Visible to the public Biblio

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2020-03-09
Neureiter, Christian, Eibl, Günther, Veichtlbauer, Armin, Engel, Dominik.  2013.  Towards a Framework for Engineering Smart-Grid-Specific Privacy Requirements. IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4803–4808.

Privacy has become a critical topic in the engineering of electric systems. This work proposes an approach for smart-grid-specific privacy requirements engineering by extending previous general privacy requirements engineering frameworks. The proposed extension goes one step further by focusing on privacy in the smart grid. An alignment of smart grid privacy requirements, dependability issues and privacy requirements engineering methods is presented. Starting from this alignment a Threat Tree Analysis is performed to obtain a first set of generic, high level privacy requirements. This set is formulated mostly on the data instead of the information level and provides the basis for further project-specific refinement.

Fhom, Hervais Simo, Bayarou, Kpatcha M..  2011.  Towards a Holistic Privacy Engineering Approach for Smart Grid Systems. 2011IEEE 10th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications. :234–241.

Protecting energy consumers's data and privacy is a key factor for the further adoption and diffusion of smart grid technologies and applications. However, current smart grid initiatives and implementations around the globe tend to either focus on the need for technical security to the detriment of privacy or consider privacy as a feature to add after system design. This paper aims to contribute towards filling the gap between this fact and the accepted wisdom that privacy concerns should be addressed as early as possible (preferably when modeling system's requirements). We present a methodological framework for tackling privacy concerns throughout all phases of the smart grid system development process. We describe methods and guiding principles to help smart grid engineers to elicit and analyze privacy threats and requirements from the outset of the system development, and derive the best suitable countermeasures, i.e. privacy enhancing technologies (PETs), accordingly. The paper also provides a summary of modern PETs, and discusses their context of use and contributions with respect to the underlying privacy engineering challenges and the smart grid setting being considered.

2020-03-02
Shrestha, Babins, Mohamed, Manar, Saxena, Nitesh.  2019.  ZEMFA: Zero-Effort Multi-Factor Authentication based on Multi-Modal Gait Biometrics. 2019 17th International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1–10.
In this paper, we consider the problem of transparently authenticating a user to a local terminal (e.g., a desktop computer) as she approaches towards the terminal. Given its appealing usability, such zero-effort authentication has already been deployed in the real-world where a computer terminal or a vehicle can be unlocked by the mere proximity of an authentication token (e.g., a smartphone). However, existing systems based on a single authentication factor contains one major security weakness - unauthorized physical access to the token, e.g., during lunch-time or upon theft, allows the attacker to have unfettered access to the terminal. We introduce ZEMFA, a zero-effort multi-factor authentication system based on multiple authentication tokens and multi-modal behavioral biometrics. Specifically, ZEMFA utilizes two types of authentication tokens, a smartphone and a smartwatch (or a bracelet) and two types of gait patterns captured by these tokens, mid/lower body movements measured by the phone and wrist/arm movements captured by the watch. Since a user's walking or gait pattern is believed to be unique, only that user (no impostor) would be able to gain access to the terminal even when the impostor is given access to both of the authentication tokens. We present the design and implementation of ZEMFA. We demonstrate that ZEMFA offers a high degree of detection accuracy, based on multi-sensor and multi-device fusion. We also show that ZEMFA can resist active attacks that attempt to mimic a user's walking pattern, especially when multiple devices are used.
2019-12-18
Kania, Elsa B..  2016.  Cyber deterrence in times of cyber anarchy - evaluating the divergences in U.S. and Chinese strategic thinking. 2016 International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon U.S.). :1–17.
The advent of the cyber domain has introduced a new dimension into warfare and complicated existing strategic concepts, provoking divergent responses within different national contexts and strategic cultures. Although current theories regarding cyber deterrence remain relatively nascent, a comparison of U.S. and Chinese strategic thinking highlights notable asymmetries between their respective approaches. While U.S. debates on cyber deterrence have primarily focused on the deterrence of cyber threats, Chinese theorists have also emphasized the potential importance of cyber capabilities to enhance strategic deterrence. Whereas the U.S. government has maintained a consistent declaratory policy for response, Beijing has yet to progress toward transparency regarding its cyber strategy or capabilities. However, certain PLA strategists, informed by a conceptualization of deterrence as integrated with warfighting, have advocated for the actualization of deterrence through engaging in cyber attacks. Regardless of whether these major cyber powers' evolving strategic thinking on cyber deterrence will prove logically consistent or feasibly operational, their respective perspectives will certainly shape their attempts to achieve cyber deterrence. Ultimately, cyber deterrence may continue to be "what states make of it," given conditions of "cyber anarchy" and prevailing uncertainties regarding cyber conflict. Looking forward, future strategic stability in Sino-U.S. cyber interactions will require mitigation of the misperceptions and heightened risks of escalation that could be exacerbated by these divergent strategic approaches.
2019-11-26
Pulungan, Farid Fajriana, Sudiharto, Dodi Wisaksono, Brotoharsono, Tri.  2018.  Easy Secure Login Implementation Using Pattern Locking and Environmental Context Recognition. 2018 International Conference on Applied Engineering (ICAE). :1-6.

