Visible to the public Biblio

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Olabelurin, A., Veluru, S., Healing, A., Rajarajan, M..  2015.  Entropy clustering approach for improving forecasting in DDoS attacks. 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control. :315–320.

Volume anomaly such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) has been around for ages but with advancement in technologies, they have become stronger, shorter and weapon of choice for attackers. Digital forensic analysis of intrusions using alerts generated by existing intrusion detection system (IDS) faces major challenges, especially for IDS deployed in large networks. In this paper, the concept of automatically sifting through a huge volume of alerts to distinguish the different stages of a DDoS attack is developed. The proposed novel framework is purpose-built to analyze multiple logs from the network for proactive forecast and timely detection of DDoS attacks, through a combined approach of Shannon-entropy concept and clustering algorithm of relevant feature variables. Experimental studies on a cyber-range simulation dataset from the project industrial partners show that the technique is able to distinguish precursor alerts for DDoS attacks, as well as the attack itself with a very low false positive rate (FPR) of 22.5%. Application of this technique greatly assists security experts in network analysis to combat DDoS attacks.

Spring, J., Kern, S., Summers, A..  2015.  Global adversarial capability modeling. 2015 APWG Symposium on Electronic Crime Research (eCrime). :1–21.

Intro: Computer network defense has models for attacks and incidents comprised of multiple attacks after the fact. However, we lack an evidence-based model the likelihood and intensity of attacks and incidents. Purpose: We propose a model of global capability advancement, the adversarial capability chain (ACC), to fit this need. The model enables cyber risk analysis to better understand the costs for an adversary to attack a system, which directly influences the cost to defend it. Method: The model is based on four historical studies of adversarial capabilities: capability to exploit Windows XP, to exploit the Android API, to exploit Apache, and to administer compromised industrial control systems. Result: We propose the ACC with five phases: Discovery, Validation, Escalation, Democratization, and Ubiquity. We use the four case studies as examples as to how the ACC can be applied and used to predict attack likelihood and intensity.

Benjamin, V., Li, W., Holt, T., Chen, H..  2015.  Exploring threats and vulnerabilities in hacker web: Forums, IRC and carding shops. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :85–90.

Cybersecurity is a problem of growing relevance that impacts all facets of society. As a result, many researchers have become interested in studying cybercriminals and online hacker communities in order to develop more effective cyber defenses. In particular, analysis of hacker community contents may reveal existing and emerging threats that pose great risk to individuals, businesses, and government. Thus, we are interested in developing an automated methodology for identifying tangible and verifiable evidence of potential threats within hacker forums, IRC channels, and carding shops. To identify threats, we couple machine learning methodology with information retrieval techniques. Our approach allows us to distill potential threats from the entirety of collected hacker contents. We present several examples of identified threats found through our analysis techniques. Results suggest that hacker communities can be analyzed to aid in cyber threat detection, thus providing promising direction for future work.

Dehghanniri, H., Letier, E., Borrion, H..  2015.  Improving security decision under uncertainty: A multidisciplinary approach. 2015 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1–7.

Security decision-making is a critical task in tackling security threats affecting a system or process. It often involves selecting a suitable resolution action to tackle an identified security risk. To support this selection process, decision-makers should be able to evaluate and compare available decision options. This article introduces a modelling language that can be used to represent the effects of resolution actions on the stakeholders' goals, the crime process, and the attacker. In order to reach this aim, we develop a multidisciplinary framework that combines existing knowledge from the fields of software engineering, crime science, risk assessment, and quantitative decision analysis. The framework is illustrated through an application to a case of identity theft.

Kim, J., Moon, I., Lee, K., Suh, S. C., Kim, I..  2015.  Scalable Security Event Aggregation for Situation Analysis. 2015 IEEE First International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications. :14–23.

