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Jahanian, M., Chen, J., Ramakrishnan, K. K..  2020.  Managing the Evolution to Future Internet Architectures and Seamless Interoperation. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1—11.

With the increasing diversity of application needs (datacenters, IoT, content retrieval, industrial automation, etc.), new network architectures are continually being proposed to address specific and particular requirements. From a network management perspective, it is both important and challenging to enable evolution towards such new architectures. Given the ubiquity of the Internet, a clean-slate change of the entire infrastructure to a new architecture is impractical. It is believed that we will see new network architectures coming into existence with support for interoperability between separate architectural islands. We may have servers, and more importantly, content, residing in domains having different architectures. This paper presents COIN, a content-oriented interoperability framework for current and future Internet architectures. We seek to provide seamless connectivity and content accessibility across multiple of these network architectures, including the current Internet. COIN preserves each domain's key architectural features and mechanisms, while allowing flexibility for evolvability and extensibility. We focus on Information-Centric Networks (ICN), the prominent class of Future Internet architectures. COIN avoids expanding domain-specific protocols or namespaces. Instead, it uses an application-layer Object Resolution Service to deliver the right "foreign" names to consumers. COIN uses translation gateways that retain essential interoperability state, leverages encryption for confidentiality, and relies on domain-specific signatures to guarantee provenance and data integrity. Using NDN and MobilityFirst as important candidate solutions of ICN, and IP, we evaluate COIN. Measurements from an implementation of the gateways show that the overhead is manageable and scales well.

Mavroudis, V., Svenda, P..  2020.  JCMathLib: Wrapper Cryptographic Library for Transparent and Certifiable JavaCard Applets. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :89—96.

The JavaCard multi-application platform is now deployed to over twenty billion smartcards, used in various applications ranging from banking payments and authentication tokens to SIM cards and electronic documents. In most of those use cases, access to various cryptographic primitives is required. The standard JavaCard API provides a basic level of access to such functionality (e.g., RSA encryption) but does not expose low-level cryptographic primitives (e.g., elliptic curve operations) and essential data types (e.g., Integers). Developers can access such features only through proprietary, manufacturer-specific APIs. Unfortunately, such APIs significantly reduce the interoperability and certification transparency of the software produced as they require non-disclosure agreements (NDA) that prohibit public sharing of the applet's source code.We introduce JCMathLib, an open library that provides an intermediate layer realizing essential data types and low-level cryptographic primitives from high-level operations. To achieve this, we introduce a series of optimization techniques for resource-constrained platforms that make optimal use of the underlying hardware, while having a small memory footprint. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first generic library for low-level cryptographic operations in JavaCards that does not rely on a proprietary API.Without any disclosure limitations, JCMathLib has the potential to increase transparency by enabling open code sharing, release of research prototypes, and public code audits. Moreover, JCMathLib can help resolve the conflict between strict open-source licenses such as GPL and proprietary APIs available only under an NDA. This is of particular importance due to the introduction of JavaCard API v3.1, which targets specifically IoT devices, where open-source development might be more common than in the relatively closed world of government-issued electronic documents.

