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2019-07-01
Savola, Reijo M., Savolainen, Pekka.  2018.  Risk-driven Security Metrics Development for Software-defined Networking. Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Proceedings. :56:1–56:5.
Introduction of SDN (Software-Defined Networking) into the network management turns the formerly quite rigid networks to programmatically reconfigurable, dynamic and high-performing entities, which are managed remotely. At the same time, introduction of the new interfaces evidently widens the attack surface, and new kind of attack vectors are introduced threatening the QoS even critically. Thus, there is need for a security architecture, drawing from the SDN management and monitoring capabilities, and eventually covering the threats posed by the SDN evolution. For efficient security-architecture implementation, we analyze the security risks of SDN and based on that propose heuristic security objectives. Further, we decompose the objectives for effective security control implementation and security metrics definition to support informed security decision-making and continuous security improvement.
Šišejković, Dominik, Leupers, Rainer, Ascheid, Gerd, Metzner, Simon.  2018.  A Unifying Logic Encryption Security Metric. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation. :179–186.
The globalization of the IC supply chain has brought forth the era of fabless companies. Due to security issues during design and fabrication processes, various security concerns have risen, ranging from IP piracy and reverse engineering to hardware Trojans. Logic encryption has emerged as a mitigation against these threats. However, no generic metrics for quantifying the security of logic encryption algorithms has been reported so far, making it impossible to formally compare different approaches. In this paper, we propose a unifying metric, capturing the key security aspects of logic encryption algorithms. The metric is evaluated on state-of-the-art algorithms and benchmarks.
Clemente, C. J., Jaafar, F., Malik, Y..  2018.  Is Predicting Software Security Bugs Using Deep Learning Better Than the Traditional Machine Learning Algorithms? 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :95–102.

Software insecurity is being identified as one of the leading causes of security breaches. In this paper, we revisited one of the strategies in solving software insecurity, which is the use of software quality metrics. We utilized a multilayer deep feedforward network in examining whether there is a combination of metrics that can predict the appearance of security-related bugs. We also applied the traditional machine learning algorithms such as decision tree, random forest, naïve bayes, and support vector machines and compared the results with that of the Deep Learning technique. The results have successfully demonstrated that it was possible to develop an effective predictive model to forecast software insecurity based on the software metrics and using Deep Learning. All the models generated have shown an accuracy of more than sixty percent with Deep Learning leading the list. This finding proved that utilizing Deep Learning methods and a combination of software metrics can be tapped to create a better forecasting model thereby aiding software developers in predicting security bugs.