Cyber-attacks have been evolved in a way to be more sophisticated by employing combinations of attack methodologies with greater impacts. For instance, Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) employ a set of stealthy hacking processes running over a long period of time, making it much hard to detect. With this trend, the importance of big-data security analytics has taken greater attention since identifying such latest attacks requires large-scale data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present SEAS-MR (Security Event Aggregation System over MapReduce) that facilitates scalable security event aggregation for comprehensive situation analysis. The introduced system provides the following three core functions: (i) periodic aggregation, (ii) on-demand aggregation, and (iii) query support for effective analysis. We describe our design and implementation of the system over MapReduce and high-level query languages, and report our experimental results collected through extensive settings on a Hadoop cluster for performance evaluation and design impacts.

Rashid, A., Moore, K., May-Chahal, C., Chitchyan, R..  2015.  Managing Emergent Ethical Concerns for Software Engineering in Society. 2015 IEEE/ACM 37th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering. 2:523–526.

This paper presents an initial framework for managing emergent ethical concerns during software engineering in society projects. We argue that such emergent considerations can neither be framed as absolute rules about how to act in relation to fixed and measurable conditions. Nor can they be addressed by simply framing them as non-functional requirements to be satisficed. Instead, a continuous process is needed that accepts the 'messiness' of social life and social research, seeks to understand complexity (rather than seek clarity), demands collective (not just individual) responsibility and focuses on dialogue over solutions. The framework has been derived based on retrospective analysis of ethical considerations in four software engineering in society projects in three different domains.

Rmayti, M., Begriche, Y., Khatoun, R., Khoukhi, L., Gaiti, D..  2015.  Flooding attacks detection in MANETs. 2015 International Conference on Cyber Security of Smart Cities, Industrial Control System and Communications (SSIC). :1–6.

Flooding attacks are well-known security threats that can lead to a denial of service (DoS) in computer networks. These attacks consist of an excessive traffic generation, by which an attacker aim to disrupt or interrupt some services in the network. The impact of flooding attacks is not just about some nodes, it can be also the whole network. Many routing protocols are vulnerable to these attacks, especially those using reactive mechanism of route discovery, like AODV. In this paper, we propose a statistical approach to defense against RREQ flooding attacks in MANETs. Our detection mechanism can be applied on AODV-based ad hoc networks. Simulation results prove that these attacks can be detected with a low rate of false alerts.

Chuan, T. H., Zhang, J., Maode, M., Chong, P. H. Joo, Labiod, H..  2015.  Secure Public Key Regime (SPKR) in vehicular networks. 2015 International Conference on Cyber Security of Smart Cities, Industrial Control System and Communications (SSIC). :1–7.

Public Key Regime (PKR) was proposed as an alternative to certificate based PKI in securing Vehicular Networks (VNs). It eliminates the need for vehicles to append their certificate for verification because the Road Side Units (RSUs) serve as Delegated Trusted Authorities (DTAs) to issue up-to-date public keys to vehicles for communications. If a vehicle's private/public key needs to be revoked, the root TA performs real time updates and disseminates the changes to these RSUs in the network. Therefore, PKR does not need to maintain a huge Certificate Revocation List (CRL), avoids complex certificate verification process and minimizes the high latency. However, the PKR scheme is vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) and collusion attacks. In this paper, we study these attacks and propose a pre-authentication mechanism to secure the PKR scheme. Our new scheme is called the Secure Public Key Regime (SPKR). It is based on the Schnorr signature scheme that requires vehicles to expend some amount of CPU resources before RSUs issue the requested public keys to them. This helps to alleviate the risk of DoS attacks. Furthermore, our scheme is secure against collusion attacks. Through numerical analysis, we show that SPKR has a lower authentication delay compared with the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature (ECDSA) scheme and other ECDSA based counterparts.

Kao, D. Y..  2015.  Performing an APT Investigation: Using People-Process-Technology-Strategy Model in Digital Triage Forensics. 2015 IEEE 39th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference. 3:47–52.