Smartphone has become the tool which is used daily in modern human life. Some activities in human life, according to the usage of the smartphone can be related to the information which has a high privilege and needs a privacy. It causes the owners of the smartphone needs a system which can protect their privacy. Unfortunately, the secure the system, the unease of the usage. Hence, the system which has an invulnerable environment but also gives the ease of use is very needful. The aspect which is related to the ease of use is an authentication mechanism. Sometimes, this aspect correspondence to the effectiveness and the efficiency. This study is going to analyze the application related to this aspect which is a lock screen application. This lock screen application uses the context data based on the environment condition around the user. The context data used are GPS location and Mac Address of Wi-Fi. The system is going to detect the context and is going to determine if the smartphone needs to run the authentication mechanism or to bypass it based on the analysis of the context data. Hopefully, the smartphone application which is developed still can provide mobility and usability features, and also can protect the user privacy even though it is located in the environment which its context data is unknown.

2018-11-14
Alagar, V., Alsaig, A., Ormandjiva, O., Wan, K..  2018.  Context-Based Security and Privacy for Healthcare IoT. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). :122–128.

Healthcare Internet of Things (HIoT) is transforming healthcare industry by providing large scale connectivity for medical devices, patients, physicians, clinical and nursing staff who use them and facilitate real-time monitoring based on the information gathered from the connected things. Heterogeneity and vastness of this network provide both opportunity and challenges for information collection and sharing. Patient-centric information such as health status and medical devices used by them must be protected to respect their safety and privacy, while healthcare knowledge should be shared in confidence by experts for healthcare innovation and timely treatment of patients. In this paper an overview of HIoT is given, emphasizing its characteristics to those of Big Data, and a security and privacy architecture is proposed for it. Context-sensitive role-based access control scheme is discussed to ensure that HIoT is reliable, provides data privacy, and achieves regulatory compliance.

2018-06-07
Reynolds, Z. P., Jayanth, A. B., Koc, U., Porter, A. A., Raje, R. R., Hill, J. H..  2017.  Identifying and Documenting False Positive Patterns Generated by Static Code Analysis Tools. 2017 IEEE/ACM 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice (SER IP). :55–61.

This paper presents our results from identifying anddocumenting false positives generated by static code analysistools. By false positives, we mean a static code analysis toolgenerates a warning message, but the warning message isnot really an error. The goal of our study is to understandthe different kinds of false positives generated so we can (1)automatically determine if an error message is truly indeed a truepositive, and (2) reduce the number of false positives developersand testers must triage. We have used two open-source tools andone commercial tool in our study. The results of our study haveled to 14 core false positive patterns, some of which we haveconfirmed with static code analysis tool developers.

2018-05-24
Zheng, Yong.  2017.  Indirect Context Suggestion. Proceedings of the 25th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization. :399–400.