Kebande, V. R., Kigwana, I., Venter, H. S., Karie, N. M., Wario, R. D..  2018.  CVSS Metric-Based Analysis, Classification and Assessment of Computer Network Threats and Vulnerabilities. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1–10.
This paper provides a Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) metric-based technique for classifying and analysing the prevailing Computer Network Security Vulnerabilities and Threats (CNSVT). The problem that is addressed in this paper, is that, at the time of writing this paper, there existed no effective approaches for analysing and classifying CNSVT for purposes of assessments based on CVSS metrics. The authors of this paper have achieved this by generating a CVSS metric-based dynamic Vulnerability Analysis Classification Countermeasure (VACC) criterion that is able to rank vulnerabilities. The CVSS metric-based VACC has allowed the computation of vulnerability Similarity Measure (VSM) using the Hamming and Euclidean distance metric functions. Nevertheless, the CVSS-metric based on VACC also enabled the random measuring of the VSM for a selected number of vulnerabilities based on the [Ma-Ma], [Ma-Mi], [Mi-Ci], [Ma-Ci] ranking score. This is a technique that is aimed at allowing security experts to be able to conduct proper vulnerability detection and assessments across computer-based networks based on the perceived occurrence by checking the probability that given threats will occur or not. The authors have also proposed high-level countermeasures of the vulnerabilities that have been listed. The authors have evaluated the CVSS-metric based VACC and the results are promising. Based on this technique, it is worth noting that these propositions can help in the development of stronger computer and network security tools.
Medeiros, N., Ivaki, N., Costa, P., Vieira, M..  2018.  An Approach for Trustworthiness Benchmarking Using Software Metrics. 2018 IEEE 23rd Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC). :84–93.
Trustworthiness is a paramount concern for users and customers in the selection of a software solution, specially in the context of complex and dynamic environments, such as Cloud and IoT. However, assessing and benchmarking trustworthiness (worthiness of software for being trusted) is a challenging task, mainly due to the variety of application scenarios (e.g., businesscritical, safety-critical), the large number of determinative quality attributes (e.g., security, performance), and last, but foremost, due to the subjective notion of trust and trustworthiness. In this paper, we present trustworthiness as a measurable notion in relative terms based on security attributes and propose an approach for the assessment and benchmarking of software. The main goal is to build a trustworthiness assessment model based on software metrics (e.g., Cyclomatic Complexity, CountLine, CBO) that can be used as indicators of software security. To demonstrate the proposed approach, we assessed and ranked several files and functions of the Mozilla Firefox project based on their trustworthiness score and conducted a survey among several software security experts in order to validate the obtained rank. Results show that our approach is able to provide a sound ranking of the benchmarked software.
Meryem, Amar, Samira, Douzi, Bouabid, El Ouahidi.  2018.  Enhancing Cloud Security Using Advanced MapReduce K-means on Log Files. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Software Engineering and Information Management. :63–67.
Many customers ranked cloud security as a major challenge that threaten their work and reduces their trust on cloud service's provider. Hence, a significant improvement is required to establish better adaptations of security measures that suit recent technologies and especially distributed architectures. Considering the meaningful recorded data in cloud generated log files, making analysis on them, mines insightful value about hacker's activities. It identifies malicious user behaviors and predicts new suspected events. Not only that, but centralizing log files, prevents insiders from causing damage to system. In this paper, we proposed to take away sensitive log files into a single server provider and combining both MapReduce programming and k-means on the same algorithm to cluster observed events into classes having similar features. To label unknown user behaviors and predict new suspected activities this approach considers cosine distances and deviation metrics.
Pope, Aaron Scott, Morning, Robert, Tauritz, Daniel R., Kent, Alexander D..  2018.  Automated Design of Network Security Metrics. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion. :1680–1687.
Many abstract security measurements are based on characteristics of a graph that represents the network. These are typically simple and quick to compute but are often of little practical use in making real-world predictions. Practical network security is often measured using simulation or real-world exercises. These approaches better represent realistic outcomes but can be costly and time-consuming. This work aims to combine the strengths of these two approaches, developing efficient heuristics that accurately predict attack success. Hyper-heuristic machine learning techniques, trained on network attack simulation training data, are used to produce novel graph-based security metrics. These low-cost metrics serve as an approximation for simulation when measuring network security in real time. The approach is tested and verified using a simulation based on activity from an actual large enterprise network. The results demonstrate the potential of using hyper-heuristic techniques to rapidly evolve and react to emerging cybersecurity threats.
Ahmed, Yussuf, Naqvi, Syed, Josephs, Mark.  2018.  Aggregation of Security Metrics for Decision Making: A Reference Architecture. Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Proceedings. :53:1–53:7.
Existing security technologies play a significant role in protecting enterprise systems but they are no longer enough on their own given the number of successful cyberattacks against businesses and the sophistication of the tactics used by attackers to bypass the security defences. Security measurement is different to security monitoring in the sense that it provides a means to quantify the security of the systems while security monitoring helps in identifying abnormal events and does not measure the actual state of an infrastructure's security. The goal of enterprise security metrics is to enable understanding of the overall security using measurements to guide decision making. In this paper we present a reference architecture for aggregating the measurement values from the different components of the system in order to enable stakeholders to see the overall security state of their enterprise systems and to assist with decision making. This will provide a newer dimension to security management by shifting from security monitoring to security measurement.
Zieger, A., Freiling, F., Kossakowski, K..  2018.  The β-Time-to-Compromise Metric for Practical Cyber Security Risk Estimation. 2018 11th International Conference on IT Security Incident Management IT Forensics (IMF). :115–133.
To manage cybersecurity risks in practice, a simple yet effective method to assess suchs risks for individual systems is needed. With time-to-compromise (TTC), McQueen et al. (2005) introduced such a metric that measures the expected time that a system remains uncompromised given a specific threat landscape. Unlike other approaches that require complex system modeling to proceed, TTC combines simplicity with expressiveness and therefore has evolved into one of the most successful cybersecurity metrics in practice. We revisit TTC and identify several mathematical and methodological shortcomings which we address by embedding all aspects of the metric into the continuous domain and the possibility to incorporate information about vulnerability characteristics and other cyber threat intelligence into the model. We propose β-TTC, a formal extension of TTC which includes information from CVSS vectors as well as a continuous attacker skill based on a β-distribution. We show that our new metric (1) remains simple enough for practical use and (2) gives more realistic predictions than the original TTC by using data from a modern and productively used vulnerability database of a national CERT.
Carrasco, A., Ropero, J., Clavijo, P. Ruiz de, Benjumea, J., Luque, A..  2018.  A Proposal for a New Way of Classifying Network Security Metrics: Study of the Information Collected through a Honeypot. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :633–634.
Nowadays, honeypots are a key tool to attract attackers and study their activity. They help us in the tasks of evaluating attacker's behaviour, discovering new types of attacks, and collecting information and statistics associated with them. However, the gathered data cannot be directly interpreted, but must be analyzed to obtain useful information. In this paper, we present a SSH honeypot-based system designed to simulate a vulnerable server. Thus, we propose an approach for the classification of metrics from the data collected by the honeypot along 19 months.
Arabsorkhi, A., Ghaffari, F..  2018.  Security Metrics: Principles and Security Assessment Methods. 2018 9th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). :305–310.
Nowadays, Information Technology is one of the important parts of human life and also of organizations. Organizations face problems such as IT problems. To solve these problems, they have to improve their security sections. Thus there is a need for security assessments within organizations to ensure security conditions. The use of security standards and general metric can be useful for measuring the safety of an organization; however, it should be noted that the general metric which are applied to businesses in general cannot be effective in this particular situation. Thus it's important to select metric standards for different businesses to improve both cost and organizational security. The selection of suitable security measures lies in the use of an efficient way to identify them. Due to the numerous complexities of these metric and the extent to which they are defined, in this paper that is based on comparative study and the benchmarking method, taxonomy for security measures is considered to be helpful for a business to choose metric tailored to their needs and conditions.
2019-06-28
Gulzar, Muhammad Ali.  2018.  Interactive and Automated Debugging for Big Data Analytics. Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings. :509-511.

