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Guo, Xiaolong, Dutta, Raj Gautam, He, Jiaji, Tehranipoor, Mark M., Jin, Yier.  2019.  QIF-Verilog: Quantitative Information-Flow based Hardware Description Languages for Pre-Silicon Security Assessment. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :91—100.
Hardware vulnerabilities are often due to design mistakes because the designer does not sufficiently consider potential security vulnerabilities at the design stage. As a result, various security solutions have been developed to protect ICs, among which the language-based hardware security verification serves as a promising solution. The verification process will be performed while compiling the HDL of the design. However, similar to other formal verification methods, the language-based approach also suffers from scalability issue. Furthermore, existing solutions either lead to hardware overhead or are not designed for vulnerable or malicious logic detection. To alleviate these challenges, we propose a new language based framework, QIF-Verilog, to evaluate the trustworthiness of a hardware system at register transfer level (RTL). This framework introduces a quantified information flow (QIF) model and extends Verilog type systems to provide more expressiveness in presenting security rules; QIF is capable of checking the security rules given by the hardware designer. Secrets are labeled by the new type and then parsed to data flow, to which a QIF model will be applied. To demonstrate our approach, we design a compiler for QIF-Verilog and perform vulnerability analysis on benchmarks from Trust-Hub and OpenCore. We show that Trojans or design faults that leak information from circuit outputs can be detected automatically, and that our method evaluates the security of the design correctly.
Zolanvari, Maede, Teixeira, Marcio A., Gupta, Lav, Khan, Khaled M., Jain, Raj.  2019.  Machine Learning-Based Network Vulnerability Analysis of Industrial Internet of Things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:6822—6834.
It is critical to secure the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices because of potentially devastating consequences in case of an attack. Machine learning (ML) and big data analytics are the two powerful leverages for analyzing and securing the Internet of Things (IoT) technology. By extension, these techniques can help improve the security of the IIoT systems as well. In this paper, we first present common IIoT protocols and their associated vulnerabilities. Then, we run a cyber-vulnerability assessment and discuss the utilization of ML in countering these susceptibilities. Following that, a literature review of the available intrusion detection solutions using ML models is presented. Finally, we discuss our case study, which includes details of a real-world testbed that we have built to conduct cyber-attacks and to design an intrusion detection system (IDS). We deploy backdoor, command injection, and Structured Query Language (SQL) injection attacks against the system and demonstrate how a ML-based anomaly detection system can perform well in detecting these attacks. We have evaluated the performance through representative metrics to have a fair point of view on the effectiveness of the methods.
Ameli, Amir, Hooshyar, Ali, El-Saadany, Ehab F..  2019.  Development of a Cyber-Resilient Line Current Differential Relay. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 15:305—318.
The application of line current differential relays (LCDRs) to protect transmission lines has recently proliferated. However, the reliance of LCDRs on digital communication channels has raised growing cyber-security concerns. This paper investigates the impacts of false data injection attacks (FDIAs) on the performance of LCDRs. It also develops coordinated attacks that involve multiple components, including LCDRs, and can cause false line tripping. Additionally, this paper proposes a technique for detecting FDIAs against LCDRs and differentiating them from actual faults in two-terminal lines. In this method, when an LCDR detects a fault, instead of immediately tripping the line, it calculates and measures the superimposed voltage at its local terminal, using the proposed positive-sequence (PS) and negative-sequence (NS) submodules. To calculate this voltage, the LCDR models the protected line in detail and replaces the rest of the system with a Thevenin equivalent that produces accurate responses at the line terminals. Afterwards, remote current measurement is utilized by the PS and NS submodules to compute each sequence's superimposed voltage. A difference between the calculated and the measured superimposed voltages in any sequence reveals that the remote current measurements are not authentic. Thus, the LCDR's trip command is blocked. The effectiveness of the proposed method is corroborated using simulation results for the IEEE 39-bus test system. The performance of the proposed method is also tested using an OPAL real-time simulator.
Hong, Junho, Nuqui, Reynaldo F., Kondabathini, Anil, Ishchenko, Dmitry, Martin, Aaron.  2019.  Cyber Attack Resilient Distance Protection and Circuit Breaker Control for Digital Substations. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 15:4332—4341.