Ayers, H., Crews, P., Teo, H., McAvity, C., Levy, A., Levis, P..  2020.  Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :103–111.
Low-power wireless networks provide IPv6 connectivity through 6LoWPAN, a set of standards to aggressively compress IPv6 packets over small maximum transfer unit (MTU) links such as 802.15.4.The entire purpose of IP was to interconnect different networks, but we find that different 6LoWPAN implementations fail to reliably communicate with one another. These failures are due to stacks implementing different subsets of the standard out of concern for code size. We argue that this failure stems from 6LoWPAN's design, not implementation, and is due to applying traditional Internet protocol design principles to low- power networks.We propose three design principles for Internet protocols on low-power networks, designed to prevent similar failures in the future. These principles are based around the importance of providing flexible tradeoffs between code size and energy efficiency. We apply these principles to 6LoWPAN and show that the modified protocol provides a wide range of implementation strategies while allowing implementations with different strategies to reliably communicate.
Labib, N. S., Brust, M. R., Danoy, G., Bouvry, P..  2019.  Trustworthiness in IoT – A Standards Gap Analysis on Security, Data Protection and Privacy. 2019 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN). :1–7.
With the emergence of new digital trends like Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilising such technologies as they promise a better and optimised management, improved energy efficiency and a better quality living through a wide array of value-added services. However, as sensing, actuation, communication and control become increasingly more sophisticated, such promising data-driven systems generate, process, and exchange larger amounts of security-critical and privacy-sensitive data, which makes them attractive targets of attacks. In turn this affirms the importance of trustworthiness in IoT and emphasises the need of a solid technical and regulatory foundation. The goal of this paper is to first introduce the concept of trustworthiness in IoT, its main pillars namely, security, privacy and data protection, and then analyse the state-of-the-art in research and standardisation for each of these subareas. Throughout the paper, we develop and refer to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a promising value-added service example of mobile IoT devices. The paper then presents a thorough gap analysis and concludes with recommendations for future work.
Poltronieri, F., Sadler, L., Benincasa, G., Gregory, T., Harrell, J. M., Metu, S., Moulton, C..  2018.  Enabling Efficient and Interoperable Control of IoBT Devices in a Multi-Force Environment. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :757—762.

Efficient application of Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) technology on the battlefield calls for innovative solutions to control and manage the deluge of heterogeneous IoBT devices. This paper presents an innovative paradigm to address heterogeneity in controlling IoBT and IoT devices, enabling multi-force cooperation in challenging battlefield scenarios.

Patsonakis, Christos, Terzi, Sofia, Moschos, Ioannis, Ioannidis, Dimosthenis, Votis, Konstantinos, Tzovaras, Dimitrios.  2019.  Permissioned Blockchains and Virtual Nodes for Reinforcing Trust Between Aggregators and Prosumers in Energy Demand Response Scenarios. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2019 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1–6.
The advancement and penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and renewable energy sources (RES) are transforming legacy energy systems in an attempt to reduce carbon emissions and energy waste. Demand Response (DR) has been identified as a key enabler of integrating these, and other, Smart Grid technologies, while, simultaneously, ensuring grid stability and secure energy supply. The massive deployment of smart meters, IoT devices and DERs dictate the need to move to decentralized, or even localized, DR schemes in the face of the increased scale and complexity of monitoring and coordinating the actors and devices in modern smart grids. Furthermore, there is an inherent need to guarantee interoperability, due to the vast number of, e.g., hardware and software stakeholders, and, more importantly, promote trust and incentivize the participation of customers in DR schemes, if they are to be successfully deployed.In this work, we illustrate the design of an energy system that addresses all of the roadblocks that hinder the large scale deployment of DR services. Our DR framework incorporates modern Smart Grid technologies, such as fog-enabled and IoT devices, DERs and RES to, among others, automate asset handling and various time-consuming workflows. To guarantee interoperability, our system employs OpenADR, which standardizes the communication of DR signals among energy stakeholders. Our approach acknowledges the need for decentralization and employs blockchains and smart contracts to deliver a secure, privacy-preserving, tamper-resistant, auditable and reliable DR framework. Blockchains provide the infrastructure to design innovative DR schemes and incentivize active consumer participation as their aforementioned properties promote transparency and trust. In addition, we harness the power of smart contracts which allows us to design and implement fully automated contractual agreements both among involved stakeholders, as well as on a machine-to-machine basis. Smart contracts are digital agents that "live" in the blockchain and can encode, execute and enforce arbitrary agreements. To illustrate the potential and effectiveness of our smart contract-based DR framework, we present a case study that describes the exchange of DR signals and the autonomous instantiation of smart contracts among involved participants to mediate and monitor transactions, enforce contractual clauses, regulate energy supply and handle payments/penalties.
Widergren, Steve, Melton, Ron, Khandekar, Aditya, Nordman, Bruce, Knight, Mark.  2019.  The Plug-and-Play Electricity Era: Interoperability to Integrate Anything, Anywhere, Anytime. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. 17:47–58.
The inforrmation age continues to transform the mechanics of integrating electric power devices and systems, from coordinated operations based purely on the physics of electric power engineering to an increasing blend of power with information and communication technology. Integrating electric system components is not just about attaching wires. It requires the connection of computer-based automation systems to associated sensing and communication equipment. The architectural impacts are significant. Well-considered and commonly held concepts, principles, and organizational structures continue to emerge to address the complexity of the integrated operational challenges that drive our society to expect more flexibility in configuring the electric power system, while simultaneously achieving greater efficiency, reliability, and resilience. Architectural concepts, such as modularity and composability, contribute to the creation of structures that enable the connection of power system equipment characterized by clearly defined interfaces consisting of physical and cyberlinks. The result of successful electric power system component connection is interoperation: the discipline that drives integration to be simple and reliable.
Islam, Chadni, Babar, Muhammad Ali, Nepal, Surya.  2019.  An Ontology-Driven Approach to Automating the Process of Integrating Security Software Systems. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Software and System Processes (ICSSP). :54–63.

