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Mili, S., Nguyen, N., Chelouah, R..  2018.  Attack Modeling and Verification for Connected System Security. 2018 13th Annual Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SoSE). :157–162.

In the development process of critical systems, one of the main challenges is to provide early system validation and verification against vulnerabilities in order to reduce cost caused by late error detection. We propose in this paper an approach that, firstly allows formally describe system security specifications, thanks to our suggested extended attack tree. Secondly, static and dynamic system modeling by using a SysML connectivity profile to model error propagation is introduced. Finally, a model checker has been used in order to validate system specifications.

Pournaras, E., Ballandies, M., Acharya, D., Thapa, M., Brandt, B..  2018.  Prototyping Self-Managed Interdependent Networks - Self-Healing Synergies against Cascading Failures. 2018 IEEE/ACM 13th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS). :119–129.
The interconnection of networks between several techno-socio-economic sectors such as energy, transport, and communication, questions the manageability and resilience of the digital society. System interdependencies alter the fundamental dynamics that govern isolated systems, which can unexpectedly trigger catastrophic instabilities such as cascading failures. This paper envisions a general-purpose, yet simple prototyping of self-management software systems that can turn system interdependencies from a cause of instability to an opportunity for higher resilience. Such prototyping proves to be challenging given the highly interdisciplinary scope of interdependent networks. Different system dynamics and organizational constraints such as the distributed nature of interdependent networks or the autonomy and authority of system operators over their controlled infrastructure perplex the design for a general prototyping approach, which earlier work has not yet addressed. This paper contributes such a modular design solution implemented as an open source software extension of SFINA, the Simulation Framework for Intelligent Network Adaptations. The applicability of the software artifact is demonstrated with the introduction of a novel self-healing mechanism for interdependent power networks, which optimizes power flow exchanges between a damaged and a healer network to mitigate power cascading failures. Results show a significant decrease in the damage spread by self-healing synergies, while the degree of interconnectivity between the power networks indicates a tradeoff between links survivability and load served. The contributions of this paper aspire to bring closer several research communities working on modeling and simulation of different domains with an economic and societal impact on the resilience of real-world interdependent networks.
Zeinali, M., Hadavi, M. A..  2018.  Threat Extraction Method Based on UML Software Description. 2018 15th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :1–8.
Threat modeling is one of the best practices to secure software development. A primary challenge for using this practice is how to extract threats. Existing threat extraction methods to this purpose are mainly based on penetration tests or vulnerability databases. This imposes a non-automated timeconsuming process, which fully relies on the human knowledge and expertise. In this paper, a method is presented, which can extract the threats to a software system based on the existing description of the software behavior. We elaborately describe software behavior with sequence diagrams enriched by security relevant attributes. To enrich a sequence diagram, some attributes and their associated values are added to the diagram elements and the communication between them. We have also developed a threat knowledge base from reliable sources such as CWE and CAPEC lists. Every threat in the knowledge base is described according to its occurrence conditions in the software. To extract threats of a software system, the enriched sequence diagrams describing the software behavior are matched with the threat rules in our knowledge base using a simple inference process. Results in a set of potential threats for the software system. The proposed method is applied on a software application to extract its threats. Our case study indicates the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to other existing methods.
Pulparambil, S., Baghdadi, Y., Al-Hamdani, A., Al-Badawi, M..  2018.  Service Design Metrics to Predict IT-Based Drivers of Service Oriented Architecture Adoption. 2018 9th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–7.
The key factors for deploying successful services is centered on the service design practices adopted by an enterprise. The design level information should be validated and measures are required to quantify the structural attributes. The metrics at this stage will support an early discovery of design flaws and help designers to predict the capabilities of service oriented architecture (SOA) adoption. In this work, we take a deeper look at how we can forecast the key SOA capabilities infrastructure efficiency and service reuse from the service designs modeled by SOA modeling language. The proposed approach defines metrics based on the structural and domain level similarity of service operations. The proposed metrics are analytically validated with respect to software engineering metrics properties. Moreover, a tool has been developed to automate the proposed approach and the results indicate that the metrics predict the SOA capabilities at the service design stage. This work can be further extended to predict the business based capabilities of SOA adoption such as flexibility and agility.
Haq, M. S., Anwar, Z., Ahsan, A., Afzal, H..  2017.  Design pattern for secure object oriented information systems development. 2017 14th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). :456–460.
There are many object oriented design patterns and frameworks; to make the Information System robust, scalable and extensible. The objected oriented patterns are classified in the category of creational, structural, behavioral, security, concurrency, and user interface, relational, social and distributed. All the above classified design pattern doesn't work to provide a pathway and standards to make the Information system, to fulfill the requirement of confidentiality, Integrity and availability. This research work will explore the gap and suggest possible object oriented design pattern focusing the information security perspectives of the information system. At application level; this object oriented design pattern/framework shall try to ensure the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of the information systems intuitively. The main objective of this research work is to create a theoretical background of object oriented framework and design pattern which ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of the system developed through the object oriented paradigm.
Osaiweran, A., Marincic, J., Groote, J. F..  2017.  Assessing the Quality of Tabular State Machines through Metrics. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :426–433.

