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2021-10-12
Dawit, Nahom Aron, Mathew, Sujith Samuel, Hayawi, Kadhim.  2020.  Suitability of Blockchain for Collaborative Intrusion Detection Systems. 2020 12th Annual Undergraduate Research Conference on Applied Computing (URC). :1–6.
Cyber-security is indispensable as malicious incidents are ubiquitous on the Internet. Intrusion Detection Systems have an important role in detecting and thwarting cyber-attacks. However, it is more effective in a centralized system but not in peer-to-peer networks which makes it subject to central point failure, especially in collaborated intrusion detection systems. The novel blockchain technology assures a fully distributed security system through its powerful features of transparency, immutability, decentralization, and provenance. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate and demonstrate several methods of collaborative intrusion detection with blockchain to analyze the suitability and security of blockchain for collaborative intrusion detection systems. We also studied the difference between the existing means of the integration of intrusion detection systems with blockchain and categorized the major vulnerabilities of blockchain with their potential losses and current enhancements for mitigation.
Nguyen, Tu N., Liu, Bing-Hong, Nguyen, Nam P., Chou, Jung-Te.  2020.  Cyber Security of Smart Grid: Attacks and Defenses. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Most of today's infrastructure systems can be efficiently operated thanks to the intelligent power supply of the smart grids. However, smart grids are highly vulnerable to malicious attacks, that is, because of the interplay between the components in the smart grids, the failure of some critical components may result in the cascading failure and breakdown of the whole system. Therefore, the question of how to identify the most critical components to protect the smart grid system is the first challenge to operators. To enable the system's robustness, there has been a lot of effort aimed at the system analysis, designing new architectures, and proposing new algorithms. However, these works mainly introduce different ranking methods for link (transmission line) or node (station) identification and directly select most the highest degree nodes or common links as the critical ones. These methods fail to address the problem of interdependencies between components nor consider the role of users that is one of critical factors impacting on the smart grid vulnerability assessment. This motivates us to study a more general and practical problem in terms of smart grid vulnerability assessment, namely the Maximum-Impact through Critical-Line with Limited Budget (MICLLB) problem. The objective of this research is to provide an efficient method to identify critical components in the system by considering a realistic attack scenario.
2021-10-04
Sayed, Ammar Ibrahim El, Aziz, Mahmoud Abdel, Azeem, Mohamed Hassan Abdel.  2020.  Blockchain Decentralized IoT Trust Management. 2020 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing and Technologies (3ICT). :1–6.
IoT adds more flexibility in many areas of applications to makes it easy to monitor and manage data instantaneously. However, IoT has many challenges regarding its security and storage issues. Moreover, the third-party trusting agents of IoT devices do not support sufficient security level between the network peers. This paper proposes improving the trust, processing power, and storage capability of IoT in distributed system topology by adopting the blockchain approach. An application, IoT Trust Management (ITM), is proposed to manage the trust of the shared content through the blockchain network, e.g., supply chain. The essential key in ITM is the trust management of IoT devices data are done using peer to peer (P2P), i.e., no third-party. ITM is running on individual python nodes and interact with frontend applications creating decentralized applications (DApps). The IoT data shared and stored in a ledger, which has the IoT device published details and data. ITM provides a higher security level to the IoT data shared on the network, such as unparalleled security, speed, transparency, cost reduction, check data, and Adaptability.
Das, Debashis, Banerjee, Sourav, Mansoor, Wathiq, Biswas, Utpal, Chatterjee, Pushpita, Ghosh, Uttam.  2020.  Design of a Secure Blockchain-Based Smart IoV Architecture. 2020 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Information Security (ICSPIS). :1–4.
