after removing links (i.e., disabling control functions, or services). We model the resilience of the EDS using CSF, and system recovery curve. We also provide a comprehensive analysis of cyber resilience by determining the critical devices using TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) methods. We present use cases of EDS illustrating the way control functions and services in EDS map to the vulnerability graph model. The simulation results show that we can estimate the resilience metric using different types of graphs that may assist in making an informed decision about EDS resilience.

2020-07-06
Brezhniev, Yevhen.  2019.  Multilevel Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Critical Energy Infrastructure’s Cyber Resilience Assessment. 2019 10th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :213–217.
This paper presents approach for critical energy infrastructure's (CEI) cyber resilience assessment. The CEI is the vital physical system of systems, whose accidents and failures lead to damage of economy, environment, impact on health and lives of people. The analysis of cyber incidents with Ukrainian CEI confirms the importance of the task of increasing its cyber resilience to external hostile influences and keeping of the appropriate level of functionality, safety and reliability. This paper is devoted to development of approach for CEI's cyber resilience assessment considering the important capacities of its systems (adaptivity, restoration, absorbability, preventive) and interdependencies between them. This approach is based on application of multilevel fuzzy logic models (called as logic-linguistic models, LLM) taking into consideration the data available from expert's knowledge. The comparison between risk management and resilience assurance is performed. The new risk-oriented definition of resiliency is suggested.
2019-08-26
Araujo, F., Taylor, T., Zhang, J., Stoecklin, M..  2018.  Cross-Stack Threat Sensing for Cyber Security and Resilience. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :18-21.

We propose a novel cross-stack sensor framework for realizing lightweight, context-aware, high-interaction network and endpoint deceptions for attacker disinformation, misdirection, monitoring, and analysis. In contrast to perimeter-based honeypots, the proposed method arms production workloads with deceptive attack-response capabilities via injection of booby-traps at the network, endpoint, operating system, and application layers. This provides defenders with new, potent tools for more effectively harvesting rich cyber-threat data from the myriad of attacks launched by adversaries whose identities and methodologies can be better discerned through direct engagement rather than purely passive observations of probe attempts. Our research provides new tactical deception capabilities for cyber operations, including new visibility into both enterprise and national interest networks, while equipping applications and endpoints with attack awareness and active mitigation capabilities.

2019-07-01
Kumar, S., Gaur, N., Kumar, A..  2018.  Developing a Secure Cyber Ecosystem for SCADA Architecture. 2018 Second International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :559–562.

Advent of Cyber has converted the entire World into a Global village. But, due to vurneabilites in SCADA architecture [1] national assests are more prone to cyber attacks.. Cyber invasions have a catastrophic effect in the minds of the civilian population, in terms of states security system. A robust cyber security is need of the hour to protect the critical information infastructrue & critical infrastructure of a country. Here, in this paper we scrutinize cyber terrorism, vurneabilites in SCADA network systems [1], [2] and concept of cyber resilience to combat cyber attacks.

2018-02-02
Whelihan, D., Vai, M., Evanich, N., Kwak, K. J., Li, J., Britton, M., Frantz, B., Hadcock, D., Lynch, M., Schafer, D. et al..  2017.  Designing agility and resilience into embedded systems. MILCOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :249–254.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) such as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) sense and actuate their environment in pursuit of a mission. The attack surface of these remotely located, sensing and communicating devices is both large, and exposed to adversarial actors, making mission assurance a challenging problem. While best-practice security policies should be followed, they are rarely enough to guarantee mission success as not all components in the system may be trusted and the properties of the environment (e.g., the RF environment) may be under the control of the attacker. CPS must thus be built with a high degree of resilience to mitigate threats that security cannot alleviate. In this paper, we describe the Agile and Resilient Embedded Systems (ARES) methodology and metric set. The ARES methodology pursues cyber security and resilience (CSR) as high level system properties to be developed in the context of the mission. An analytic process guides system developers in defining mission objectives, examining principal issues, applying CSR technologies, and understanding their interactions.

Moyer, T., Chadha, K., Cunningham, R., Schear, N., Smith, W., Bates, A., Butler, K., Capobianco, F., Jaeger, T., Cable, P..  2016.  Leveraging Data Provenance to Enhance Cyber Resilience. 2016 IEEE Cybersecurity Development (SecDev). :107–114.

Building secure systems used to mean ensuring a secure perimeter, but that is no longer the case. Today's systems are ill-equipped to deal with attackers that are able to pierce perimeter defenses. Data provenance is a critical technology in building resilient systems that will allow systems to recover from attackers that manage to overcome the "hard-shell" defenses. In this paper, we provide background information on data provenance, details on provenance collection, analysis, and storage techniques and challenges. Data provenance is situated to address the challenging problem of allowing a system to "fight-through" an attack, and we help to identify necessary work to ensure that future systems are resilient.

2017-10-25
Nykänen, Riku, Kärkkäinen, Tommi.  2016.  Supporting Cyber Resilience with Semantic Wiki. Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Open Collaboration. :21:1–21:8.

Cyber resilient organizations, their functions and computing infrastructures, should be tolerant towards rapid and unexpected changes in the environment. Information security is an organization-wide common mission; whose success strongly depends on efficient knowledge sharing. For this purpose, semantic wikis have proved their strength as a flexible collaboration and knowledge sharing platforms. However, there has not been notable academic research on how semantic wikis could be used as information security management platform in organizations for improved cyber resilience. In this paper, we propose to use semantic wiki as an agile information security management platform. More precisely, the wiki contents are based on the structured model of the NIST Special Publication 800-53 information security control catalogue that is extended in the research with the additional properties that support the information security management and especially the security control implementation. We present common uses cases to manage the information security in organizations and how the use cases can be implemented using the semantic wiki platform. As organizations seek cyber resilience, where focus is in the availability of cyber-related assets and services, we extend the control selection with option to focus on availability. The results of the study show that a semantic wiki based information security management and collaboration platform can provide a cost-efficient solution for improved cyber resilience, especially for small and medium sized organizations that struggle to develop information security with the limited resources.

2017-04-24
Multari, Nicholas J., Singhal, Anoop, Manz, David O., Cowles, Robert, Cuellar, Jorge, Oehmen, Christopher, Shannon, Gregory.  2016.  SafeConfig'16: Testing and Evaluation for Active & Resilient Cyber Systems Panel Verification of Active and Resilient Systems: Practical or Utopian? Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Automated Decision Making for Active Cyber Defense. :53–53.

The premise of the SafeConfig'16 Workshop is existing tools and methods for security assessments are necessary but insufficient for scientifically rigorous testing and evaluation of resilient and active cyber systems. The objective for this workshop is the exploration and discussion of scientifically sound testing regimen(s) that will continuously and dynamically probe, attack, and "test" the various resilient and active technologies. This adaptation and change in focus necessitates at the very least modification, and potentially, wholesale new developments to ensure that resilient- and agile-aware security testing is available to the research community. All testing, validation and experimentation must also be repeatable, reproducible, subject to scientific scrutiny, measurable and meaningful to both researchers and practitioners. The workshop will convene a panel of experts to explore this concept. The topic will be discussed from three different perspectives. One perspective is that of the practitioner. We will explore whether active and resilient technologies are or are planned for deployment and whether the verification methodology affects that decision. The second perspective will be that of the research community. We will address the shortcomings of current approaches and the research directions needed to address the practitioner's concerns. The third perspective is that of the policy community. Specifically, we will explore the dynamics between technology, verification, and policy.