This paper proposes new concepts for detecting and mitigating cyber attacks on substation automation systems by domain-based cyber-physical security solutions. The proposed methods form the basis of a distributed security domain layer that enables protection devices to collaboratively defend against cyber attacks at substations. The methods utilize protection coordination principles to cross check protection setting changes and can run real-time power system analysis to evaluate the impact of the control commands. The transient fault signature (TFS)-based cross-correlation coefficient algorithm has been proposed to detect the false sampled values data injection attack. The proposed functions were verified in a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation using commercial relays and a real-time digital simulator (RTDS). Various types of cyber intrusions are tested using this test bed to evaluate the consequences and impacts of cyber attacks to power grid as well as to validate the performance of the proposed research-grade cyber attack mitigation functions.
Tanrıverdi, Mustafa, Tekerek, Adem.  2019.  Implementation of Blockchain Based Distributed Web Attack Detection Application. 2019 1st International Informatics and Software Engineering Conference (UBMYK). :1—6.
In last decades' web application security has become one of the most important case study of information security studies. Business processes are transferred to web platforms. So web application usage is increased very fast. Web-based attacks have also increased due to the increased use of web applications. In order to ensure the security of web applications, intrusion detection and prevention systems and web application firewalls are used against web based attacks. Blockchain technology, which has become popular in recent years, enables reliable and transparent sharing of data with all stakeholders. In this study, in order to detect web-based attacks, a blockchain based web attack detection model that uses the signature based detection method is proposed. The signature based detection refers to the detection of attacks by looking for specific patterns against known web based attack types, such as Structured Query Language (SQL) Injection, Cross Site Scripting (XSS), Command Injection. Three web servers were used for the experimental study. A blockchain node has been installed with the MultiChain application for each server. Attacks on web applications are detected using the signature list found in the web application as well as detected using the signature list updated on the blockchain. According to the experimental results, the attacks signature detected and defined by a web application are updated in the blockchain lists and used by all web applications.
Zhang, Fan, Kodituwakku, Hansaka Angel Dias Edirisinghe, Hines, J. Wesley, Coble, Jamie.  2019.  Multilayer Data-Driven Cyber-Attack Detection System for Industrial Control Systems Based on Network, System, and Process Data. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 15:4362—4369.
The growing number of attacks against cyber-physical systems in recent years elevates the concern for cybersecurity of industrial control systems (ICSs). The current efforts of ICS cybersecurity are mainly based on firewalls, data diodes, and other methods of intrusion prevention, which may not be sufficient for growing cyber threats from motivated attackers. To enhance the cybersecurity of ICS, a cyber-attack detection system built on the concept of defense-in-depth is developed utilizing network traffic data, host system data, and measured process parameters. This attack detection system provides multiple-layer defense in order to gain the defenders precious time before unrecoverable consequences occur in the physical system. The data used for demonstrating the proposed detection system are from a real-time ICS testbed. Five attacks, including man in the middle (MITM), denial of service (DoS), data exfiltration, data tampering, and false data injection, are carried out to simulate the consequences of cyber attack and generate data for building data-driven detection models. Four classical classification models based on network data and host system data are studied, including k-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree, bootstrap aggregating (bagging), and random forest (RF), to provide a secondary line of defense of cyber-attack detection in the event that the intrusion prevention layer fails. Intrusion detection results suggest that KNN, bagging, and RF have low missed alarm and false alarm rates for MITM and DoS attacks, providing accurate and reliable detection of these cyber attacks. Cyber attacks that may not be detectable by monitoring network and host system data, such as command tampering and false data injection attacks by an insider, are monitored for by traditional process monitoring protocols. In the proposed detection system, an auto-associative kernel regression model is studied to strengthen early attack detection. The result shows that this approach detects physically impactful cyber attacks before significant consequences occur. The proposed multiple-layer data-driven cyber-attack detection system utilizing network, system, and process data is a promising solution for safeguarding an ICS.
Rasapour, Farhad, Serra, Edoardo, Mehrpouyan, Hoda.  2019.  Framework for Detecting Control Command Injection Attacks on Industrial Control Systems (ICS). 2019 Seventh International Symposium on Computing and Networking (CANDAR). :211—217.
This paper focuses on the design and development of attack models on the sensory channels and an Intrusion Detection system (IDS) to protect the system from these types of attacks. The encoding/decoding formulas are defined to inject a bit of data into the sensory channel. In addition, a signal sampling technique is utilized for feature extraction. Further, an IDS framework is proposed to reside on the devices that are connected to the sensory channels to actively monitor the signals for anomaly detection. The results obtained based on our experiments have shown that the one-class SVM paired with Fourier transformation was able to detect new or Zero-day attacks.