Blockchain is developing rapidly in various domains for its security. Nowadays, one of the most crucial fundamental concerns is internet security. Blockchain is a novel solution to enhance the security of network applications. However, there are no precise frameworks to secure the Internet of Vehicle (IoV) using Blockchain technology. In this paper, a blockchain-based smart internet of vehicle (BSIoV) framework has been proposed due to the cooperative, collaborative, transparent, and secure characteristics of Blockchain. The main contribution of the proposed work is to connect vehicle-related authorities together to fix a secure and transparent vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication through the peer-to-peer network connection and provide secure services to the intelligent transport systems. A key management strategy has been included to identify a vehicle in this proposed system. The proposed framework can also provide a significant solution for the data security and safety of the connected vehicles in blockchain network.
Ding, Lei, Wang, Shida, Wan, Renzhuo, Zhou, Guopeng.  2020.  Securing core information sharing and exchange by blockchain for cooperative system. 2020 IEEE 9th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference (DDCLS). :579–583.
The privacy protection and information security are two crucial issues for future advanced artificial intelligence devices, especially for cooperative system with rich core data exchange which may offer opportunities for attackers to fake interaction messages. To combat such threat, great efforts have been made by introducing trust mechanism in initiative or passive way. Furthermore, blockchain and distributed ledger technology provide a decentralized and peer-to-peer network, which has great potential application for multi-agent system, such as IoTs and robots. It eliminates third-party interference and data in the blockchain are stored in an encrypted way permanently and anti-destroys. In this paper, a methodology of blockchain is proposed and designed for advanced cooperative system with artificial intelligence to protect privacy and sensitive data exchange between multi-agents. The validation procedure is performed in laboratory by a three-level computing networks of Raspberry Pi 3B+, NVIDIA Jetson Tx2 and local computing server for a robot system with four manipulators and four binocular cameras in peer computing nodes by Go language.
Qu, Dapeng, Zhang, Jiankun, Hou, Zhenhuan, Wang, Min, Dong, Bo.  2020.  A Trust Routing Scheme Based on Identification of Non-complete Cooperative Nodes in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :22–29.
Mobile peer-to-peer network (MP2P) attracts increasing attentions due to the ubiquitous use of mobile communication and huge success of peer-to-peer (P2P) mode. However, open p2p mode makes nodes tend to be selfish, and the scarcity of resources in mobile nodes aggravates this problem, thus the nodes easily express a non-complete cooperative (NCC) attitude. Therefore, an identification of non-complete cooperative nodes and a corresponding trust routing scheme are proposed for MP2P in this paper. The concept of octant is firstly introduced to build a trust model which analyzes nodes from three dimensions, namely direct trust, internal state and recommendation reliability, and then the individual non-complete cooperative (INCC) nodes can be identified by the division of different octants. The direct trust monitors nodes' external behaviors, and the consideration of internal state and recommendation reliability contributes to differentiate the subjective and objective non-cooperation, and mitigate the attacks about direct trust values respectively. Thus, the trust model can identify various INCC nodes accurately. On the basis of identification of INCC nodes, cosine similarity method is applied to identify collusive non-complete cooperate (CNCC) nodes. Moreover, a trust routing scheme based on the identification of NCC nodes is presented to reasonably deal with different kinds of NCC nodes. Results from extensive simulation experiments demonstrate that this proposed identification and routing scheme have better performances, in terms of identification precision and packet delivery fraction than current schemes respectively.
Benanti, F., Sanseverino, E. Riva, Sciumè, G., Zizzo, G..  2020.  A Peer-to-Peer Market Algorithm for a Blockchain Platform. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2020 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1–6.
In an era of technological revolution in which everything becomes smarter and connected, the blockchain can introduce a new model for energy transactions able to grant more simplicity, security and transparency for end-users. The blockchain technology is characterized by a distributed architecture without a trusted and centralized authority, and, therefore, it appears as the perfect solutions for managing exchanges between peers. In this paper, a market algorithm that can be easily transferred to a smart contract for maximizing the match between produced and consumed energy in a micro-grid is presented. The algorithm supports energy transactions between peers (both producers and consumers) and could be one of the main executables implemented using a blockchain platform. The case study presented in this paper shows how the end-users through the blockchain could select among the possible energy transactions those more suitable to offer specific ancillary services to the grid operator without involving the grid operator itself or a third-party aggregator.