Taiwan has become the frontline in an emerging cyberspace battle. Cyberattacks from different countries are constantly reported during past decades. The incident of Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) is analyzed from the golden triangle components (people, process and technology) to ensure the application of digital forensics. This study presents a novel People-Process-Technology-Strategy (PPTS) model by implementing a triage investigative step to identify evidence dynamics in digital data and essential information in auditing logs. The result of this study is expected to improve APT investigation. The investigation scenario of this proposed methodology is illustrated by applying to some APT incidents in Taiwan.

Shanthi, K., Seenivasan, D..  2015.  Detection of botnet by analyzing network traffic flow characteristics using open source tools. 2015 IEEE 9th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO). :1–5.

Botnets are emerging as the most serious cyber threat among different forms of malware. Today botnets have been facilitating to launch many cybercriminal activities like DDoS, click fraud, phishing attacks etc. The main purpose of botnet is to perform massive financial threat. Many large organizations, banks and social networks became the target of bot masters. Botnets can also be leased to motivate the cybercriminal activities. Recently several researches and many efforts have been carried out to detect bot, C&C channels and bot masters. Ultimately bot maters also strengthen their activities through sophisticated techniques. Many botnet detection techniques are based on payload analysis. Most of these techniques are inefficient for encrypted C&C channels. In this paper we explore different categories of botnet and propose a detection methodology to classify bot host from the normal host by analyzing traffic flow characteristics based on time intervals instead of payload inspection. Due to that it is possible to detect botnet activity even encrypted C&C channels are used.

Liu, Q., Zhao, X. g, Hou, Z. g, Liu, H. g.  2015.  Multi-scale wavelet kernel extreme learning machine for EEG feature classification. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER). :1546–1551.

In this paper, the principle of the kernel extreme learning machine (ELM) is analyzed. Based on that, we introduce a kind of multi-scale wavelet kernel extreme learning machine classifier and apply it to electroencephalographic (EEG) signal feature classification. Experiments show that our classifier achieves excellent performance.

Bulbul, R., Ten, C. W., Wang, L..  2015.  Prioritization of MTTC-based combinatorial evaluation for hypothesized substations outages. 2015 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–5.

Exhaustive enumeration of a S-select-k problem for hypothesized substations outages can be practically infeasible due to exponential growth of combinations as both S and k numbers increase. This enumeration of worst-case substations scenarios from the large set, however, can be improved based on the initial selection sets with the root nodes and segments. In this paper, the previous work of the reverse pyramid model (RPM) is enhanced with prioritization of root nodes and defined segmentations of substation list based on mean-time-to-compromise (MTTC) value that is associated with each substation. Root nodes are selected based on the threshold values of the substation ranking on MTTC values and are segmented accordingly from the root node set. Each segmentation is then being enumerated with S-select-k module to identify worst-case scenarios. The lowest threshold value on the list, e.g., a substation with no assignment of MTTC or extremely low number, is completely eliminated. Simulation shows that this approach demonstrates similar outcome of the risk indices among all randomly generated MTTC of the IEEE 30-bus system.

Nirmal, K., Janet, B., Kumar, R..  2015.  Phishing - the threat that still exists. 2015 International Conference on Computing and Communications Technologies (ICCCT). :139–143.

Phishing is an online security attack in which the hacker aims in harvesting sensitive information like passwords, credit card information etc. from the users by making them to believe what they see is what it is. This threat has been into existence for a decade and there has been continuous developments in counter attacking this threat. However, statistical study reveals how phishing is still a big threat to today's world as the online era booms. In this paper, we look into the art of phishing and have made a practical analysis on how the state of the art anti-phishing systems fail to prevent Phishing. With the loop-holes identified in the state-of-the-art systems, we move ahead paving the roadmap for the kind of system that will counter attack this online security threat more effectively.

Wazzan, M. A., Awadh, M. H..  2015.  Towards Improving Web Attack Detection: Highlighting the Significant Factors. 2015 5th International Conference on IT Convergence and Security (ICITCS). :1–5.