Software metrics are widely used to measure the quality of software and to give an early indication of the efficiency of the development process in industry. There are many well-established frameworks for measuring the quality of source code through metrics, but limited attention has been paid to the quality of software models. In this article, we evaluate the quality of state machine models specified using the Analytical Software Design (ASD) tooling. We discuss how we applied a number of metrics to ASD models in an industrial setting and report about results and lessons learned while collecting these metrics. Furthermore, we recommend some quality limits for each metric and validate them on models developed in a number of industrial projects.

Ramadan, Q., Salnitriy, M., Strüber, D., Jürjens, J., Giorgini, P..  2017.  From Secure Business Process Modeling to Design-Level Security Verification. 2017 ACM/IEEE 20th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS). :123–133.

Tracing and integrating security requirements throughout the development process is a key challenge in security engineering. In socio-technical systems, security requirements for the organizational and technical aspects of a system are currently dealt with separately, giving rise to substantial misconceptions and errors. In this paper, we present a model-based security engineering framework for supporting the system design on the organizational and technical level. The key idea is to allow the involved experts to specify security requirements in the languages they are familiar with: business analysts use BPMN for procedural system descriptions; system developers use UML to design and implement the system architecture. Security requirements are captured via the language extensions SecBPMN2 and UMLsec. We provide a model transformation to bridge the conceptual gap between SecBPMN2 and UMLsec. Using UMLsec policies, various security properties of the resulting architecture can be verified. In a case study featuring an air traffic management system, we show how our framework can be practically applied.

Brunner, M., Huber, M., Sauerwein, C., Breu, R..  2017.  Towards an Integrated Model for Safety and Security Requirements of Cyber-Physical Systems. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :334–340.

Increasing interest in cyber-physical systems with integrated computational and physical capabilities that can interact with humans can be identified in research and practice. Since these systems can be classified as safety- and security-critical systems the need for safety and security assurance and certification will grow. Moreover, these systems are typically characterized by fragmentation, interconnectedness, heterogeneity, short release cycles, cross organizational nature and high interference between safety and security requirements. These properties combined with the assurance of compliance to multiple standards, carrying out certification and re-certification, and the lack of an approach to model, document and integrate safety and security requirements represent a major challenge. In order to address this gap we developed a domain agnostic approach to model security and safety requirements in an integrated view to support certification processes during design and run-time phases of cyber-physical systems.

Alqahtani, S. S., Eghan, E. E., Rilling, J..  2017.  Recovering Semantic Traceability Links between APIs and Security Vulnerabilities: An Ontological Modeling Approach. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST). :80–91.

Over the last decade, a globalization of the software industry took place, which facilitated the sharing and reuse of code across existing project boundaries. At the same time, such global reuse also introduces new challenges to the software engineering community, with not only components but also their problems and vulnerabilities being now shared. For example, vulnerabilities found in APIs no longer affect only individual projects but instead might spread across projects and even global software ecosystem borders. Tracing these vulnerabilities at a global scale becomes an inherently difficult task since many of the existing resources required for such analysis still rely on proprietary knowledge representation. In this research, we introduce an ontology-based knowledge modeling approach that can eliminate such information silos. More specifically, we focus on linking security knowledge with other software knowledge to improve traceability and trust in software products (APIs). Our approach takes advantage of the Semantic Web and its reasoning services, to trace and assess the impact of security vulnerabilities across project boundaries. We present a case study, to illustrate the applicability and flexibility of our ontological modeling approach by tracing vulnerabilities across project and resource boundaries.