A wide variety of security software systems need to be integrated into a Security Orchestration Platform (SecOrP) to streamline the processes of defending against and responding to cybersecurity attacks. Lack of interpretability and interoperability among security systems are considered the key challenges to fully leverage the potential of the collective capabilities of different security systems. The processes of integrating security systems are repetitive, time-consuming and error-prone; these processes are carried out manually by human experts or using ad-hoc methods. To help automate security systems integration processes, we propose an Ontology-driven approach for Security OrchestrAtion Platform (OnSOAP). The developed solution enables interpretability, and interoperability among security systems, which may exist in operational silos. We demonstrate OnSOAP's support for automated integration of security systems to execute the incident response process with three security systems (Splunk, Limacharlie, and Snort) for a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. The evaluation results show that OnSOAP enables SecOrP to interpret the input and output of different security systems, produce error-free integration details, and make security systems interoperable with each other to automate and accelerate an incident response process.

Dhas, Y. Justin, Jeyanthi, P..  2019.  A Review on Internet of Things Protocol and Service Oriented Middleware. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). :0104–0108.
This paper surveys a review of Internet of Things (IoT) protocols, Service oriented Middleware in IoT. The modern development of IoT, expected to create many divorce application in health care without human intervention. Various protocols are involved in the applications development. Researchers are doing research for desirable protocol with all functionalities. Middleware for an IoT provides interoperability between the devices or applications. The engineering of an IoT dependent on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), it operates as middleware. We survey the existing SOA based IoT middleware and its functionalities.
Enos, James R., Nilchiani, Roshanak R..  2018.  Merging DoDAF architectures to develop and analyze the DoD network of systems. 2018 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–9.
The Department of Defense (DoD) manages capabilities through the Joint Interoperability and Capability Development System (JCIDS) process. As part of this process, sponsors develop a series of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products to assist analysts understand the proposed capability and how it fits into the broader network of DoD legacy systems and systems under development. However, the Joint Staff, responsible for executing the JCIDS process, often analyzes these architectures in isolation without considering the broader network of systems. DoD leadership, the Government Accountability Organization, and others have noted the lack of the DoD's ability to manage the broader portfolio of capabilities in various reports and papers. Several efforts have proposed merging DoDAF architecture into a larger meta-architecture based on individual system architectures. This paper specifically targets the Systems View 3 (SV-3), System-to-system matrix, as an opportunity to merge multiple DoDAF architecture views into a network of system and understand the potential benefits associated with analyzing a broader perspective. The goal of merging multiple SV-3s is to better understand the interoperability of a system within the network of DoD systems as network metrics may provide insights into the relative interoperability of a DoD system. Currently, the DoD's definition of interoperability focuses on the system or capability's ability to enter and operate within the DoD Information Network (DoDIN); however, this view limits the definition of interoperability as it focuses solely on information flows and not resource flows or physical connections that should be present in a SV-3. The paper demonstrates the importance of including all forms of connections between systems in a network by comparing network metrics associated with the different types of connections. Without a complete set of DoDAF architectures for each system within the DoD and based on the potential classification of these products, the paper collates data that should be included in an SV-3 from open source, unclassified references to build the overall network of DoD systems. From these sources, a network of over 300 systems with almost 1000 connections emerges based on the documented information, resource, and physical connections between these legacy and planned DoD systems. With this network, the paper explores the quantification of individual system's interoperability through the application of nodal and network metrics from social network analysis (SNA). A SNA perspective on a network of systems provides additional insights beyond traditional network analysis because of the emphasis on the importance of nodes, systems, in the network as well as the relationship, connections, between the nodes. Finally, the paper proposes future work to explore the quantification of additional attributes of systems as well as a method for further validating the findings.