Nowadays, with the rapid development of Internet, the use of Web is increasing and the Web applications have become a substantial part of people's daily life (e.g. E-Government, E-Health and E-Learning), as they permit to seamlessly access and manage information. The main security concern for e-business is Web application security. Web applications have many vulnerabilities such as Injection, Broken Authentication and Session Management, and Cross-site scripting (XSS). Subsequently, web applications have become targets of hackers, and a lot of cyber attack began to emerge in order to block the services of these Web applications (Denial of Service Attach). Developers are not aware of these vulnerabilities and have no enough time to secure their applications. Therefore, there is a significant need to study and improve attack detection for web applications through determining the most significant factors for detection. To the best of our knowledge, there is not any research that summarizes the influent factors of detection web attacks. In this paper, the author studies state-of-the-art techniques and research related to web attack detection: the author analyses and compares different methods of web attack detections and summarizes the most important factors for Web attack detection independent of the type of vulnerabilities. At the end, the author gives recommendation to build a framework for web application protection.

Kilger, M..  2015.  Integrating Human Behavior Into the Development of Future Cyberterrorism Scenarios. 2015 10th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :693–700.

The development of future cyber terrorism scenarios is a key component in building a more comprehensive understanding of cyber threats that are likely to emerge in the near-to mid-term future. While developing concepts of likely new, emerging digital technologies is an important part of this process, this article suggests that understanding the psychological and social forces involved in cyber terrorism is also a key component in the analysis and that the synergy of these two dimensions may produce more accurate and detailed future cyber threat scenarios than either analytical element alone.

Gorton, D..  2015.  Modeling Fraud Prevention of Online Services Using Incident Response Trees and Value at Risk. 2015 10th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :149–158.

Authorities like the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council in the US and the European Central Bank in Europe have stepped up their expected minimum security requirements for financial institutions, including the requirements for risk analysis. In a previous article, we introduced a visual tool and a systematic way to estimate the probability of a successful incident response process, which we called an incident response tree (IRT). In this article, we present several scenarios using the IRT which could be used in a risk analysis of online financial services concerning fraud prevention. By minimizing the problem of underreporting, we are able to calculate the conditional probabilities of prevention, detection, and response in the incident response process of a financial institution. We also introduce a quantitative model for estimating expected loss from fraud, and conditional fraud value at risk, which enables a direct comparison of risk among online banking channels in a multi-channel environment.

Guofu, M., Zixian, W., Yusi, C..  2015.  Recovery of Evidence and the Judicial Identification of Electronic Data Based on ExFAT. 2015 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery. :66–71.

The ExFAT file system is for large capacity flash memory medium. On the base of analyzing the characteristics of ExFAT file system, this paper presents a model of electronic data recovery forensics and judicial Identification based on ExFAT. The proposed model aims at different destroyed situation of data recovery medium. It uses the file location algorithm, file character code algorithm, document fragment reassembly algorithm for accurate, efficient recovery of electronic data for forensics and judicial Identification. The model implements the digital multi-signature, process monitoring, media mirror and Hash authentication in the data recovery process to improve the acceptability, weight of evidence and Legal effect of the electronic data in the lawsuit. The experimental results show that the model has good work efficiency based on accuracy.

Tunc, C., Hariri, S., Montero, F. D. L. P., Fargo, F., Satam, P., Al-Nashif, Y..  2015.  Teaching and Training Cybersecurity as a Cloud Service. 2015 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing. :302–308.

The explosive growth of IT infrastructures, cloud systems, and Internet of Things (IoT) have resulted in complex systems that are extremely difficult to secure and protect against cyberattacks which are growing exponentially in complexity and in number. Overcoming the cybersecurity challenges is even more complicated due to the lack of training and widely available cybersecurity environments to experiment with and evaluate new cybersecurity methods. The goal of our research is to address these challenges by exploiting cloud services. In this paper, we present the design, analysis, and evaluation of a cloud service that we refer to as Cybersecurity Lab as a Service (CLaaS) which offers virtual cybersecurity experiments that can be accessed from anywhere and from any device (desktop, laptop, tablet, smart mobile device, etc.) with Internet connectivity. In CLaaS, we exploit cloud computing systems and virtualization technologies to provide virtual cybersecurity experiments and hands-on experiences on how vulnerabilities are exploited to launch cyberattacks, how they can be removed, and how cyber resources and services can be hardened or better protected. We also present our experimental results and evaluation of CLaaS virtual cybersecurity experiments that have been used by graduate students taking our cybersecurity class as well as by high school students participating in GenCyber camps.