Context suggestion refers to the task of recommending appropriate contexts to the users to improve the user experience. The suggested contexts could be time, location, companion, category, and so forth. In this paper, we particularly focus on the task of suggesting appropriate contexts to a user on a specific item. We evaluate the indirect context suggestion approaches over a movie data collected from user surveys, in comparison with direct context prediction approaches. Our experimental results reveal that indirect context suggestion is better and tensor factorization is generally the best way to suggest contexts to a user when given an item.

2018-03-19
Rocha, A., Scheirer, W. J., Forstall, C. W., Cavalcante, T., Theophilo, A., Shen, B., Carvalho, A. R. B., Stamatatos, E..  2017.  Authorship Attribution for Social Media Forensics. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 12:5–33.

The veil of anonymity provided by smartphones with pre-paid SIM cards, public Wi-Fi hotspots, and distributed networks like Tor has drastically complicated the task of identifying users of social media during forensic investigations. In some cases, the text of a single posted message will be the only clue to an author's identity. How can we accurately predict who that author might be when the message may never exceed 140 characters on a service like Twitter? For the past 50 years, linguists, computer scientists, and scholars of the humanities have been jointly developing automated methods to identify authors based on the style of their writing. All authors possess peculiarities of habit that influence the form and content of their written works. These characteristics can often be quantified and measured using machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the methods of authorship attribution that can be applied to the problem of social media forensics. Furthermore, we examine emerging supervised learning-based methods that are effective for small sample sizes, and provide step-by-step explanations for several scalable approaches as instructional case studies for newcomers to the field. We argue that there is a significant need in forensics for new authorship attribution algorithms that can exploit context, can process multi-modal data, and are tolerant to incomplete knowledge of the space of all possible authors at training time.

Al-Aaridhi, R., Yueksektepe, A., Graffi, K..  2017.  Access Control for Secure Distributed Data Structures in Distributed Hash Tables. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN). :1–3.
Peer-To-Peer (P2P) networks open up great possibilities for intercommunication, collaborative and social projects like file sharing, communication protocols or social networks while offering advantages over the conventional Client-Server model of computing pattern. Such networks counter the problems of centralized servers such as that P2P networks can scale to millions without additional costs. In previous work, we presented Distributed Data Structure (DDS) which offers a middle-ware scheme for distributed applications. This scheme builds on top of DHT (Distributed Hash Table) based P2P overlays, and offers distributed data storage services as a middle-ware it still needs to address security issues. The main objective of this paper is to investigate possible ways to handle the security problem for DDS, and to develop a possibly reusable security architecture for access control for secure distributed data structures in P2P networks without depending on trusted third parties.
Jemel, M., Msahli, M., Serhrouchni, A..  2017.  Towards an Efficient File Synchronization between Digital Safes. 2017 IEEE 31st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA). :136–143.
One of the main concerns of Cloud storage solutions is to offer the availability to the end user. Thus, addressing the mobility needs and device's variety has emerged as a major challenge. At first, data should be synchronized automatically and continuously when the user moves from one equipment to another. Secondly, the Cloud service should offer to the owner the possibility to share data with specific users. The paper's goal is to develop a secure framework that ensures file synchronization with high quality and minimal resource consumption. As a first step towards this goal, we propose the SyncDS protocol with its associated architecture. The synchronization protocol efficiency raises through the choice of the used networking protocol as well as the strategy of changes detection between two versions of file systems located in different devices. Our experiment results show that adopting the Hierarchical Hash Tree to detect the changes between two file systems and adopting the WebSocket protocol for the data exchanges improve the efficiency of the synchronization protocol.
2018-02-15
Hibshi, H., Breaux, T. D..  2017.  Reinforcing Security Requirements with Multifactor Quality Measurement. 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE). :144–153.