Casola, V., Benedictis, A. D., Rak, M., Villano, U..  2015.  SLA-Based Secure Cloud Application Development: The SPECS Framework. 2015 17th International Symposium on Symbolic and Numeric Algorithms for Scientific Computing (SYNASC). :337–344.

The perception of lack of control over resources deployed in the cloud may represent one of the critical factors for an organization to decide to cloudify or not their own services. Furthermore, in spite of the idea of offering security-as-a-service, the development of secure cloud applications requires security skills that can slow down the adoption of the cloud for nonexpert users. In the recent years, the concept of Security Service Level Agreements (Security SLA) is assuming a key role in the provisioning of cloud resources. This paper presents the SPECS framework, which enables the development of secure cloud applications covered by a Security SLA. The SPECS framework offers APIs to manage the whole Security SLA life cycle and provides all the functionalities needed to automatize the enforcement of proper security mechanisms and to monitor userdefined security features. The development process of SPECS applications offering security-enhanced services is illustrated, presenting as a real-world case study the provisioning of a secure web server.

Chenine, M., Ullberg, J., Nordstrom, L., Wu, Y., Ericsson, G.N..  2014.  A Framework for Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems Interoperability and Cybersecurity Analysis. Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on. 29:633-641.

Wide-area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems are the next-generation operational-management systems for electric power systems. The main purpose of such systems is to provide high resolution real-time situational awareness in order to improve the operation of the power system by detecting and responding to fast evolving phenomenon in power systems. From an information and communication technology (ICT) perspective, the nonfunctional qualities of these systems are increasingly becoming important and there is a need to evaluate and analyze the factors that impact these nonfunctional qualities. Enterprise architecture methods, which capture properties of ICT systems in architecture models and use these models as a basis for analysis and decision making, are a promising approach to meet these challenges. This paper presents a quantitative architecture analysis method for the study of WAMC ICT architectures focusing primarily on the interoperability and cybersecurity aspects.

Bozic, J., Wotawa, F..  2014.  Security Testing Based on Attack Patterns. Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), 2014 IEEE Seventh International Conference on. :4-11.

Testing for security related issues is an important task of growing interest due to the vast amount of applications and services available over the internet. In practice testing for security often is performed manually with the consequences of higher costs, and no integration of security testing with today's agile software development processes. In order to bring security testing into practice, many different approaches have been suggested including fuzz testing and model-based testing approaches. Most of these approaches rely on models of the system or the application domain. In this paper we suggest to formalize attack patterns from which test cases can be generated and even executed automatically. Hence, testing for known attacks can be easily integrated into software development processes where automated testing, e.g., for daily builds, is a requirement. The approach makes use of UML state charts. Besides discussing the approach, we illustrate the approach using a case study.

Butun, I., Morgera, S.D., Sankar, R..  2014.  A Survey of Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks. Communications Surveys Tutorials, IEEE. 16:266-282.

Wireless Sensor Networking is one of the most promising technologies that have applications ranging from health care to tactical military. Although Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have appealing features (e.g., low installation cost, unattended network operation), due to the lack of a physical line of defense (i.e., there are no gateways or switches to monitor the information flow), the security of such networks is a big concern, especially for the applications where confidentiality has prime importance. Therefore, in order to operate WSNs in a secure way, any kind of intrusions should be detected before attackers can harm the network (i.e., sensor nodes) and/or information destination (i.e., data sink or base station). In this article, a survey of the state-of-the-art in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) that are proposed for WSNs is presented. Firstly, detailed information about IDSs is provided. Secondly, a brief survey of IDSs proposed for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) is presented and applicability of those systems to WSNs are discussed. Thirdly, IDSs proposed for WSNs are presented. This is followed by the analysis and comparison of each scheme along with their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, guidelines on IDSs that are potentially applicable to WSNs are provided. Our survey is concluded by highlighting open research issues in the field.