Kaji, Shugo, Kinugawa, Masahiro, Fujimoto, Daisuke, Hayashi, Yu-ichi.  2019.  Data Injection Attack Against Electronic Devices With Locally Weakened Immunity Using a Hardware Trojan. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. 61:1115—1121.
Intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) of information and communication devices is based on high-power electromagnetic environments far exceeding the device immunity to electromagnetic interference. IEMI dramatically alters the electromagnetic environment throughout the device by interfering with the electromagnetic waves inside the device and destroying low-tolerance integrated circuits (ICs) and other elements, thereby reducing the availability of the device. In contrast, in this study, by using a hardware Trojan (HT) that is quickly mountable by physically accessing the devices, to locally weaken the immunity of devices, and then irradiating electromagnetic waves of a specific frequency, only the attack targets are intentionally altered electromagnetically. Therefore, we propose a method that uses these electromagnetic changes to rewrite or generate data and commands handled within devices. Specifically, targeting serial communication systems used inside and outside the devices, the installation of an HT on the communication channel weakens local immunity. This shows that it is possible to generate an electrical signal representing arbitrary data on the communication channel by applying electromagnetic waves of sufficiently small output compared with the conventional IEMI and letting the IC process the data. In addition, we explore methods for countering such attacks.
Chakrabarty, Shantanu, Sikdar, Biplab.  2019.  A Methodology for Detecting Stealthy Transformer Tap Command Injection Attacks in Smart Grids. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—6.
On-Load Tap Changing transformers are a widely used voltage regulation device. In the context of modern or smart grids, the control signals, i.e., the tap change commands are sent through SCADA channels. It is well known that the power system SCADA networks are prone to attacks involving injection of false data or commands. While false data injection is well explored in existing literature, attacks involving malicious control signals/commands are relatively unexplored. In this paper, an algorithm is developed to detect a stealthily introduced malicious tap change command through a compromised SCADA channel. This algorithm is based on the observation that a stealthily introduced false data or command masks the true estimation of only a few state variables. This leaves the rest of the state variables to show signs of a change in system state brought about by the attack. Using this observation, an index is formulated based on the ratios of injection or branch currents to voltages of the terminal nodes of the tap changers. This index shows a significant increase when there is a false tap command injection, resulting in easy classification from normal scenarios where there is no attack. The algorithm is computationally light, easy to implement and reliable when tested extensively on several tap changers placed in an IEEE 118-bus system.
Yao, Bing, Zhao, Meimei, Mu, Yarong, Sun, Yirong, Zhang, Xiaohui, Zhang, Mingjun, Yang, Sihua.  2019.  Matrices From Topological Graphic Coding of Network Security. 2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 1:1992—1996.
Matrices as mathematical models have been used in each branch of scientific fields for hundred years. We propose a new type of matrices, called topological coding matrices (Topcode-matrices). Topcode-matrices show us the following advantages: Topcode-matrices can be saved in computer easily and run quickly in computation; since a Topcode-matrix corresponds two or more Topsnut-gpws, so Topcode-matrices can be used to encrypt networks such that the encrypted networks have higher security; Topcode-matrices can be investigated and applied by people worked in more domains; Topcode-matrices can help us to form new operations, new parameters and new topics of graph theory, such as vertex/edge splitting operations and connectivities of graphs. Several properties and applications on Topcode-matrices, and particular Topcode-matrices, as well as unknown problems are introduced.
Yudin, Oleksandr, Ziubina, Ruslana, Buchyk, Serhii, Frolov, Oleg, Suprun, Olha, Barannik, Natalia.  2019.  Efficiency Assessment of the Steganographic Coding Method with Indirect Integration of Critical Information. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Trends in Information Theory (ATIT). :36—40.
The presented method of encoding and steganographic embedding of a series of bits for the hidden message was first developed by modifying the digital platform (bases) of the elements of the image container. Unlike other methods, steganographic coding and embedding is accomplished by changing the elements of the image fragment, followed by the formation of code structures for the established structure of the digital representation of the structural elements of the image media image. The method of estimating quantitative indicators of embedded critical data is presented. The number of bits of the container for the developed method of steganographic coding and embedding of critical information is estimated. The efficiency of the presented method is evaluated and the comparative analysis of the value of the embedded digital data in relation to the method of weight coefficients of the discrete cosine transformation matrix, as well as the comparative analysis of the developed method of steganographic coding, compared with the Koch and Zhao methods to determine the embedded data resistance against attacks of various types. It is determined that for different values of the quantization coefficient, the most critical are the built-in containers of critical information, which are built by changing the part of the digital video data platform depending on the size of the digital platform and the number of bits of the built-in container.