Li, Zhangtan, Cheng, Liang, Zhang, Yang.  2019.  Tracking Sensitive Information and Operations in Integrated Clinical Environment. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :192–199.
Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) is a standardized framework for achieving device interoperability in medical cyber-physical systems. The ICE utilizes high-level supervisory apps and a low-level communication middleware to coordinate medical devices. The need to design complex ICE systems that are both safe and effective has presented numerous challenges, including interoperability, context-aware intelligence, security and privacy. In this paper, we present a data flow analysis framework for the ICE systems. The framework performs the combination of static and dynamic analysis for the sensitive data and operations in the ICE systems. Our experiments demonstrate that the data flow analysis framework can record how the medical devices transmit sensitive data and perform misuse detection by tracing the runtime context of the sensitive operations.
Klarin, K., Nazor, I., Celar, S..  2019.  Ontology literature review as guidelines for improving Croatian Qualification Framework. 2019 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1402–1407.

Development of information systems dealing with education and labour market using web and grid service architecture enables their modularity, expandability and interoperability. Application of ontologies to the web helps with collecting and selecting the knowledge about a certain field in a generic way, thus enabling different applications to understand, use, reuse and share the knowledge among them. A necessary step before publishing computer-interpretable data on the public web is the implementation of common standards that will ensure the exchange of information. Croatian Qualification Framework (CROQF) is a project of standardization of occupations for the labour market, as well as standardization of sets of qualifications, skills and competences and their mutual relations. This paper analysis a respectable amount of research dealing with application of ontologies to information systems in education during the last decade. The main goal is to compare achieved results according to: 1) phases of development/classifications of education-related ontologies; 2) areas of education and 3) standards and structures of metadata for educational systems. Collected information is used to provide insight into building blocks of CROQF, both the ones well supported by experience and best practices, and the ones that are not, together with guidelines for development of own standards using ontological structures.

Mohamed, Nader, Al-Jaroodi, Jameela.  2019.  A Middleware Framework to Address Security Issues in Integrated Multisystem Applications. 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1–6.
Integrating multiple programmable components and subsystems developed by different manufacturers into a final system (a system of systems) can create some security concerns. While there are many efforts for developing interoperability approaches to enable smooth, reliable and safe integration among different types of components to build final systems for different applications, less attention is usually given for the security aspects of this integration. This may leave the final systems exposed and vulnerable to potential security attacks. The issues elevate further when such systems are also connected to other networks such as the Internet or systems like fog and cloud computing. This issue can be found in important industrial applications like smart medical, smart manufacturing and smart city systems. As a result, along with performance, safety and reliability; multisystem integration must also be highly secure. This paper discusses the security issues instigated by such integration. In addition, it proposes a middleware framework to address the security issues for integrated multisystem applications.
Cui, Hongyan, Chen, Zunming, Xi, Yu, Chen, Hao, Hao, Jiawang.  2019.  IoT Data Management and Lineage Traceability: A Blockchain-based Solution. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications Workshops in China (ICCC Workshops). :239–244.