Choosing how to write natural language scenarios is challenging, because stakeholders may over-generalize their descriptions or overlook or be unaware of alternate scenarios. In security, for example, this can result in weak security constraints that are too general, or missing constraints. Another challenge is that analysts are unclear on where to stop generating new scenarios. In this paper, we introduce the Multifactor Quality Method (MQM) to help requirements analysts to empirically collect system constraints in scenarios based on elicited expert preferences. The method combines quantitative statistical analysis to measure system quality with qualitative coding to extract new requirements. The method is bootstrapped with minimal analyst expertise in the domain affected by the quality area, and then guides an analyst toward selecting expert-recommended requirements to monotonically increase system quality. We report the results of applying the method to security. This include 550 requirements elicited from 69 security experts during a bootstrapping stage, and subsequent evaluation of these results in a verification stage with 45 security experts to measure the overall improvement of the new requirements. Security experts in our studies have an average of 10 years of experience. Our results show that using our method, we detect an increase in the security quality ratings collected in the verification stage. Finally, we discuss how our proposed method helps to improve security requirements elicitation, analysis, and measurement.

2018-02-06
Salman, O., Kayssi, A., Chehab, A., Elhajj, I..  2017.  Multi-Level Security for the 5G/IoT Ubiquitous Network. 2017 Second International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :188–193.

5G, the fifth generation of mobile communication networks, is considered as one of the main IoT enablers. Connecting billions of things, 5G/IoT will be dealing with trillions of GBytes of data. Securing such large amounts of data is a very challenging task. Collected data varies from simple temperature measurements to more critical transaction data. Thus, applying uniform security measures is a waste of resources (processing, memory, and network bandwidth). Alternatively, a multi-level security model needs to be applied according to the varying requirements. In this paper, we present a multi-level security scheme (BLP) applied originally in the information security domain. We review its application in the network domain, and propose a modified version of BLP for the 5G/IoT case. The proposed model is proven to be secure and compliant with the model rules.

2018-02-02
Kokaly, S..  2017.  Managing Assurance Cases in Model Based Software Systems. 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering Companion (ICSE-C). :453–456.

Software has emerged as a significant part of many domains, including financial service platforms, social networks and vehicle control. Standards organizations have responded to this by creating regulations to address issues such as safety and privacy. In this context, compliance of software with standards has emerged as a key issue. For software development organizations, compliance is a complex and costly goal to achieve and is often accomplished by producing so-called assurance cases, which demonstrate that the system indeed satisfies the property imposed by a standard (e.g., safety, privacy, security). As systems and standards undergo evolution for a variety of reasons, maintaining assurance cases multiplies the effort. In this work, we propose to exploit the connection between the field of model management and the problem of compliance management and propose methods that use model management techniques to address compliance scenarios such as assurance case evolution and reuse. For validation, we ground our approaches on the automotive domain and the ISO 26262 standard for functional safety of road vehicles.

Pouraghily, A., Wolf, T., Tessier, R..  2017.  Hardware support for embedded operating system security. 2017 IEEE 28th International Conference on Application-specific Systems, Architectures and Processors (ASAP). :61–66.

Internet-connected embedded systems have limited capabilities to defend themselves against remote hacking attacks. The potential effects of such attacks, however, can have a significant impact in the context of the Internet of Things, industrial control systems, smart health systems, etc. Embedded systems cannot effectively utilize existing software-based protection mechanisms due to limited processing capabilities and energy resources. We propose a novel hardware-based monitoring technique that can detect if the embedded operating system or any running application deviates from the originally programmed behavior due to an attack. We present an FPGA-based prototype implementation that shows the effectiveness of such a security approach.

Gouglidis, A., Green, B., Busby, J., Rouncefield, M., Hutchison, D., Schauer, S..  2016.  Threat awareness for critical infrastructures resilience. 2016 8th International Workshop on Resilient Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM). :196–202.

Utility networks are part of every nation's critical infrastructure, and their protection is now seen as a high priority objective. In this paper, we propose a threat awareness architecture for critical infrastructures, which we believe will raise security awareness and increase resilience in utility networks. We first describe an investigation of trends and threats that may impose security risks in utility networks. This was performed on the basis of a viewpoint approach that is capable of identifying technical and non-technical issues (e.g., behaviour of humans). The result of our analysis indicated that utility networks are affected strongly by technological trends, but that humans comprise an important threat to them. This provided evidence and confirmed that the protection of utility networks is a multi-variable problem, and thus, requires the examination of information stemming from various viewpoints of a network. In order to accomplish our objective, we propose a systematic threat awareness architecture in the context of a resilience strategy, which ultimately aims at providing and maintaining an acceptable level of security and safety in critical infrastructures. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate partially via a case study the application of the proposed threat awareness architecture, where we examine the potential impact of attacks in the context of social engineering in a European utility company.