Kleckler, Michelle, Mohajer, Soheil.  2019.  Secure Determinant Codes: A Class of Secure Exact-Repair Regenerating Codes. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :211—215.
{1 We present a construction for exact-repair regenerating codes with an information-theoretic secrecy guarantee against an eavesdropper with access to the content of (up to) ℓ nodes. The proposed construction works for the entire range of per-node storage and repair bandwidth for any distributed storage system with parameters (n
Hao, Jie, Shum, Kenneth W., Xia, Shu-Tao, Yang, Yi-Xian.  2019.  Classification of Optimal Ternary (r, δ)-Locally Repairable Codes Attaining the Singleton-like Bound. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :2828—2832.
In a linear code, a code symbol with (r, δ)-locality can be repaired by accessing at most r other code symbols in case of at most δ - 1 erasures. A q-ary (n, k, r, δ) locally repairable codes (LRC) in which every code symbol has (r, δ)-locality is said to be optimal if it achieves the Singleton-like bound derived by Prakash et al.. In this paper, we study the classification of optimal ternary (n, k, r, δ)-LRCs (δ \textbackslashtextgreater 2). Firstly, we propose an upper bound on the minimum distance of optimal q-ary LRCs in terms of the field size. Then, we completely determine all the 6 classes of possible parameters with which optimal ternary (n, k, r, δ)-LRCs exist. Moreover, explicit constructions of all these 6 classes of optimal ternary LRCs are proposed in the paper.
Jayapalan, Avila, Savarinathan, Prem, Priya, Apoorva.  2019.  SystemVue based Secure data transmission using Gold codes. 2019 International Conference on Vision Towards Emerging Trends in Communication and Networking (ViTECoN). :1—4.
Wireless technology has seen a tremendous growth in the recent past. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme has been utilized in almost all the advanced wireless techniques because of the advantages it offers. Hence in this aspect, SystemVue based OFDM transceiver has been developed with AWGN as the channel noise. To mitigate the channel noise Convolutional code with Viterbi decoder has been depicted. Further to protect the information from the malicious users the data is scrambled with the aid of gold codes. The performance of the transceiver is analysed through various Bit Error Rate (BER) versus Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) graphs.
Besser, Karl-Ludwig, Janda, Carsten R., Lin, Pin-Hsun, Jorswieck, Eduard A..  2019.  Flexible Design of Finite Blocklength Wiretap Codes by Autoencoders. ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2512—2516.
With an increasing number of wireless devices, the risk of being eavesdropped increases as well. From information theory, it is well known that wiretap codes can asymptotically achieve vanishing decoding error probability at the legitimate receiver while also achieving vanishing leakage to eavesdroppers. However, under finite blocklength, there exists a tradeoff among different parameters of the transmission. In this work, we propose a flexible wiretap code design for Gaussian wiretap channels under finite blocklength by neural network autoencoders. We show that the proposed scheme has higher flexibility in terms of the error rate and leakage tradeoff, compared to the traditional codes.
Baden, Mathis, Ferreira Torres, Christof, Fiz Pontiveros, Beltran Borja, State, Radu.  2019.  Whispering Botnet Command and Control Instructions. 2019 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT). :77—81.
Botnets are responsible for many large scale attacks happening on the Internet. Their weak point, which is usually targeted to take down a botnet, is the command and control infrastructure: the foundation for the diffusion of the botmaster's instructions. Hence, botmasters employ stealthy communication methods to remain hidden and retain control of the botnet. Recent research has shown that blockchains can be leveraged for under the radar communication with bots, however these methods incur fees for transaction broadcasting. This paper discusses the use of a novel technology, Whisper, for command and control instruction dissemination. Whisper allows a botmaster to control bots at virtually zero cost, while providing a peer-to-peer communication infrastructure, as well as privacy and encryption as part of its dark communication strategy. It is therefore well suited for bidirectional botnet command and control operations, and creating a botnet that is very difficult to take down.