The Internet of Things is stepping out of its infancy into full maturity, requiring massive data processing and storage. Unfortunately, because of the unique characteristics of resource constraints, short-range communication, and self-organization in IoT, it always resorts to the cloud or fog nodes for outsourced computation and storage, which has brought about a series of novel challenging security and privacy threats. For this reason, one of the critical challenges of having numerous IoT devices is the capacity to manage them and their data. A specific concern is from which devices or Edge clouds to accept join requests or interaction requests. This paper discusses a design concept for developing the IoT data management platform, along with a data management and lineage traceability implementation of the platform based on blockchain and smart contracts, which approaches the two major challenges: how to implement effective data management and enrich rational interoperability for trusted groups of linked Things; And how to settle conflicts between untrusted IoT devices and its requests taking into account security and privacy preserving. Experimental results show that the system scales well with the loss of computing and communication performance maintaining within the acceptable range, works well to effectively defend against unauthorized access and empower data provenance and transparency, which verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the design concept to provide privacy, fine-grained, and integrity data management over the IoT devices by introducing the blockchain-based data management platform.

Wimmer, Maria A., Boneva, Rositsa, di Giacomo, Debora.  2018.  Interoperability Governance: A Definition and Insights from Case Studies in Europe. Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age. :14:1-14:11.

Interoperability has become a crucial value in European e-government developments, as promoted by the Digital Single Market strategy and the Tallinn Declaration. The European Union and its Member States have made considerable investments in improving the understanding of interoperability and in developing interoperable building blocks to support cross-border data exchange and public service provisioning. This includes recent updates of the European Interoperability Framework (EIF) and European Interoperability Reference Architecture (EIRA), as well as the publication of a number of generic and domain specific architecture and solutions building blocks such as digital identification or electronic delivery services. While in the previous version of the EIF, interoperability governance was not clearly developed, the new version of 2017 puts interoperability governance as a concept that spans across the different interoperability layers (legal, organizational, semantic and technical) and that builds the frame for interoperability overall. In this paper, we develop a definition of interoperability governance from a literature review and we put forward a model to investigate interoperability governance models at European and Member State levels. Based on several case studies of EU institutions and Member States, we could draw recommendations for what the key aspects of interoperability governance are to successfully diffuse interoperability into public service provisioning.

