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Fadolalkarim, Daren, Bertino, Elisa, Sallam, Asmaa.  2020.  An Anomaly Detection System for the Protection of Relational Database Systems against Data Leakage by Application Programs. 2020 IEEE 36th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :265—276.
Application programs are a possible source of attacks to databases as attackers might exploit vulnerabilities in a privileged database application. They can perform code injection or code-reuse attack in order to steal sensitive data. However, as such attacks very often result in changes in the program's behavior, program monitoring techniques represent an effective defense to detect on-going attacks. One such technique is monitoring the library/system calls that the application program issues while running. In this paper, we propose AD-PROM, an Anomaly Detection system that aims at protecting relational database systems against malicious/compromised applications PROgraMs aiming at stealing data. AD-PROM tracks calls executed by application programs on data extracted from a database. The system operates in two phases. The first phase statically and dynamically analyzes the behavior of the application in order to build profiles representing the application's normal behavior. AD-PROM analyzes the control and data flow of the application program (i.e., static analysis), and builds a hidden Markov model trained by the program traces (i.e., dynamic analysis). During the second phase, the program execution is monitored in order to detect anomalies that may represent data leakage attempts. We have implemented AD-PROM and carried experimental activities to assess its performance. The results showed that our system is highly accurate in detecting changes in the application programs' behaviors and has very low false positive rates.
Meng, C., Zhou, L..  2020.  Big Data Encryption Technology Based on ASCII And Application On Credit Supervision. 2020 International Conference on Big Data, Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things Engineering (ICBAIE). :79—82.

Big Data Platform provides business units with data platforms, data products and data services by integrating all data to fully analyze and exploit the intrinsic value of data. Data accessed by big data platforms may include many users' privacy and sensitive information, such as the user's hotel stay history, user payment information, etc., which is at risk of leakage. This paper first analyzes the risks of data leakage, then introduces in detail the theoretical basis and common methods of data desensitization technology, and finally puts forward a set of effective market subject credit supervision application based on asccii, which is committed to solving the problems of insufficient breadth and depth of data utilization for enterprises involved, the problems of lagging regulatory laws and standards, the problems of separating credit construction and market supervision business, and the credit constraints of data governance.

Dattana, Vishal, Gupta, Kishu, Kush, Ashwani.  2019.  A Probability based Model for Big Data Security in Smart City. 2019 4th MEC International Conference on Big Data and Smart City (ICBDSC). :1—6.

Smart technologies at hand have facilitated generation and collection of huge volumes of data, on daily basis. It involves highly sensitive and diverse data like personal, organisational, environment, energy, transport and economic data. Data Analytics provide solution for various issues being faced by smart cities like crisis response, disaster resilience, emergence management, smart traffic management system etc.; it requires distribution of sensitive data among various entities within or outside the smart city,. Sharing of sensitive data creates a need for efficient usage of smart city data to provide smart applications and utility to the end users in a trustworthy and safe mode. This shared sensitive data if get leaked as a consequence can cause damage and severe risk to the city's resources. Fortification of critical data from unofficial disclosure is biggest issue for success of any project. Data Leakage Detection provides a set of tools and technology that can efficiently resolves the concerns related to smart city critical data. The paper, showcase an approach to detect the leakage which is caused intentionally or unintentionally. The model represents allotment of data objects between diverse agents using Bigraph. The objective is to make critical data secure by revealing the guilty agent who caused the data leakage.

Zhang, Shisheng, Wang, Chencheng, Wang, Qishu.  2019.  Research on Time Concealed Channel Technology of Cloud Computing Platform Based on Shared Memory. 2019 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). 1:904—909.

Security issues severely restrict the development and popularization of cloud computing. As a way of data leakage, covert channel greatly threatens the security of cloud platform. This paper introduces the types and research status of covert channels, and discusses the classical detection and interference methods of time-covert channels on cloud platforms for shared memory time covert channels.