Hessami, A..  2014.  A framework for characterisation of complex systems and system of systems. World Automation Congress (WAC), 2014. :346-354.

The objective of this paper is to explore the current notions of systems and “System of Systems” and establish the case for quantitative characterization of their structural, behavioural and contextual facets that will pave the way for further formal development (mathematical formulation). This is partly driven by stakeholder needs and perspectives and also in response to the necessity to attribute and communicate the properties of a system more succinctly, meaningfully and efficiently. The systematic quantitative characterization framework proposed will endeavor to extend the notion of emergence that allows the definition of appropriate metrics in the context of a number of systems ontologies. The general characteristic and information content of the ontologies relevant to system and system of system will be specified but not developed at this stage. The current supra-system, system and sub-system hierarchy is also explored for the formalisation of a standard notation in order to depict a relative scale and order and avoid the seemingly arbitrary attributions.

Achouri, A., Hlaoui, Y.B., Jemni Ben Ayed, L..  2014.  Institution Theory for Services Oriented Applications. Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), 2014 IEEE 38th International. :516-521.

In the present paper, we present our approach for the transformation of workflow applications based on institution theory. The workflow application is modeled with UML Activity Diagram(UML AD). Then, for a formal verification purposes, the graphical model will be translated to an Event-B specification. Institution theory will be used in two levels. First, we defined a local semantic for UML AD and Event B specification using a categorical description of each one. Second, we defined institution comorphism to link the two defined institutions. The theoretical foundations of our approach will be studied in the same mathematical framework since the use of institution theory. The resulted Event-B specification, after applying the transformation approach, will be used for the formal verification of functional proprieties and the verification of absences of problems such deadlock. Additionally, with the institution comorphism, we define a semantic correctness and coherence of the model transformation.

Lichen Zhang.  2014.  Convergence of physical system and cyber system modeling methods for aviation cyber physical control system. Information and Automation (ICIA), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :542-547.

Recent attention to aviation cyber physical systems (ACPS) is driven by the need for seamless integration of design disciplines that dominate physical world and cyber world convergence. System convergence is a big obstacle to good aviation cyber-physical system (ACPS) design, which is due to a lack of an adequate scientific theoretical foundation for the subject. The absence of a good understanding of the science of aviation system convergence is not due to neglect, but rather due to its difficulty. Most complex aviation system builders have abandoned any science or engineering discipline for system convergence they simply treat it as a management problem. Aviation System convergence is almost totally absent from software engineering and engineering curricula. Hence, system convergence is particularly challenging in ACPS where fundamentally different physical and computational design concerns intersect. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach to handle System convergence of aviation cyber physical systems based on multi-dimensions, multi-views, multi-paradigm and multiple tools. This model-integrated development approach addresses the development needs of cyber physical systems through the pervasive use of models, and physical world, cyber world can be specified and modeled together, cyber world and physical world can be converged entirely, and cyber world models and physical world model can be integrated seamlessly. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated by means of one practical case study: specifying and modeling Aircraft Systems. In this paper, We specify and model Aviation Cyber-Physical Systems with integrating Modelica, Modelicaml and Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL), the physical world is modeled by Modelica and Modelicaml, the cyber part is modeled by AADL and Modelicaml.

Slavin, R., Hui Shen, Jianwei Niu.  2012.  Characterizations and boundaries of security requirements patterns. Requirements Patterns (RePa), 2012 IEEE Second International Workshop on. :48-53.

Very often in the software development life cycle, security is applied too late or important security aspects are overlooked. Although the use of security patterns is gaining popularity, the current state of security requirements patterns is such that there is not much in terms of a defining structure. To address this issue, we are working towards defining the important characteristics as well as the boundaries for security requirements patterns in order to make them more effective. By examining an existing general pattern format that describes how security patterns should be structured and comparing it to existing security requirements patterns, we are deriving characterizations and boundaries for security requirements patterns. From these attributes, we propose a defining format. We hope that these can reduce user effort in elicitation and specification of security requirements patterns.