Masood, Raziqa, Pandey, Nitin, Rana, Q. P..  2020.  DHT-PDP: A Distributed Hash Table based Provable Data Possession Mechanism in Cloud Storage. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :275–279.
The popularity of cloud storage among data users is due to easy maintenance, and no initial infrastructure setup cost as compared to local storage. However, although the data users outsource their data to cloud storage (a third party) still, they concern about their physical data. To check whether the data stored in the cloud storage has been modified or not, public auditing of the data is required before its utilization. To audit over vast outsourced data, the availability of the auditor is an essential requirement as nowadays, data owners are using mobile devices. But unfortunately, a single auditor leads to a single point of failure and inefficient to preserve the security and correctness of outsourced data. So, we introduce a distributed public auditing scheme which is based on peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. In this work, the auditors are organized using a distributed hash table (DHT) mechanism and audit the outsourced data with the help of a published hashed key of the data. The computation and communication overhead of our proposed scheme is compared with the existing schemes, and it found to be an effective solution for public auditing on outsourced data with no single point of failure.
2021-09-30
Ellinidou, Soultana, Sharma, Gaurav, Markowitch, Olivier, Gogniat, Guy, Dricot, Jean-Michel.  2020.  A novel Network-on-Chip security algorithm for tolerating Byzantine faults. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI and Nanotechnology Systems (DFT). :1–6.
Since the number of processors and cores on a single chip is increasing, the interconnection among them becomes significant. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has direct access to all resources and information within a System-on-Chip (SoC), rendering it appealing to attackers. Malicious attacks targeting NoC are a major cause of performance depletion and they can cause arbitrary behavior of links or routers, that is, Byzantine faults. Byzantine faults have been thoroughly investigated in the context of Distributed systems however not in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems. Hence, in this paper we propose a novel fault model followed by the design and implementation of lightweight algorithms, based on Software Defined Network-on-Chip (SDNoC) architecture. The proposed algorithms can be used to build highly available NoCs and can tolerate Byzantine faults. Additionally, a set of different scenarios has been simulated and the results demonstrate that by using the proposed algorithms the packet loss decreases between 65% and 76% under Transpose traffic, 67% and 77% under BitReverse and 55% and 66% under Uniform traffic.
2021-09-16
Qurashi, Mohammed Al, Angelopoulos, Constantinos Marios, Katos, Vasilios.  2020.  An Architecture for Resilient Intrusion Detection in IoT Networks. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–7.
We introduce a lightweight architecture of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) for ad-hoc IoT networks. Current state-of-the-art IDS have been designed based on assumptions holding from conventional computer networks, and therefore, do not properly address the nature of IoT networks. In this work, we first identify the correlation between the communication overheads and the placement of an IDS (as captured by proper placement of active IDS agents in the network). We model such networks as Random Geometric Graphs. We then introduce a novel IDS architectural approach by having only a minimum subset of the nodes acting as IDS agents. These nodes are able to monitor the network and detect attacks at the networking layer in a collaborative manner by monitoring 1-hop network information provided by routing protocols such as RPL. Conducted experiments show that our proposed IDS architecture is resilient and robust against frequent topology changes due to node failures. Our detailed experimental evaluation demonstrates significant performance gains in terms of communication overhead and energy dissipation while maintaining high detection rates.
Balistri, Eugenio, Casellato, Francesco, Giannelli, Carlo, Stefanelli, Cesare.  2020.  Blockchain for Increased Cyber-Resiliency of Industrial Edge Environments. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP). :1–8.