An abundance of data in many disciplines of science, engineering, national security, health care, and business has led to the emerging field of Big Data Analytics that run in a cloud computing environment. To process massive quantities of data in the cloud, developers leverage Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC) systems such as Google's MapReduce, Hadoop, and Spark. Currently, developers do not have easy means to debug DISC applications. The use of cloud computing makes application development feel more like batch jobs and the nature of debugging is therefore post-mortem. Developers of big data applications write code that implements a data processing pipeline and test it on their local workstation with a small sample data, downloaded from a TB-scale data warehouse. They cross fingers and hope that the program works in the expensive production cloud. When a job fails or they get a suspicious result, data scientists spend hours guessing at the source of the error, digging through post-mortem logs. In such cases, the data scientists may want to pinpoint the root cause of errors by investigating a subset of corresponding input records. The vision of my work is to provide interactive, real-time and automated debugging services for big data processing programs in modern DISC systems with minimum performance impact. My work investigates the following research questions in the context of big data analytics: (1) What are the necessary debugging primitives for interactive big data processing? (2) What scalable fault localization algorithms are needed to help the user to localize and characterize the root causes of errors? (3) How can we improve testing efficiency during iterative development of DISC applications by reasoning the semantics of dataflow operators and user-defined functions used inside dataflow operators in tandem? To answer these questions, we synthesize and innovate ideas from software engineering, big data systems, and program analysis, and coordinate innovations across the software stack from the user-facing API all the way down to the systems infrastructure.

