# Biblio

Network based attacks on ecommerce websites can have serious economic consequences. Hence, anomaly detection in dynamic network traffic has become an increasingly important research topic in recent years. This paper proposes a novel dynamic Graph and sparse Autoencoder based Anomaly Detection algorithm named GAAD. In GAAD, the network traffic over contiguous time intervals is first modelled as a series of dynamic bipartite graph increments. One mode projection is performed on each bipartite graph increment and the adjacency matrix derived. Columns of the resultant adjacency matrix are then used to train a sparse autoencoder to reconstruct it. The sum of squared errors between the reconstructed approximation and original adjacency matrix is then calculated. An online learning algorithm is then used to estimate a Gaussian distribution that models the error distribution. Outlier error values are deemed to represent anomalous traffic flows corresponding to possible attacks. In the experiment, a network emulator was used to generate representative ecommerce traffic flows over a time period of 225 minutes with five attacks injected, including SYN scans, host emulation and DDoS attacks. ROC curves were generated to investigate the influence of the autoencoder hyper-parameters. It was found that increasing the number of hidden nodes and their activation level, and increasing sparseness resulted in improved performance. Analysis showed that the sparse autoencoder was unable to encode the highly structured adjacency matrix structures associated with attacks, hence they were detected as anomalies. In contrast, SVD and variants, such as the compact matrix decomposition, were found to accurately encode the attack matrices, hence they went undetected.

In this paper, we develop a statistical framework for image steganography in which the cover and stego messages are modeled as multivariate Gaussian random variables. By minimizing the detection error of an optimal detector within the generalized adopted statistical model, we propose a novel Gaussian embedding method. Furthermore, we extend the formulation to cost-based steganography, resulting in a universal embedding scheme that works with embedding costs as well as variance estimators. Experimental results show that the proposed approach avoids embedding in smooth regions and significantly improves the security of the state-of-the-art methods, such as HILL, MiPOD, and S-UNIWARD.

Recommender systems try to predict the preferences of users for specific items. These systems suffer from profile injection attacks, where the attackers have some prior knowledge of the system ratings and their goal is to promote or demote a particular item introducing abnormal (anomalous) ratings. The detection of both cases is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a framework to spot anomalous rating profiles (outliers), where the outliers hurriedly create a profile that injects into the system either random ratings or specific ratings, without any prior knowledge of the existing ratings. The proposed detection method is based on the unpredictable behavior of the outliers in a validation set, on the user-item rating matrix and on the similarity between users. The proposed system is totally unsupervised, and in the last step it uses the k-means clustering method automatically spotting the spurious profiles. For the cases where labeling sample data is available, a random forest classifier is trained to show how supervised methods outperforms unsupervised ones. Experimental results on the MovieLens 100k and the MovieLens 1M datasets demonstrate the high performance of the proposed schemata.

Collaborative filtering (CF) recommender system has been widely used for its well performing in personalized recommendation, but CF recommender system is vulnerable to shilling attacks in which shilling attack profiles are injected into the system by attackers to affect recommendations. Design robust recommender system and propose attack detection methods are the main research direction to handle shilling attacks, among which unsupervised PCA is particularly effective in experiment, but if we have no information about the number of shilling attack profiles, the unsupervised PCA will be suffered. In this paper, a new unsupervised detection method which combine PCA and data complexity has been proposed to detect shilling attacks. In the proposed method, PCA is used to select suspected attack profiles, and data complexity is used to pick out the authentic profiles from suspected attack profiles. Compared with the traditional PCA, the proposed method could perform well and there is no need to determine the number of shilling attack profiles in advance.

The recent emergence of smartphones, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things has brought about the explosion of data creation. By collating and merging these enormous data with other information, services that use information become more sophisticated and advanced. However, at the same time, the consideration of privacy violations caused by such merging is indispensable. Various anonymization methods have been proposed to preserve privacy. The conventional perturbation-based anonymization method of location data adds comparatively larger noise, and the larger noise makes it difficult to utilize the data effectively for secondary use. In this research, to solve these problems, we first clarified the definition of privacy preservation and then propose TMk-anonymity according to the definition.

Gaussian random attacks that jointly minimize the amount of information obtained by the operator from the grid and the probability of attack detection are presented. The construction of the attack is posed as an optimization problem with a utility function that captures two effects: firstly, minimizing the mutual information between the measurements and the state variables; secondly, minimizing the probability of attack detection via the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between the distribution of the measurements with an attack and the distribution of the measurements without an attack. Additionally, a lower bound on the utility function achieved by the attacks constructed with imperfect knowledge of the second order statistics of the state variables is obtained. The performance of the attack construction using the sample covariance matrix of the state variables is numerically evaluated. The above results are tested in the IEEE 30-Bus test system.

Recent studies have shown that adding explicit social trust information to social recommendation significantly improves the prediction accuracy of ratings, but it is difficult to obtain a clear trust data among users in real life. Scholars have studied and proposed some trust measure methods to calculate and predict the interaction and trust between users. In this article, a method of social trust relationship extraction based on hellinger distance is proposed, and user similarity is calculated by describing the f-divergence of one side node in user-item bipartite networks. Then, a new matrix factorization model based on implicit social relationship is proposed by adding the extracted implicit social relations into the improved matrix factorization. The experimental results support that the effect of using implicit social trust to recommend is almost the same as that of using actual explicit user trust ratings, and when the explicit trust data cannot be extracted, our method has a better effect than the other traditional algorithms.

Based on the feature analysis of image content, this paper proposes a novel steganalytic method for grayscale images in spatial domain. In this work, we firstly investigates directional lifting wavelet transform (DLWT) as a sparse representation in compressive sensing (CS) domain. Then a block CS (BCS) measurement matrix is designed by using the generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) model, in which the measurement matrix can be used to sense the DLWT coefficients of images to reflect the feature residual introduced by steganography. Extensive experiments are showed that proposed scheme CS-based is feasible and universal for detecting stegography in spatial domain.

Keystroke dynamics is a form of behavioral biometrics that can be used for continuous authentication of computer users. Many classifiers have been proposed for the analysis of acquired user patterns and verification of users at computer terminals. The underlying machine learning methods that use Gaussian density estimator for outlier detection typically assume that the digraph patterns in keystroke data are generated from a single Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we relax this assumption by allowing digraphs to fit more than one distribution via the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). We have conducted an experiment with a public data set collected in a controlled environment. Out of 30 users with dynamic text, we obtain 0.08% Equal Error Rate (EER) with 2 components by using GMM, while pure Gaussian yields 1.3% EER for the same data set (an improvement of EER by 93.8%). Our results show that GMM can recognize keystroke dynamics more precisely and authenticate users with higher confidence level.