The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) together with its spread in industrial environments have changed pro-duction lines, by dramatically fostering the dynamicity of data sharing and the openness of machines. However, the increased flexibility and openness of the industrial environment (also pushed by the adoption of Edge devices) must not negatively affect the security and safety of production lines and its opera-tional processes. In fact, opening industrial environments towards the Internet and increasing interactions among machines may represent a security threat, if not properly managed. The paper originally proposes the adoption of the Blockchain to securely store in distributed ledgers topology information and access rules, with the primary goal of maximizing the cyber-resiliency of industrial networks. In this manner, it is possible to store and query topology information and security access rules in a completely distributed manner, ensuring data availability even in case a centralized control point is temporarily down or the network partitioned. Moreover, Blockchain consensus algorithms can be used to foster a participative validation of topology information, to reciprocally ensure the identity of interacting machines/nodes, to securely distribute topology information and commands in a privacy-preserving manner, and to trace any past modification in a non-repudiable manner.
2021-09-07
Manikumar, D.V.V.S., Maheswari, B Uma.  2020.  Blockchain Based DDoS Mitigation Using Machine Learning Techniques. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :794–800.
DDoS attacks are the most commonly performed cyber-attacks with a motive to suspend the target services and making them unavailable to users. A recent attack on Github, explains that the traffic was traced back to ``over a thousand different autonomous systems across millions of unique endpoints''. Generally, there are various types of DDoS attacks and each attack uses a different protocol and attacker uses a botnet to execute such attacks. Hence, it will be very difficult for organizations to deal with these attacks and going for third parties to secure themselves from DDoS attacks. In order to eliminate the third parties. Our proposed system uses machine learning algorithms to identify the incoming packet is malicious or not and use Blockchain technology to store the Blacklist. The key benefit of Blockchain is that blacklisted IP addresses are effectively stored, and usage of such infrastructure provides an advantage of extra security mechanism over existing DDoS mitigation systems. This paper has evaluated three different algorithms, such as the KNN Classifier, the Decision Tree Classifier, Random Forest algorithm to find out the better classifying algorithm. Tree Based Classifier technique used for Feature Selection to boost the computational time. Out of the three algorithms, Random Forest provides an accuracy about 95 % in real-time traffic analysis.
2021-08-17
Primo, Abena.  2020.  A Comparison of Blockchain-Based Wireless Sensor Network Protocols. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0793—0799.
Wireless sensors are often deployed in environments where it is difficult for them to discern friend from enemy. An example case is a military tactical scenario, where sensors are deployed to map the location of an item but where some of the nodes have been compromised or where there are other malicious nodes present. In this scenario, sharing data with other network nodes may present a critical security risk to the sensor nodes. Blockchain technology, with its ability to house a secure distributed ledger, offers a possible solution. However, blockchain applications for Wireless Sensor Networks suffer from poor latency in block propagation which in turn decreases throughput and network scalability. Several researchers have proposed solutions for improved network throughput. In this work, a comparison of these existing works is performed leading to a taxonomy of existing algorithms. Characteristics consistently found in algorithms reporting improved throughput are presented and, later, these characteristics are used in the development of a new algorithm for improving throughput. The proposed algorithm utilizes a proof-of- authority consensus algorithm with a node trust-based scheme. The proposed algorithm shows strong results over the base case algorithm and was evaluated with blockchain network simulations of up to 20000 nodes.
2021-08-11
Meskanen, Tommi, Niemi, Valtteri, Kuusijäarvi, Jarkko.  2020.  Privacy-Preserving Peer Discovery for Group Management in p2p Networks. 2020 27th Conference of Open Innovations Association (FRUCT). :150—156.
The necessity for peer-to-peer (p2p) communications is obvious; current centralized solutions are capturing and storing too much information from the individual people communicating with each other. Privacy concerns with a centralized solution in possession of all the users data are a difficult matter. HELIOS platform introduces a new social-media platform that is not in control of any central operator, but brings the power of possession of the data back to the users. It does not have centralized servers that store and handle receiving/sending of the messages. Instead, it relies on the current open-source solutions available in the p2p communities to propagate the messages to the wanted recipients of the data and/or messages. The p2p communications also introduce new problems in terms of privacy and tracking of the user, as the nodes part of a p2p network can see what data the other nodes provide and ask for. How the sharing of data in a p2p network can be achieved securely, taking into account the user's privacy is a question that has not been fully answered so far. We do not claim we answer this question fully in this paper either, but we propose a set of protocols to help answer one specific problem. Especially, this paper proposes how to privately share data (end-point address or other) of the user between other users, provided that they have previously connected with each other securely, either offline or online.