2018-01-23
Ulz, T., Pieber, T., Steger, C., Lesjak, C., Bock, H., Matischek, R..  2017.  SECURECONFIG: NFC and QR-code based hybrid approach for smart sensor configuration. 2017 IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID). :41–46.

In smart factories and smart homes, devices such as smart sensors are connected to the Internet. Independent of the context in which such a smart sensor is deployed, the possibility to change its configuration parameters in a secure way is essential. Existing solutions do provide only minimal security or do not allow to transfer arbitrary configuration data. In this paper, we present an NFC- and QR-code based configuration interface for smart sensors which improves the security and practicability of the configuration altering process while introducing as little overhead as possible. We present a protocol for configuration as well as a hardware extension including a dedicated security controller (SC) for smart sensors. For customers, no additional hardware other than a commercially available smartphone will be necessary which makes the proposed approach highly applicable for smart factory and smart home contexts alike.

2017-12-28
Herley, C., Oorschot, P. C. v.  2017.  SoK: Science, Security and the Elusive Goal of Security as a Scientific Pursuit. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :99–120.

The past ten years has seen increasing calls to make security research more “scientific”. On the surface, most agree that this is desirable, given universal recognition of “science” as a positive force. However, we find that there is little clarity on what “scientific” means in the context of computer security research, or consensus on what a “Science of Security” should look like. We selectively review work in the history and philosophy of science and more recent work under the label “Science of Security”. We explore what has been done under the theme of relating science and security, put this in context with historical science, and offer observations and insights we hope may motivate further exploration and guidance. Among our findings are that practices on which the rest of science has reached consensus appear little used or recognized in security, and a pattern of methodological errors continues unaddressed.

Thuraisingham, B., Kantarcioglu, M., Hamlen, K., Khan, L., Finin, T., Joshi, A., Oates, T., Bertino, E..  2016.  A Data Driven Approach for the Science of Cyber Security: Challenges and Directions. 2016 IEEE 17th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI). :1–10.

This paper describes a data driven approach to studying the science of cyber security (SoS). It argues that science is driven by data. It then describes issues and approaches towards the following three aspects: (i) Data Driven Science for Attack Detection and Mitigation, (ii) Foundations for Data Trustworthiness and Policy-based Sharing, and (iii) A Risk-based Approach to Security Metrics. We believe that the three aspects addressed in this paper will form the basis for studying the Science of Cyber Security.

2017-12-20
An, G., Yu, W..  2017.  CAPTCHA Recognition Algorithm Based on the Relative Shape Context and Point Pattern Matching. 2017 9th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA). :168–172.
Using shape context descriptors in the distance uneven grouping and its more extensive description of the shape feature, so this descriptor has the target contour point set deformation invariance. However, the twisted adhesions verification code have more outliers and more serious noise, the above-mentioned invariance of the shape context will become very bad, in order to solve the above descriptors' limitations, this article raise a new algorithm based on the relative shape context and point pattern matching to identify codes. And also experimented on the CSDN site's verification code, the result is that the recognition rate is higher than the traditional shape context and the response time is shorter.
Lee, W. H., Lee, R. B..  2017.  Implicit Smartphone User Authentication with Sensors and Contextual Machine Learning. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :297–308.

Authentication of smartphone users is important because a lot of sensitive data is stored in the smartphone and the smartphone is also used to access various cloud data and services. However, smartphones are easily stolen or co-opted by an attacker. Beyond the initial login, it is highly desirable to re-authenticate end-users who are continuing to access security-critical services and data. Hence, this paper proposes a novel authentication system for implicit, continuous authentication of the smartphone user based on behavioral characteristics, by leveraging the sensors already ubiquitously built into smartphones. We propose novel context-based authentication models to differentiate the legitimate smartphone owner versus other users. We systematically show how to achieve high authentication accuracy with different design alternatives in sensor and feature selection, machine learning techniques, context detection and multiple devices. Our system can achieve excellent authentication performance with 98.1% accuracy with negligible system overhead and less than 2.4% battery consumption.