Akkermans, Sven, Crispo, Bruno, Joosen, Wouter, Hughes, Danny.  2018.  Polyglot CerberOS: Resource Security, Interoperability and Multi-Tenancy for IoT Services on a Multilingual Platform. Proceedings of the 15th EAI International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services. :59–68.
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to tackle a range of environmental challenges and deliver large efficiency gains in industry by embedding computational intelligence, sensing and control in our physical environment. Multiple independent parties are increasingly seeking to leverage shared IoT infrastructure, using a similar model to the cloud, and thus require constrained IoT devices to become microservice-hosting platforms that can securely and concurrently execute their code and interoperate. This vision demands that heterogeneous services, peripherals and platforms are provided with an expanded set of security guarantees to prevent third-party services from hijacking the platform, resource-level access control and accounting, and strong isolation between running processes to prevent unauthorized access to third-party services and data. This paper introduces Polyglot CerberOS, a resource-secure operating system for multi-tenant IoT devices that is realised through a reconfigurable virtual machine which can simultaneously execute interoperable services, written in different languages. We evaluate Polyglot CerberOS on IETF Class-1 devices running both Java and C services. The results show that interoperability and strong security guarantees for multilingual services on multi-tenant commodity IoT devices are feasible, in terms of performance and memory overhead, and transparent for developers.
Schroeder, Jill M., Manz, David O., Amaya, Jodi P., McMakin, Andrea H., Bays, Ryan M..  2018.  Understanding Past, Current and Future Communication and Situational Awareness Technologies for First Responders. Proceedings of the Fifth Cybersecurity Symposium. :2:1-2:14.
This study builds a foundation for improving research for first responder communication and situational awareness technology in the future. In an online survey, we elicited the opinions of 250 U.S. first responders about effectiveness, security, and reliability of past, current, and future Internet of Things technology. The most desired features respondents identified were connectivity, reliability, interoperability, and affordability. The top barriers to technology adoption and use included restricted budgets/costs, interoperability, insufficient training resources, and insufficient interagency collaboration and communication. First responders in all job types indicated that technology has made first responder equipment more useful, and technology that supports situational awareness is particularly valued. As such, future Internet of Things capabilities, such as tapping into smart device data in residences and piggybacking onto alternative communication channels, could be valuable for future first responders. Potential areas for future investigation are suggested for technology development and research.
Ayers, Hudson, Crews, Paul Thomas, Teo, Hubert Hua Kian, McAvity, Conor, Levy, Amit, Levis, Philip.  2018.  Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols. Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems. :317–318.
Examining implementations of the 6LoWPAN Internet Standard in major embedded operating systems, we observe that they do not fully interoperate. We find this is due to some inherent design flaws in 6LoWPAN. We propose and demonstrate four principles that can be used to structure protocols for low power devices that encourage interoperability between diverse implementations.
Andročec, D., Tomaš, B., Kišasondi, T..  2017.  Interoperability and lightweight security for simple IoT devices. 2017 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1285–1291.

The Semantic Web can be used to enable the interoperability of IoT devices and to annotate their functional and nonfunctional properties, including security and privacy. In this paper, we will show how to use the ontology and JSON-LD to annotate connectivity, security and privacy properties of IoT devices. Out of that, we will present our prototype for a lightweight, secure application level protocol wrapper that ensures communication consistency, secrecy and integrity for low cost IoT devices like the ESP8266 and Photon particle.

Grewe, D., Wagner, M., Frey, H..  2017.  ICN-based open, distributed data market place for connected vehicles: Challenges and research directions. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :265–270.

Currently, the networking of everyday objects, socalled Internet of Things (IoT), such as vehicles and home automation environments is progressing rapidly. Formerly deployed as domain-specific solutions, the development is continuing to link different domains together to form a large heterogeneous IoT ecosystem. This development raises challenges in different fields such as scalability of billions of devices, interoperability across different IoT domains and the need of mobility support. The Information-Centric Networking (ICN) paradigm is a promising candidate to form a unified platform to connect different IoT domains together including infrastructure, wireless, and ad-hoc environments. This paper describes a vision of a harmonized architectural design providing dynamic access of data and services based on an ICN. Within the context of connected vehicles, the paper introduces requirements and challenges of the vision and contributes in open research directions in Information-Centric Networking.

Liu, X., Leon-Garcia, A., Zhu, P..  2017.  A distributed software-defined multi-agent architecture for unifying IoT applications. 2017 8th IEEE Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON). :49–55.

During the development and expansion of Internet of Things (IoT), main challenges needing to be addressed are the heterogeneity, interoperability, scalability, flexibility and security of IoT applications. In this paper, we view IoT as a large-scale distributed cyber-physical-social complex network. From that perspective, the above challenges are analyzed. Then, we propose a distributed multi-agent architecture to unify numbers of different IoT applications by designing the software-defined sensors, auctuators and controllers. Furthermore, we analyze the proposed architecture and clarify why and how it can tackle the heterogeneity of IoT applications, enable them to interoperate with each other, make it efficient to introduce new applications, and enhance the flexibility and security of different applications. Finally, the use case of smart home with multiple applications is applied to verify the feasibility of the proposed solution for IoT architecture.