Brooks, Richard, Wang, Kuang-Ching, Oakley, Jon, Tusing, Nathan.  2020.  Global Internet Traffic Routing and Privacy. 2020 International Scientific and Technical Conference Modern Computer Network Technologies (MoNeTeC). :1—7.
Current Internet Protocol routing provides minimal privacy, which enables multiple exploits. The main issue is that the source and destination addresses of all packets appear in plain text. This enables numerous attacks, including surveillance, man-in-the-middle (MITM), and denial of service (DoS). The talk explains how these attacks work in the current network. Endpoints often believe that use of Network Address Translation (NAT), and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) can minimize the loss of privacy.We will explain how the regularity of human behavior can be used to overcome these countermeasures. Once packets leave the local autonomous system (AS), they are routed through the network by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The talk will discuss the unreliability of BGP and current attacks on the routing protocol. This will include an introduction to BGP injects and the PEERING testbed for BGP experimentation. One experiment we have performed uses statistical methods (CUSUM and F-test) to detect BGP injection events. We describe work we performed that applies BGP injects to Internet Protocol (IP) address randomization to replace fixed IP addresses in headers with randomized addresses. We explain the similarities and differences of this approach with virtual private networks (VPNs). Analysis of this work shows that BGP reliance on autonomous system (AS) numbers removes privacy from the concept, even though it would disable the current generation of MITM and DoS attacks. We end by presenting a compromise approach that creates software-defined data exchanges (SDX), which mix traffic randomization with VPN concepts. We contrast this approach with the Tor overlay network and provide some performance data.
Ferrag, Mohamed Amine, Maglaras, Leandros.  2020.  DeepCoin: A Novel Deep Learning and Blockchain-Based Energy Exchange Framework for Smart Grids. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. 67:1285–1297.
In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning and blockchain-based energy framework for smart grids, entitled DeepCoin. The DeepCoin framework uses two schemes, a blockchain-based scheme and a deep learning-based scheme. The blockchain-based scheme consists of five phases: setup phase, agreement phase, creating a block phase and consensus-making phase, and view change phase. It incorporates a novel reliable peer-to-peer energy system that is based on the practical Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm and it achieves high throughput. In order to prevent smart grid attacks, the proposed framework makes the generation of blocks using short signatures and hash functions. The proposed deep learning-based scheme is an intrusion detection system (IDS), which employs recurrent neural networks for detecting network attacks and fraudulent transactions in the blockchain-based energy network. We study the performance of the proposed IDS on three different sources the CICIDS2017 dataset, a power system dataset, and a web robot (Bot)-Internet of Things (IoT) dataset.
2021-06-30
Čečil, Roman, Šetka, Vlastimil, Tolar, David, Sikora, Axel.  2020.  RETIS – Real-Time Sensitive Wireless Communication Solution for Industrial Control Applications. 2020 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Smart and Wireless Systems within the Conferences on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems (IDAACS-SWS). :1—9.
Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) has been always a vital component of many industrial applications. The paper proposes a new wireless URLLC solution called RETIS, which is suitable for factory automation and fast process control applications, where low latency, low jitter, and high data exchange rates are mandatory. In the paper, we describe the communication protocol as well as the hardware structure of the network nodes for implementing the required functionality. Many techniques enabling fast, reliable wireless transmissions are used - short Transmission Time Interval (TTI), TimeDivision Multiple Access (TDMA), MIMO, optional duplicated data transfer, Forward Error Correction (FEC), ACK mechanism. Preliminary tests show that reliable endto-end latency down to 350 μs and packet exchange rate up to 4 kHz can be reached (using quadruple MIMO and standard IEEE 802.15.4 PHY at 250 kbit/s).