Hazari, S. S., Mahmoud, Q. H..  2019.  A Parallel Proof of Work to Improve Transaction Speed and Scalability in Blockchain Systems. 2019 IEEE 9th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0916-0921.

A blockchain is a distributed ledger forming a distributed consensus on a history of transactions, and is the underlying technology for the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. However, its applications are far beyond the financial sector. The transaction verification process for cryptocurrencies is much slower than traditional digital transaction systems. One approach to increase transaction speed and scalability is to identify a solution that offers faster Proof of Work. In this paper, we propose a method for accelerating the process of Proof of Work based on parallel mining rather than solo mining. The goal is to ensure that no more than two or more miners put the same effort into solving a specific block. The proposed method includes a process for selection of a manager, distribution of work and a reward system. This method has been implemented in a test environment that contains all the characteristics needed to perform Proof of Work for Bitcoin and has been tested, using a variety of case scenarios, by varying the difficulty level and number of validators. Preliminary results show improvement in the scalability of Proof of Work up to 34% compared to the current system.

Kulik, T., Tran-Jørgensen, P. W. V., Boudjadar, J., Schultz, C..  2018.  A Framework for Threat-Driven Cyber Security Verification of IoT Systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW). :89-97.

Industrial control systems are changing from monolithic to distributed and interconnected architectures, entering the era of industrial IoT. One fundamental issue is that security properties of such distributed control systems are typically only verified empirically, during development and after system deployment. We propose a novel modelling framework for the security verification of distributed industrial control systems, with the goal of moving towards early design stage formal verification. In our framework we model industrial IoT infrastructures, attack patterns, and mitigation strategies for countering attacks. We conduct model checking-based formal analysis of system security through scenario execution, where the analysed system is exposed to attacks and implement mitigation strategies. We study the applicability of our framework for large systems using a scalability analysis.

Plasencia-Balabarca, F., Mitacc-Meza, E., Raffo-Jara, M., Silva-Cárdenas, C..  2018.  Robust Functional Verification Framework Based in UVM Applied to an AES Encryption Module. 2018 New Generation of CAS (NGCAS). :194-197.

This Since the past century, the digital design industry has performed an outstanding role in the development of electronics. Hence, a great variety of designs are developed daily, these designs must be submitted to high standards of verification in order to ensure the 100% of reliability and the achievement of all design requirements. The Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) is the current standard at the industry for the verification process due to its reusability, scalability, time-efficiency and feasibility of handling high-level designs. This research proposes a functional verification framework using UVM for an AES encryption module based on a very detailed and robust verification plan. This document describes the complete verification process as done in the industry for a popular module used in information-security applications in the field of cryptography, defining the basis for future projects. The overall results show the achievement of the high verification standards required in industry applications and highlight the advantages of UVM against System Verilog-based functional verification and direct verification methodologies previously developed for the AES module.

Chen, G., Wang, D., Li, T., Zhang, C., Gu, M., Sun, J..  2018.  Scalable Verification Framework for C Program. 2018 25th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC). :129-138.

Software verification has been well applied in safety critical areas and has shown the ability to provide better quality assurance for modern software. However, as lines of code and complexity of software systems increase, the scalability of verification becomes a challenge. In this paper, we present an automatic software verification framework TSV to address the scalability issues: (i) the extended structural abstraction and property-guided program slicing to solve large-scale program verification problem, saving time and memory without losing accuracy; (ii) automatically select different verification methods according to the program and property context to improve the verification efficiency. For evaluation, we compare TSV's different configurations with existing C program verifiers based on open benchmarks. We found that TSV with auto-selection performs better than with bounded model checking only or with extended structural abstraction only. Compared to existing tools such as CMBC and CPAChecker, it acquires 10%-20% improvement of accuracy and 50%-90% improvement of memory consumption.

Miranda, Breno, Cruciani, Emilio, Verdecchia, Roberto, Bertolino, Antonia.  2018.  FAST Approaches to Scalable Similarity-Based Test Case Prioritization. Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering. :222-232.