Cordero, C. G., Vasilomanolakis, E., Milanov, N., Koch, C., Hausheer, D., Mühlhäuser, M..  2015.  ID2T: A DIY dataset creation toolkit for Intrusion Detection Systems. 2015 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :739–740.

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are an important defense tool against the sophisticated and ever-growing network attacks. These systems need to be evaluated against high quality datasets for correctly assessing their usefulness and comparing their performance. We present an Intrusion Detection Dataset Toolkit (ID2T) for the creation of labeled datasets containing user defined synthetic attacks. The architecture of the toolkit is provided for examination and the example of an injected attack, in real network traffic, is visualized and analyzed. We further discuss the ability of the toolkit of creating realistic synthetic attacks of high quality and low bias.

Wang, P., Lin, W. H., Chao, W. J., Chao, K. M., Lo, C. C..  2015.  Using Dynamic Taint Approach for Malware Threat. 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on e-Business Engineering. :408–416.

Most existing approaches focus on examining the values are dangerous for information flow within inter-suspicious modules of cloud applications (apps) in a host by using malware threat analysis, rather than the risk posed by suspicious apps were connected to the cloud computing server. Accordingly, this paper proposes a taint propagation analysis model incorporating a weighted spanning tree analysis scheme to track data with taint marking using several taint checking tools. In the proposed model, Android programs perform dynamic taint propagation to analyse the spread of and risks posed by suspicious apps were connected to the cloud computing server. In determining the risk of taint propagation, risk and defence capability are used for each taint path for assisting a defender in recognising the attack results against network threats caused by malware infection and estimate the losses of associated taint sources. Finally, a case of threat analysis of a typical cyber security attack is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. Our approach verified the details of an attack sequence for malware infection by incorporating a finite state machine (FSM) to appropriately reflect the real situations at various configuration settings and safeguard deployment. The experimental results proved that the threat analysis model allows a defender to convert the spread of taint propagation to loss and practically estimate the risk of a specific threat by using behavioural analysis with real malware infection.

Manesh, T., El-atty, S. M. A., Sha, M. M., Brijith, B., Vivekanandan, K..  2015.  Forensic investigation framework for VoIP protocol. 2015 First International Conference on Anti-Cybercrime (ICACC). :1–7.

The deployment of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) in place of traditional communication facilities has helped in huge reduction in operating costs, as well as enabled adoption of next generation communication services-based IP. At the same time, cyber criminals have also started intercepting environment and creating challenges for law enforcement system in any Country. At this instant, we propose a framework for the forensic analysis of the VoIP traffic over the network. This includes identifying and analyzing of network patterns of VoIP- SIP which is used for the setting up a session for the communication, and VoIP-RTP which is used for sending the data. Our network forensic investigation framework also focus on developing an efficient packet reordering and reconstruction algorithm for tracing the malicious users involved in conversation. The proposed framework is based on network forensics which can be used for content level observation of VoIP and regenerate original malicious content or session between malicious users for their prosecution in the court.

Ugwoke, F. N., Okafor, K. C., Chijindu, V. C..  2015.  Security QoS profiling against cyber terrorism in airport network systems. 2015 International Conference on Cyberspace (CYBER-Abuja). :241–251.