2017-11-27
Mohammadi, M., Chu, B., Lipford, H. R., Murphy-Hill, E..  2016.  Automatic Web Security Unit Testing: XSS Vulnerability Detection. 2016 IEEE/ACM 11th International Workshop in Automation of Software Test (AST). :78–84.

Integrating security testing into the workflow of software developers not only can save resources for separate security testing but also reduce the cost of fixing security vulnerabilities by detecting them early in the development cycle. We present an automatic testing approach to detect a common type of Cross Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability caused by improper encoding of untrusted data. We automatically extract encoding functions used in a web application to sanitize untrusted inputs and then evaluate their effectiveness by automatically generating XSS attack strings. Our evaluations show that this technique can detect 0-day XSS vulnerabilities that cannot be found by static analysis tools. We will also show that our approach can efficiently cover a common type of XSS vulnerability. This approach can be generalized to test for input validation against other types injections such as command line injection.

2017-11-20
Chaisiri, S., Ko, R. K. L..  2016.  From Reactionary to Proactive Security: Context-Aware Security Policy Management and Optimization under Uncertainty. 2016 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ISPA. :535–543.

At the core of its nature, security is a highly contextual and dynamic challenge. However, current security policy approaches are usually static, and slow to adapt to ever-changing requirements, let alone catching up with reality. In a 2012 Sophos survey, it was stated that a unique malware is created every half a second. This gives a glimpse of the unsustainable nature of a global problem, any improvement in terms of closing the "time window to adapt" would be a significant step forward. To exacerbate the situation, a simple change in threat and attack vector or even an implementation of the so-called "bring-your-own-device" paradigm will greatly change the frequency of changed security requirements and necessary solutions required for each new context. Current security policies also typically overlook the direct and indirect costs of implementation of policies. As a result, technical teams often fail to have the ability to justify the budget to the management, from a business risk viewpoint. This paper considers both the adaptive and cost-benefit aspects of security, and introduces a novel context-aware technique for designing and implementing adaptive, optimized security policies. Our approach leverages the capabilities of stochastic programming models to optimize security policy planning, and our preliminary results demonstrate a promising step towards proactive, context-aware security policies.

2017-11-03
Iliou, C., Kalpakis, G., Tsikrika, T., Vrochidis, S., Kompatsiaris, I..  2016.  Hybrid Focused Crawling for Homemade Explosives Discovery on Surface and Dark Web. 2016 11th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES). :229–234.
This work proposes a generic focused crawling framework for discovering resources on any given topic that reside on the Surface or the Dark Web. The proposed crawler is able to seamlessly traverse the Surface Web and several darknets present in the Dark Web (i.e. Tor, I2P and Freenet) during a single crawl by automatically adapting its crawling behavior and its classifier-guided hyperlink selection strategy based on the network type. This hybrid focused crawler is demonstrated for the discovery of Web resources containing recipes for producing homemade explosives. The evaluation experiments indicate the effectiveness of the proposed ap-proach both for the Surface and the Dark Web.
2017-05-16
AlEroud, Ahmed, Karabatis, George.  2016.  Beyond Data: Contextual Information Fusion for Cyber Security Analytics. Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :73–79.

A major challenge of the existing attack detection approaches is the identification of relevant information to a particular situation, and the use of such information to perform multi-evidence intrusion detection. Addressing such a limitation requires integrating several aspects of context to better predict, avoid and respond to impending attacks. The quality and adequacy of contextual information is important to decrease uncertainty and correctly identify potential cyber-attacks. In this paper, a systematic methodology has been used to identify contextual dimensions that improve the effectiveness of detecting cyber-attacks. This methodology combines graph, probability, and information theories to create several context-based attack prediction models that analyze data at a high- and low-level. An extensive validation of our approach has been performed using a prototype system and several benchmark intrusion detection datasets yielding very promising results.