2021-06-28
Roshan, Rishu, Matam, Rakesh, Mukherjee, Mithun, Lloret, Jaime, Tripathy, Somanath.  2020.  A secure task-offloading framework for cooperative fog computing environment. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
Fog computing architecture allows the end-user devices of an Internet of Things (IoT) application to meet their latency and computation requirements by offloading tasks to a fog node in proximity. This fog node in turn may offload the task to a neighboring fog node or the cloud-based on an optimal node selection policy. Several such node selection policies have been proposed that facilitate the selection of an optimal node, minimizing delay and energy consumption. However, one crucial assumption of these schemes is that all the networked fog nodes are authorized part of the fog network. This assumption is not valid, especially in a cooperative fog computing environment like a smart city, where fog nodes of multiple applications cooperate to meet their latency and computation requirements. In this paper, we propose a secure task-offloading framework for a distributed fog computing environment based on smart-contracts on the blockchain. The proposed framework allows a fog-node to securely offload tasks to a neighboring fog node, even if no prior trust-relation exists. The security analysis of the proposed framework shows how non-authenticated fog nodes are prevented from taking up offloading tasks.
2021-05-20
Al-madani, Ali Mansour, Gaikwad, Ashok T., Mahale, Vivek, Ahmed, Zeyad A.T..  2020.  Decentralized E-voting system based on Smart Contract by using Blockchain Technology. 2020 International Conference on Smart Innovations in Design, Environment, Management, Planning and Computing (ICSIDEMPC). :176—180.

Nowadays the use of the Internet is growing; E-voting system has been used by different countries because it reduces the cost and the time which used to consumed by using traditional voting. When the voter wants to access the E-voting system through the web application, there are requirements such as a web browser and a server. The voter uses the web browser to reach to a centralized database. The use of a centralized database for the voting system has some security issues such as Data modification through the third party in the network due to the use of the central database system as well as the result of the voting is not shown in real-time. However, this paper aims to provide an E-voting system with high security by using blockchain. Blockchain provides a decentralized model that makes the network Reliable, safe, flexible, and able to support real-time services.

2021-05-13
Jenkins, Ira Ray, Smith, Sean W..  2020.  Distributed IoT Attestation via Blockchain. 2020 20th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Internet Computing (CCGRID). :798—801.

We propose a novel attestation architecture for the Internet of Things (IoT). Our distributed attestation network (DAN) utilizes blockchain technology to store and share device information. We present the design of this new attestation architecture as well as a prototype system chosen to emulate an IoT deployment with a network of Raspberry Pi, Infineon TPMs, and a Hyperledger Fabric blockchain.

Xia, Yusheng, Chen, Rongmao, Su, Jinshu, Pan, Chen, Su, Han.  2020.  Hybrid Routing: Towards Resilient Routing in Anonymous Communication Networks. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—7.

Anonymous communication networks (ACNs) are intended to protect the metadata during communication. As classic ACNs, onion mix-nets are famous for strong anonymity, in which the source defines a static path and wraps the message multi-times with the public keys of nodes on the path, through which the message is relayed to the destination. However, onion mix-nets lacks in resilience when the static on-path mixes fail. Mix failure easily results in message loss, communication failure, and even specific attacks. Therefore, it is desirable to achieve resilient routing in onion mix-nets, providing persistent routing capability even though node failure. The state-of-theart solutions mainly adopt mix groups and thus need to share secret keys among all the group members which may cause single point of failure. To address this problem, in this work we propose a hybrid routing approach, which embeds the onion mix-net with hop-by-hop routing to increase routing resilience. Furthermore, we propose the threshold hybrid routing to achieve better key management and avoid single point of failure. As for experimental evaluations, we conduct quantitative analysis of the resilience and realize a local T-hybrid routing prototype to test performance. The experimental results show that our proposed routing strategy increases routing resilience effectively, at the expense of acceptable latency.

2021-04-27
Altarawneh, A., Skjellum, A..  2020.  The Security Ingredients for Correct and Byzantine Fault-tolerant Blockchain Consensus Algorithms. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—9.