Many test case prioritization criteria have been proposed for speeding up fault detection. Among them, similarity-based approaches give priority to the test cases that are the most dissimilar from those already selected. However, the proposed criteria do not scale up to handle the many thousands or even some millions test suite sizes of modern industrial systems and simple heuristics are used instead. We introduce the FAST family of test case prioritization techniques that radically changes this landscape by borrowing algorithms commonly exploited in the big data domain to find similar items. FAST techniques provide scalable similarity-based test case prioritization in both white-box and black-box fashion. The results from experimentation on real world C and Java subjects show that the fastest members of the family outperform other black-box approaches in efficiency with no significant impact on effectiveness, and also outperform white-box approaches, including greedy ones, if preparation time is not counted. A simulation study of scalability shows that one FAST technique can prioritize a million test cases in less than 20 minutes.

Tsankov, Petar, Dan, Andrei, Drachsler-Cohen, Dana, Gervais, Arthur, Bünzli, Florian, Vechev, Martin.  2018.  Securify: Practical Security Analysis of Smart Contracts. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :67-82.

Permissionless blockchains allow the execution of arbitrary programs (called smart contracts), enabling mutually untrusted entities to interact without relying on trusted third parties. Despite their potential, repeated security concerns have shaken the trust in handling billions of USD by smart contracts. To address this problem, we present Securify, a security analyzer for Ethereum smart contracts that is scalable, fully automated, and able to prove contract behaviors as safe/unsafe with respect to a given property. Securify's analysis consists of two steps. First, it symbolically analyzes the contract's dependency graph to extract precise semantic information from the code. Then, it checks compliance and violation patterns that capture sufficient conditions for proving if a property holds or not. To enable extensibility, all patterns are specified in a designated domain-specific language. Securify is publicly released, it has analyzed 18K contracts submitted by its users, and is regularly used to conduct security audits by experts. We present an extensive evaluation of Securify over real-world Ethereum smart contracts and demonstrate that it can effectively prove the correctness of smart contracts and discover critical violations.

Park, Daejun, Zhang, Yi, Saxena, Manasvi, Daian, Philip, Ro\c su, Grigore.  2018.  A Formal Verification Tool for Ethereum VM Bytecode. Proceedings of the 2018 26th ACM Joint Meeting on European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering. :912-915.

In this paper, we present a formal verification tool for the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) bytecode. To precisely reason about all possible behaviors of the EVM bytecode, we adopted KEVM, a complete formal semantics of the EVM, and instantiated the K-framework's reachability logic theorem prover to generate a correct-by-construction deductive verifier for the EVM. We further optimized the verifier by introducing EVM-specific abstractions and lemmas to improve its scalability. Our EVM verifier has been used to verify various high-profile smart contracts including the ERC20 token, Ethereum Casper, and DappHub MakerDAO contracts.

Liu, Jed, Hallahan, William, Schlesinger, Cole, Sharif, Milad, Lee, Jeongkeun, Soulé, Robert, Wang, Han, Ca\c scaval, C\u alin, McKeown, Nick, Foster, Nate.  2018.  P4V: Practical Verification for Programmable Data Planes. Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication. :490-503.

We present the design and implementation of p4v, a practical tool for verifying data planes described using the P4 programming language. The design of p4v is based on classic verification techniques but adds several key innovations including a novel mechanism for incorporating assumptions about the control plane and domain-specific optimizations which are needed to scale to large programs. We present case studies showing that p4v verifies important properties and finds bugs in real-world programs. We conduct experiments to quantify the scalability of p4v on a wide range of additional examples. We show that with just a few hundred lines of control-plane annotations, p4v is able to verify critical safety properties for switch.p4, a program that implements the functionality of on a modern data center switch, in under three minutes.

Xing, Yue, Huang, Bo-Yuan, Gupta, Aarti, Malik, Sharad.  2018.  A Formal Instruction-Level GPU Model for Scalable Verification. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :130:1-130:8.