Li, Jian, Zhang, Zelin, Li, Shengyu, Benton, Ryan, Huang, Yulong, Kasukurthi, Mohan Vamsi, Li, Dongqi, Lin, Jingwei, Borchert, Glen M., Tan, Shaobo et al..  2019.  Reversible Data Hiding Based Key Region Protection Method in Medical Images. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM). :1526–1530.
The transmission of medical image data in an open network environment is subject to privacy issues including patient privacy and data leakage. In the past, image encryption and information-hiding technology have been used to solve such security problems. But these methodologies, in general, suffered from difficulties in retrieving original images. We present in this paper an algorithm to protect key regions in medical images. First, coefficient of variation is used to locate the key regions, a.k.a. the lesion areas, of an image; other areas are then processed in blocks and analyzed for texture complexity. Next, our reversible data-hiding algorithm is used to embed the contents from the lesion areas into a high-texture area, and the Arnold transformation is performed to protect the original lesion information. In addition to this, we use the ciphertext of the basic information about the image and the decryption parameter to generate the Quick Response (QR) Code to replace the original key regions. Consequently, only authorized customers can obtain the encryption key to extract information from encrypted images. Experimental results show that our algorithm can not only restore the original image without information loss, but also safely transfer the medical image copyright and patient-sensitive information.
Shah, Meet D., Mohanty, Manoranjan, Atrey, Pradeep K..  2019.  SecureCSearch: Secure Searching in PDF Over Untrusted Cloud Servers. 2019 IEEE Conference on Multimedia Information Processing and Retrieval (MIPR). :347–352.
The usage of cloud for data storage has become ubiquitous. To prevent data leakage and hacks, it is common to encrypt the data (e.g. PDF files) before sending it to a cloud. However, this limits the search for specific files containing certain keywords over an encrypted cloud data. The traditional method is to take down all files from a cloud, store them locally, decrypt and then search over them, defeating the purpose of using a cloud. In this paper, we propose a method, called SecureCSearch, to perform keyword search operations on the encrypted PDF files over cloud in an efficient manner. The proposed method makes use of Shamir's Secret Sharing scheme in a novel way to create encrypted shares of the PDF file and the keyword to search. We show that the proposed method maintains the security of the data and incurs minimal computation cost.
Inayoshi, Hiroki, Kakei, Shohei, Takimoto, Eiji, Mouri, Koichi, Saito, Shoichi.  2019.  Prevention of Data Leakage due to Implicit Information Flows in Android Applications. 2019 14th Asia Joint Conference on Information Security (AsiaJCIS). :103–110.
Dynamic Taint Analysis (DTA) technique has been developed for analysis and understanding behavior of Android applications and privacy policy enforcement. Meanwhile, implicit information flows (IIFs) are major concern of security researchers because IIFs can evade DTA technique easily and give attackers an advantage over the researchers. Some researchers suggested approaches to the issue and developed analysis systems supporting privacy policy enforcement against IIF-accompanied attacks; however, there is still no effective technique of comprehensive analysis and privacy policy enforcement against IIF-accompanied attacks. In this paper, we propose an IIF detection technique to enforce privacy policy against IIF-accompanied attacks in Android applications. We developed a new analysis tool, called Smalien, that can discover data leakage caused by IIF-contained information flows as well as explicit information flows. We demonstrated practicability of Smalien by applying it to 16 IIF tricks from ScrubDroid and two IIF tricks from DroidBench. Smalien enforced privacy policy successfully against all the tricks except one trick because the trick loads code dynamically from a remote server at runtime, and Smalien cannot analyze any code outside of a target application. The results show that our approach can be a solution to the current attacker-superior situation.
Chandel, Sonali, Yu, Sun, Yitian, Tang, Zhili, Zhou, Yusheng, Huang.  2019.  Endpoint Protection: Measuring the Effectiveness of Remediation Technologies and Methodologies for Insider Threat. 2019 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :81–89.
With the increase in the incidences of data leakage, enterprises have started to realize that the endpoints (especially mobile devices) used by their employees are the primary cause of data breach in most of the cases. Data shows that employee training, which aims to promote the awareness of protecting the sensitive data of the organization is not very useful. Besides, popular third-party cloud services make it even more difficult for employees to keep the secrets of their workplace safer. This pressing issue has caused the emergence of a significant market for various software products that provide endpoint data protection for these organizations. Our study will discuss some methods and technologies that deal with traditional, negative endpoint protection: Endpoint protection platform (EPP), and another new, positive endpoint protection: Endpoint detection and response (EDR). The comparison and evaluation between EPP and EDR in mechanism and effectiveness will also be shown. The study also aims to analyze the merits, faults, and key features that an excellent protection software should have. The objective of this paper is to assist small-scale and big-scale companies to improve their understanding of insider threats in such rapidly developing cyberspace, which is full of potential risks and attacks. This will also help the companies to have better control over their employee's endpoint to be able to avoid any future data leaks. It will also help negligent users to comprehend how serious is the problem that they are faced with, and how they should be careful in handling their privacy when they are surfing the Internet while being connected to the company's network. This paper aims to contribute to further research on endpoint detection and protection or some similar topics by trying to predict the future of protection products.
Khan, Muhammad Imran, O’Sullivan, Barry, Foley, Simon N..  2018.  Towards Modelling Insiders Behaviour as Rare Behaviour to Detect Malicious RDBMS Access. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3094–3099.
The heart of any enterprise is its databases where the application data is stored. Organizations frequently place certain access control mechanisms to prevent access by unauthorized employees. However, there is persistent concern about malicious insiders. Anomaly-based intrusion detection systems are known to have the potential to detect insider attacks. Accurate modelling of insiders behaviour within the framework of Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) requires attention. The majority of past research considers SQL queries in isolation when modelling insiders behaviour. However, a query in isolation can be safe, while a sequence of queries might result in malicious access. In this work, we consider sequences of SQL queries when modelling behaviours to detect malicious RDBMS accesses using frequent and rare item-sets mining. Preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed approach has the potential to detect malicious RDBMS accesses by insiders.
Siboni, Shachar, Shabtai, Asaf, Elovici, Yuval.  2018.  An Attack Scenario and Mitigation Mechanism for Enterprise BYOD Environments. SIGAPP Appl. Comput. Rev.. 18:5–21.