Jiang, L., Kuhn, W., Yue, P..  2017.  An interoperable approach for Sensor Web provenance. 2017 6th International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics. :1–6.

The Sensor Web is evolving into a complex information space, where large volumes of sensor observation data are often consumed by complex applications. Provenance has become an important issue in the Sensor Web, since it allows applications to answer “what”, “when”, “where”, “who”, “why”, and “how” queries related to observations and consumption processes, which helps determine the usability and reliability of data products. This paper investigates characteristics and requirements of provenance in the Sensor Web and proposes an interoperable approach to building a provenance model for the Sensor Web. Our provenance model extends the W3C PROV Data Model with Sensor Web domain vocabularies. It is developed using Semantic Web technologies and thus allows provenance information of sensor observations to be exposed in the Web of Data using the Linked Data approach. A use case illustrates the applicability of the approach.

Suh, Y. K., Ma, J..  2017.  SuperMan: A Novel System for Storing and Retrieving Scientific-Simulation Provenance for Efficient Job Executions on Computing Clusters. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W). :283–288.

Compute-intensive simulations typically charge substantial workloads on an online simulation platform backed by limited computing clusters and storage resources. Some (or most) of the simulations initiated by users may accompany input parameters/files that have been already provided by other (or same) users in the past. Unfortunately, these duplicate simulations may aggravate the performance of the platform by drastic consumption of the limited resources shared by a number of users on the platform. To minimize or avoid conducting repeated simulations, we present a novel system, called SUPERMAN (SimUlation ProvEnance Recycling MANager) that can record simulation provenances and recycle the results of past simulations. This system presents a great opportunity to not only reutilize existing results but also perform various analytics helpful for those who are not familiar with the platform. The system also offers interoperability across other systems by collecting the provenances in a standardized format. In our simulated experiments we found that over half of past computing jobs could be answered without actual executions by our system.

Patti, E., Syrri, A. L. A., Jahn, M., Mancarella, P., Acquaviva, A., Macii, E..  2016.  Distributed Software Infrastructure for General Purpose Services in Smart Grid. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 7:1156–1163.

In this paper, the design of an event-driven middleware for general purpose services in smart grid (SG) is presented. The main purpose is to provide a peer-to-peer distributed software infrastructure to allow the access of new multiple and authorized actors to SGs information in order to provide new services. To achieve this, the proposed middleware has been designed to be: 1) event-based; 2) reliable; 3) secure from malicious information and communication technology attacks; and 4) to enable hardware independent interoperability between heterogeneous technologies. To demonstrate practical deployment, a numerical case study applied to the whole U.K. distribution network is presented, and the capabilities of the proposed infrastructure are discussed.

Kubler, Sylvain, Robert, Jérémy, Hefnawy, Ahmed, Cherifi, Chantal, Bouras, Abdelaziz, Främling, Kary.  2016.  IoT-based Smart Parking System for Sporting Event Management. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services. :104–114.

By connecting devices, people, vehicles and infrastructures everywhere in a city, governments and their partners can improve community wellbeing and other economic and financial aspects (e.g., cost and energy savings). Nonetheless, smart cities are complex ecosystems that comprise many different stakeholders (network operators, managed service providers, logistic centers...) who must work together to provide the best services and unlock the commercial potential of the IoT. This is one of the major challenges that faces today's smart city movement, and more generally the IoT as a whole. Indeed, while new smart connected objects hit the market every day, they mostly feed "vertical silos" (e.g., vertical apps, siloed apps...) that are closed to the rest of the IoT, thus hampering developers to produce new added value across multiple platforms. Within this context, the contribution of this paper is twofold: (i) present the EU vision and ongoing activities to overcome the problem of vertical silos; (ii) introduce recent IoT standards used as part of a recent Horizon 2020 IoT project to address this problem. The implementation of those standards for enhanced sporting event management in a smart city/government context (FIFA World Cup 2022) is developed, presented, and evaluated as a proof-of-concept.