GPUs have been widely used to accelerate big-data inference applications and scientific computing through their parallelized hardware resources and programming model. Their extreme parallelism increases the possibility of bugs such as data races and un-coalesced memory accesses, and thus verifying program correctness is critical. State-of-the-art GPU program verification efforts mainly focus on analyzing application-level programs, e.g., in C, and suffer from the following limitations: (1) high false-positive rate due to coarse-grained abstraction of synchronization primitives, (2) high complexity of reasoning about pointer arithmetic, and (3) keeping up with an evolving API for developing application-level programs. In this paper, we address these limitations by modeling GPUs and reasoning about programs at the instruction level. We formally model the Nvidia GPU at the parallel execution thread (PTX) level using the recently proposed Instruction-Level Abstraction (ILA) model for accelerators. PTX is analogous to the Instruction-Set Architecture (ISA) of a general-purpose processor. Our formal ILA model of the GPU includes non-synchronization instructions as well as all synchronization primitives, enabling us to verify multithreaded programs. We demonstrate the applicability of our ILA model in scalable GPU program verification of data-race checking. The evaluation shows that our checker outperforms state-of-the-art GPU data race checkers with fewer false-positives and improved scalability.

2019-06-24
Kim, Gihoon, Choi, Chang, Choi, Junho.  2018.  Ontology Modeling for APT Attack Detection in an IoT-based Power System. Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems. :160–164.

Smart grid technology is the core technology for the next-generation power grid system with enhanced energy efficiency through decision-making communication between suppliers and consumers enabled by integrating the IoT into the existing grid. This open architecture allowing bilateral information exchange makes it vulnerable to various types of cyberattack. APT attacks, one of the most common cyberattacks, are highly tricky and sophisticated attacks that can circumvent the existing detection technology and attack the targeted system after a certain latent period after intrusion. This paper proposes an ontology-based attack detection system capable of early detection of and response to APT attacks by analyzing their attacking patterns.

Diamond, Lisa, Schrammel, Johann, Fröhlich, Peter, Regal, Georg, Tscheligi, Manfred.  2018.  Privacy in the Smart Grid: End-user Concerns and Requirements. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services Adjunct. :189–196.

Mobile interfaces will be central in connecting end-users to the smart grid and enabling their active participation. Services and features supporting this participation do, however, rely on high-frequency collection and transmission of energy usage data by smart meters which is privacy-sensitive. The successful communication of privacy to end-users via consumer interfaces will therefore be crucial to ensure smart meter acceptance and consequently enable participation. Current understanding of user privacy concerns in this context is not very differentiated, and user privacy requirements have received little attention. A preliminary user questionnaire study was conducted to gain a more detailed understanding of the differing perceptions of various privacy risks and the relative importance of different privacy-ensuring measures. The results underline the significance of open communication, restraint in data collection and usage, user control, transparency, communication of security measures, and a good customer relationship.

Cao, H., Liu, S., Guan, Z., Wu, L., Deng, H., Du, X..  2018.  An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Algorithm Based on Randomized Response in IoT-Based Smart Grid. 2018 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :881–886.

In this paper, we propose a new randomized response algorithm that can achieve differential-privacy and utility guarantees for consumer's behaviors, and process a batch of data at each time. Firstly, differing from traditional differential private approach-es, we add randomized response noise into the behavior signa-tures matrix to achieve an acceptable utility-privacy tradeoff. Secondly, a behavior signature modeling method based on sparse coding is proposed. After some lightweight trainings us-ing the energy consumption data, the dictionary will be associat-ed with the behavior characteristics of the electric appliances. At last, through the experimental results verification, we find that our Algorithm can preserve consumer's privacy without comprising utility.

You, Y., Li, Z., Oechtering, T. J..  2018.  Optimal Privacy-Enhancing And Cost-Efficient Energy Management Strategies For Smart Grid Consumers. 2018 IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop (SSP). :826–830.

The design of optimal energy management strategies that trade-off consumers' privacy and expected energy cost by using an energy storage is studied. The Kullback-Leibler divergence rate is used to assess the privacy risk of the unauthorized testing on consumers' behavior. We further show how this design problem can be formulated as a belief state Markov decision process problem so that standard tools of the Markov decision process framework can be utilized, and the optimal solution can be obtained by using Bellman dynamic programming. Finally, we illustrate the privacy-enhancement and cost-saving by numerical examples.