The recent proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology poses major security and privacy concerns. Specifically, the use of personal IoT devices, such as tablets, smartphones, and even smartwatches, as part of the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) trend, may result in severe network security breaches in enterprise environments. Such devices increase the attack surface by weakening the digital perimeter of the enterprise network and opening new points of entry for malicious activities. In this paper we demonstrate a novel attack scenario in an enterprise environment by exploiting the smartwatch device of an innocent employee. Using a malicious application running on a suitable smartwatch, the device imitates a real Wi-Fi direct printer service in the network. Using this attack scenario, we illustrate how an advanced attacker located outside of the organization can leak/steal sensitive information from the organization by utilizing the compromised smartwatch as a means of attack. An attack mitigation process and countermeasures are suggested in order to limit the capability of the remote attacker to execute the attack on the network, thus minimizing the data leakage by the smartwatch.

Gugelmann, D., Sommer, D., Lenders, V., Happe, M., Vanbever, L..  2018.  Screen watermarking for data theft investigation and attribution. 2018 10th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon). :391–408.
Organizations not only need to defend their IT systems against external cyber attackers, but also from malicious insiders, that is, agents who have infiltrated an organization or malicious members stealing information for their own profit. In particular, malicious insiders can leak a document by simply opening it and taking pictures of the document displayed on the computer screen with a digital camera. Using a digital camera allows a perpetrator to easily avoid a log trail that results from using traditional communication channels, such as sending the document via email. This makes it difficult to identify and prove the identity of the perpetrator. Even a policy prohibiting the use of any device containing a camera cannot eliminate this threat since tiny cameras can be hidden almost everywhere. To address this leakage vector, we propose a novel screen watermarking technique that embeds hidden information on computer screens displaying text documents. The watermark is imperceptible during regular use, but can be extracted from pictures of documents shown on the screen, which allows an organization to reconstruct the place and time of the data leak from recovered leaked pictures. Our approach takes advantage of the fact that the human eye is less sensitive to small luminance changes than digital cameras. We devise a symbol shape that is invisible to the human eye, but still robust to the image artifacts introduced when taking pictures. We complement this symbol shape with an error correction coding scheme that can handle very high bit error rates and retrieve watermarks from cropped and compressed pictures. We show in an experimental user study that our screen watermarks are not perceivable by humans and analyze the robustness of our watermarks against image modifications.
Bortolameotti, Riccardo, van Ede, Thijs, Caselli, Marco, Everts, Maarten H., Hartel, Pieter, Hofstede, Rick, Jonker, Willem, Peter, Andreas.  2017.  DECANTeR: DEteCtion of Anomalous outbouNd HTTP TRaffic by Passive Application Fingerprinting. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :373–386.

We present DECANTeR, a system to detect anomalous outbound HTTP communication, which passively extracts fingerprints for each application running on a monitored host. The goal of our system is to detect unknown malware and backdoor communication indicated by unknown fingerprints extracted from a host's network traffic. We evaluate a prototype with realistic data from an international organization and datasets composed of malicious traffic. We show that our system achieves a false positive rate of 0.9% for 441 monitored host machines, an average detection rate of 97.7%, and that it cannot be evaded by malware using simple evasion techniques such as using known browser user agent values. We compare our solution with DUMONT [24], the current state-of-the-art IDS which detects HTTP covert communication channels by focusing on benign HTTP traffic. The results show that DECANTeR outperforms DUMONT in terms of detection rate, false positive rate, and even evasion-resistance. Finally, DECANTeR detects 96.8% of information stealers in our dataset, which shows its potential to detect data exfiltration.