The blockchain technology revolution and the use of blockchains in various applications have resulted in many companies and programmers developing and customizing specific fit-for-purpose consensus algorithms. Security and performance are determined by the chosen consensus algorithm; hence, the reliability and security of these algorithms must be assured and tested, which requires an understanding of all the security assumptions that make such algorithms correct and byzantine fault-tolerant.This paper studies the "security ingredients" that enable a given consensus algorithm to achieve safety, liveness, and byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) in both permissioned and permissionless blockchain systems. The key contributions of this paper are the organization of these requirements and a new taxonomy that describes the requirements for security. The CAP Theorem is utilized to explain important tradeoffs between consistency and availability in consensus algorithm design, which are crucial depending on the specific application of a given algorithm. This topic has also been explored previously by De Angelis. However, this paper expands that prior explanation and dilemma of consistency vs. availability and then combines this with Buterin's Trilemma to complete the overall exposition of tradeoffs.

Abraham, A., Kumar, M. B. Santosh.  2020.  A study on using private-permissioned blockchain for securely sharing farmers data. 2020 Advanced Computing and Communication Technologies for High Performance Applications (ACCTHPA). :103—106.
In agriculture, farmers are the most important entity. For supporting farmers in increasing productivity and efficiency, the government offers subsidies, loans, insurances, and so on. This paper explores the usage of Blockchain technology for securing farmer's data in the Indian scenario. The farmer needs to register through the multiple official registration systems for availing different schemes and information provided by the country. The personnel and crop-based details of each farmer are collected at the time of registration. The filing also helps in providing better services to farmers like connecting farmers and traders to ensure a fair price for quality crops, advice to farmers of agricultural practices and location. In this paper, a blockchain-based farmer's data securing system is proposed to provide data provenance and transparency of the information entered in the system. While registering, the data is collected, and it is verified. A single verified record of farmers accessed by various government agriculture departments were designed using the Hyperledger fabric framework.
2021-04-09
Soni, G., Sudhakar, R..  2020.  A L-IDS against Dropping Attack to Secure and Improve RPL Performance in WSN Aided IoT. 2020 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN). :377—383.

In the Internet of Things (IoT), it is feasible to interconnect networks of different devices and all these different devices, such as smartphones, sensor devices, and vehicles, are controlled according to a particular user. These different devices are delivered and accept the information on the network. This thing is to motivate us to do work on IoT and the devices used are sensor nodes. The validation of data delivery completely depends on the checks of count data forwarding in each node. In this research, we propose the Link Hop Value-based Intrusion Detection System (L-IDS) against the blackhole attack in the IoT with the assist of WSN. The sensor nodes are connected to other nodes through the wireless link and exchange data routing, as well as data packets. The LHV value is identified as the attacker's presence by integrating the data delivery in each hop. The LHV is always equivalent to the Actual Value (AV). The RPL routing protocol is used IPv6 to address the concept of routing. The Routing procedure is interrupted by an attacker by creating routing loops. The performance of the proposed L-IDS is compared to the RPL routing security scheme based on existing trust. The proposed L-IDS procedure is validating the presence of the attacker at every source to destination data delivery. and also disables the presence of the attacker in the network. Network performance provides better results in the existence of a security scheme and also fully represents the inoperative presence of black hole attackers in the network. Performance metrics show better results in the presence of expected IDS and improve network reliability.

2021-04-08
Yaseen, Q., Panda, B..  2012.  Tackling Insider Threat in Cloud Relational Databases. 2012 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing. :215—218.
Cloud security is one of the major issues that worry individuals and organizations about cloud computing. Therefore, defending cloud systems against attacks such asinsiders' attacks has become a key demand. This paper investigates insider threat in cloud relational database systems(cloud RDMS). It discusses some vulnerabilities in cloud computing structures that may enable insiders to launch attacks, and shows how load balancing across multiple availability zones may facilitate insider threat. To prevent such a threat, the paper suggests three models, which are Peer-to-Peer model, Centralized model and Mobile-Knowledgebase model, and addresses the conditions under which they work well.