Ashiq, Md. Ishtiaq, Bhowmick, Protick, Hossain, Md. Shohrab, Narman, Husnu S..  2019.  Domain Flux-based DGA Botnet Detection Using Feedforward Neural Network. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1—6.
Botnets have been a major area of concern in the field of cybersecurity. There have been a lot of research works for detection of botnets. However, everyday cybercriminals are coming up with new ideas to counter the well-known detection methods. One such popular method is domain flux-based botnets in which a large number of domain names are produced using domain generation algorithm. In this paper, we have proposed a robust way of detecting DGA-based botnets using few novel features covering both syntactic and semantic viewpoints. We have used Area under ROC curve as our performance metric since it provides comprehensive information about the performance of binary classifiers at various thresholds. Results show that our approach performs significantly better than the baseline approach. Our proposed method can help in detecting established DGA bots (equipped with extensive features) as well as prospective advanced DGA bots imitating real-world domain names.
Prokofiev, Anton O., Smirnova, Yulia S..  2019.  Counteraction against Internet of Things Botnets in Private Networks. 2019 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :301—305.
This article focuses on problems related to detection and prevention of botnet threats in private Internet of Things (IoT) networks. Actual data about IoT botnets activity on the Internet is provided in the paper. Results of analysis of widespread botnets, as well as key characteristics of botnet behavior and activity on IoT devices are also provided. Features of private IoT networks are determined. The paper provides architectural features as well as functioning principles of software systems for botnet prevention in private networks. Recommendations for process of interaction between such system and a user are suggested. Suggestions for future development of the approach are formulated.
Mendes, Lucas D.P., Aloi, James, Pimenta, Tales C..  2019.  Analysis of IoT Botnet Architectures and Recent Defense Proposals. 2019 31st International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM). :186—189.
The rise in the number of devices joining the Internet of Things (IoT) has created a huge potential for distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, especially due to the lack of security in these computationally limited devices. Malicious actors have realized that and managed to turn large sets of IoT devices into botnets under their control. Given this scenario, this work studies botnet architectures identified so far and assesses how they are considered in the few recent defense proposals that consider botnet architectures.
ALEKSIEVA, Yulia, VALCHANOV, Hristo, ALEKSIEVA, Veneta.  2019.  An approach for host based botnet detection system. 2019 16th Conference on Electrical Machines, Drives and Power Systems (ELMA). :1—4.
Most serious occurrence of modern malware is Botnet. Botnet is a rapidly evolving problem that is still not well understood and studied. One of the main goals for modern network security is to create adequate techniques for the detection and eventual termination of Botnet threats. The article presents an approach for implementing a host-based Intrusion Detection System for Botnet attack detection. The approach is based on a variation of a genetic algorithm to detect anomalies in a case of attacks. An implementation of the approach and experimental results are presented.
Garip, Mevlut Turker, Lin, Jonathan, Reiher, Peter, Gerla, Mario.  2019.  SHIELDNET: An Adaptive Detection Mechanism against Vehicular Botnets in VANETs. 2019 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). :1—7.
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are designed to provide traffic safety by enabling vehicles to broadcast information-such as speed, location and heading-through inter-vehicular communications to proactively avoid collisions. However, the attacks targeting these networks might overshadow their advantages if not protected against. One powerful threat against VANETs is vehicular botnets. In our earlier work, we demonstrated several vehicular botnet attacks that can have damaging impacts on the security and privacy of VANETs. In this paper, we present SHIELDNET, the first detection mechanism against vehicular botnets. Similar to the detection approaches against Internet botnets, we target the vehicular botnet communication and use several machine learning techniques to identify vehicular bots. We show via simulation that SHIELDNET can identify 77 percent of the vehicular bots. We propose several improvements on the VANET standards and show that their existing vulnerabilities make an effective defense against vehicular botnets infeasible.
Al-Ghushami, Abdullah, Karie, NIckson, Kebande, Victor.  2019.  Detecting Centralized Architecture-Based Botnets using Travelling Salesperson Non-Deterministic Polynomial-Hard problem-TSP-NP Technique. 2019 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security (AINS). :77—81.