Zhe, D., Qinghong, W., Naizheng, S., Yuhan, Z..  2017.  Study on Data Security Policy Based on Cloud Storage. 2017 ieee 3rd international conference on big data security on cloud (bigdatasecurity), ieee international conference on high performance and smart computing (hpsc), and ieee international conference on intelligent data and security (ids). :145–149.

Along with the growing popularisation of Cloud Computing. Cloud storage technology has been paid more and more attention as an emerging network storage technology which is extended and developed by cloud computing concepts. Cloud computing environment depends on user services such as high-speed storage and retrieval provided by cloud computing system. Meanwhile, data security is an important problem to solve urgently for cloud storage technology. In recent years, There are more and more malicious attacks on cloud storage systems, and cloud storage system of data leaking also frequently occurred. Cloud storage security concerns the user's data security. The purpose of this paper is to achieve data security of cloud storage and to formulate corresponding cloud storage security policy. Those were combined with the results of existing academic research by analyzing the security risks of user data in cloud storage and approach a subject of the relevant security technology, which based on the structural characteristics of cloud storage system.

Kogos, K. G., Seliverstova, E. I., Epishkina, A. V..  2017.  Review of covert channels over HTTP: Communication and countermeasures. 2017 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :459–462.

Many innovations in the field of cryptography have been made in recent decades, ensuring the confidentiality of the message's content. However, sometimes it's not enough to secure the message, and communicating parties need to hide the fact of the presence of any communication. This problem is solved by covert channels. A huge number of ideas and implementations of different types of covert channels was proposed ever since the covert channels were mentioned for the first time. The spread of the Internet and networking technologies was the reason for the use of network protocols for the invention of new covert communication methods and has led to the emergence of a new class of threats related to the data leakage via network covert channels. In recent years, web applications, such as web browsers, email clients and web messengers have become indispensable elements in business and everyday life. That's why ubiquitous HTTP messages are so useful as a covert information containers. The use of HTTP for the implementation of covert channels may increase the capacity of covert channels due to HTTP's flexibility and wide distribution as well. We propose a detailed analysis of all known HTTP covert channels and techniques of their detection and capacity limitation.

Allawi, M. A. A., Hadi, A., Awajan, A..  2015.  MLDED: Multi-layer Data Exfiltration Detection System. 2015 Fourth International Conference on Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare, and Digital Forensic (CyberSec). :107–112.

Due to the growing advancement of crime ware services, the computer and network security becomes a crucial issue. Detecting sensitive data exfiltration is a principal component of each information protection strategy. In this research, a Multi-Level Data Exfiltration Detection (MLDED) system that can handle different types of insider data leakage threats with staircase difficulty levels and their implications for the organization environment has been proposed, implemented and tested. The proposed system detects exfiltration of data outside an organization information system, where the main goal is to use the detection results of a MLDED system for digital forensic purposes. MLDED system consists of three major levels Hashing, Keywords Extraction and Labeling. However, it is considered only for certain type of documents such as plain ASCII text and PDF files. In response to the challenging issue of identifying insider threats, a forensic readiness data exfiltration system is designed that is capable of detecting and identifying sensitive information leaks. The results show that the proposed system has an overall detection accuracy of 98.93%.

Kao, D. Y., Wu, G. J..  2015.  A Digital Triage Forensics framework of Window malware forensic toolkit: Based on ISO}/IEC 27037:2012. 2015 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :217–222.

The rise of malware attack and data leakage is putting the Internet at a higher risk. Digital forensic examiners responsible for cyber security incident need to continually update their processes, knowledge and tools due to changing technology. These attack activities can be investigated by means of Digital Triage Forensics (DTF) methodologies. DTF is a procedural model for the crime scene investigation of digital forensic applications. It takes place as a way of gathering quick intelligence, and presents methods of conducting pre/post-blast investigations. A DTF framework of Window malware forensic toolkit is further proposed. It is also based on ISO/IEC 27037: 2012 - guidelines for specific activities in the handling of digital evidence. The argument is made for a careful use of digital forensic investigations to improve the overall quality of expert examiners. This solution may improve the speed and quality of pre/post-blast investigations. By considering how triage solutions are being implemented into digital investigations, this study presents a critical analysis of malware forensics. The analysis serves as feedback for integrating digital forensic considerations, and specifies directions for further standardization efforts.