Attacks on airport information network services in the form of Denial of Service (DoS), Distributed DoS (DDoS), and hijacking are the most effective schemes mostly explored by cyber terrorists in the aviation industry running Mission Critical Services (MCSs). This work presents a case for Airport Information Resource Management Systems (AIRMS) which is a cloud based platform proposed for the Nigerian aviation industry. Granting that AIRMS is susceptible to DoS attacks, there is need to develop a robust counter security network model aimed at pre-empting such attacks and subsequently mitigating the vulnerability in such networks. Existing works in literature regarding cyber security DoS and other schemes have not explored embedded Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) based on OpenFlow Application Centric Infrastructure (OACI) for securing critical network assets. As such, SPI-OACI was proposed to address the challenge of Vulnerability Bandwidth Depletion DDoS Attacks (VBDDA). A characterization of the Cisco 9000 router firewall as an embedded network device with support for Virtual DDoS protection was carried out in the AIRMS threat mitigation design. Afterwards, the mitigation procedure and the initial phase of the design with Riverbed modeler software were realized. For the security Quality of Service (QoS) profiling, the system response metrics (i.e. SPI-OACI delay, throughput and utilization) in cloud based network were analyzed only for normal traffic flows. The work concludes by offering practical suggestion for securing similar enterprise management systems running on cloud infrastructure against cyber terrorists.

Adebayo, O. J., ASuleiman, I., Ade, A. Y., Ganiyu, S. O., Alabi, I. O..  2015.  Digital Forensic analysis for enhancing information security. 2015 International Conference on Cyberspace (CYBER-Abuja). :38–44.

Digital Forensics is an area of Forensics Science that uses the application of scientific method toward crime investigation. The thwarting of forensic evidence is known as anti-forensics, the aim of which is ambiguous in the sense that it could be bad or good. The aim of this project is to simulate digital crimes scenario and carry out forensic and anti-forensic analysis to enhance security. This project uses several forensics and anti-forensic tools and techniques to carry out this work. The data analyzed were gotten from result of the simulation. The results reveal that although it might be difficult to investigate digital crime but with the help of sophisticated forensic tools/anti-forensics tools it can be accomplished.

Ali, R., McAlaney, J., Faily, S., Phalp, K., Katos, V..  2015.  Mitigating Circumstances in Cybercrime: A Position Paper. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology; Ubiquitous Computing and Communications; Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing; Pervasive Intelligence and Computing. :1972–1976.

This paper argues the need for considering mitigating circumstances in cybercrime. Mitigating circumstances are conditions which moderate the culpability of an offender of a committed offence. Our argument is based on several observations. The cyberspace introduces a new family of communication and interaction styles and designs which could facilitate, make available, deceive, and in some cases persuade, a user to commit an offence. User's lack of awareness could be a valid mitigation when using software features introduced without a proper management of change and enough precautionary mechanisms, e.g. warning messages. The cyber behaviour of users may not be necessarily a reflection of their real character and intention. Their irrational and unconscious actions may result from their immersed and prolonged presence in a particular cyber context. Hence, the consideration of the cyberspace design, the "cyber psychological" status of an offender and their inter-relation could form a new family of mitigating circumstances inherent and unique to cybercrime. This paper elaborates on this initial argument from different perspectives including software engineering, cyber psychology, digital forensics, social responsibility and law.

Alnaami, K., Ayoade, G., Siddiqui, A., Ruozzi, N., Khan, L., Thuraisingham, B..  2015.  P2V: Effective Website Fingerprinting Using Vector Space Representations. 2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence. :59–66.

Language vector space models (VSMs) have recently proven to be effective across a variety of tasks. In VSMs, each word in a corpus is represented as a real-valued vector. These vectors can be used as features in many applications in machine learning and natural language processing. In this paper, we study the effect of vector space representations in cyber security. In particular, we consider a passive traffic analysis attack (Website Fingerprinting) that threatens users' navigation privacy on the web. By using anonymous communication, Internet users (such as online activists) may wish to hide the destination of web pages they access for different reasons such as avoiding tyrant governments. Traditional website fingerprinting studies collect packets from the users' network and extract features that are used by machine learning techniques to reveal the destination of certain web pages. In this work, we propose the packet to vector (P2V) approach where we model website fingerprinting attack using word vector representations. We show how the suggested model outperforms previous website fingerprinting works.