The threats posed by botnets in the cyber-space continues to grow each day and it has become very hard to detect or infiltrate bots given that the botnet developers each day keep changing the propagation and attack techniques. Currently, most of these attacks have been centered on stealing computing energy, theft of personal information and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks). In this paper, the authors propose a novel technique that uses the Non-Deterministic Polynomial-Time Hardness (NP-Hard Problem) based on the Traveling Salesperson Person (TSP) that depicts that a given bot, bj, is able to visit each host on a network environment, NE, and then it returns to the botmaster in form of instruction(command) through optimal minimization of the hosts that are or may be attacked. Given that bj represents a piece of malicious code and based on TSP-NP Hard Problem which forms part of combinatorial optimization, the authors present an effective approach for the detection of the botnet. It is worth noting that the concentration of this study is basically on the centralized botnet architecture. This holistic approach shows that botnet detection accuracy can be increased with a degree of certainty and potentially decrease the chances of false positives. Nevertheless, a discussion on the possible applicability and implementation has also been given in this paper.
Spradling, Matthew, Allison, Mark, Tsogbadrakh, Tsenguun, Strong, Jay.  2019.  Toward Limiting Social Botnet Effectiveness while Detection Is Performed: A Probabilistic Approach. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :1388—1391.
The prevalence of social botnets has increased public distrust of social media networks. Current methods exist for detecting bot activity on Twitter, Reddit, Facebook, and other social media platforms. Most of these detection methods rely upon observing user behavior for a period of time. Unfortunately, the behavior observation period allows time for a botnet to successfully propagate one or many posts before removal. In this paper, we model the post propagation patterns of normal users and social botnets. We prove that a botnet may exploit deterministic propagation actions to elevate a post even with a small botnet population. We propose a probabilistic model which can limit the impact of social media botnets until they can be detected and removed. While our approach maintains expected results for non-coordinated activity, coordinated botnets will be detected before propagation with high probability.
Shukla, Ankur, Katt, Basel, Nweke, Livinus Obiora.  2019.  Vulnerability Discovery Modelling With Vulnerability Severity. 2019 IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technology. :1—6.
Web browsers are primary targets of attacks because of their extensive uses and the fact that they interact with sensitive data. Vulnerabilities present in a web browser can pose serious risk to millions of users. Thus, it is pertinent to address these vulnerabilities to provide adequate protection for personally identifiable information. Research done in the past has showed that few vulnerability discovery models (VDMs) highlight the characterization of vulnerability discovery process. In these models, severity which is one of the most crucial properties has not been considered. Vulnerabilities can be categorized into different levels based on their severity. The discovery process of each kind of vulnerabilities is different from the other. Hence, it is essential to incorporate the severity of the vulnerabilities during the modelling of the vulnerability discovery process. This paper proposes a model to assess the vulnerabilities present in the software quantitatively with consideration for the severity of the vulnerabilities. It is possible to apply the proposed model to approximate the number of vulnerabilities along with vulnerability discovery rate, future occurrence of vulnerabilities, risk analysis, etc. Vulnerability data obtained from one of the major web browsers (Google Chrome) is deployed to examine goodness-of-fit and predictive capability of the proposed model. Experimental results justify the fact that the model proposed herein can estimate the required information better than the existing VDMs.
Arvind, S, Narayanan, V Anantha.  2019.  An Overview of Security in CoAP: Attack and Analysis. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :655—660.
Over the last decade, a technology called Internet of Things (IoT) has been evolving at a rapid pace. It enables the development of endless applications in view of availability of affordable components which provide smart ecosystems. The IoT devices are constrained devices which are connected to the internet and perform sensing tasks. Each device is identified by their unique address and also makes use of the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) as one of the main web transfer protocols. It is an application layer protocol which does not maintain secure channels to transfer information. For authentication and end-to-end security, Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) is one of the possible approaches to boost the security aspect of CoAP, in addition to which there are many suggested ways to protect the transmission of sensitive information. CoAP uses DTLS as a secure protocol and UDP as a transfer protocol. Therefore, the attacks on UDP or DTLS could be assigned as a CoAP attack. An attack on DTLS could possibly be launched in a single session and a strong authentication mechanism is needed. Man-In-The-Middle attack is one the peak security issues in CoAP as cited by Request For Comments(RFC) 7252, which encompasses attacks like Sniffing, Spoofing, Denial of Service (DoS), Hijacking, Cross-Protocol attacks and other attacks including Replay attacks and Relay attacks. In this work, a client-server architecture is setup, whose end devices communicate using CoAP. Also, a proxy system was installed across the client side to launch an active interception between the client and the server. The work will further be enhanced to provide solutions to mitigate these attacks.