Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-03-09
Philipcris C Encarnacion, Bobby D Gerardo, Alexander A Hernandez.  2020.  Performance Analysis on Enhanced Round Function of SIMECK Block Cipher. 2020 12th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN).

There are various Lightweight Block Ciphers (LBC) nowadays that exist to meet the demand on security requirements of the current trend in computing world, the application in the resource-constrained devices, and the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. One way to evaluate these LBCs is to conduct a performance analysis. Performance evaluation parameters seek appropriate value such as encryption time, security level, scalability, and flexibility. Like SIMECK block cipher whose algorithm design was anchored with the SIMON and SPECK block ciphers were efficient in security and performance, there is a need to revisit its design. This paper aims to present a comparative study on the performance analysis of the enhanced round function of the SIMECK Family block cipher. The enhanced ARX structure of the round function on the three variants shows an efficient performance over the original algorithm in different simulations using the following methods of measurement; avalanche effect, runtime performance, and brute-force attack. Its recommended that the enhanced round function of the SIMECK family be evaluated by different security measurements and attacks.

2020-11-20
Koo, J., Kim, Y., Lee, S..  2019.  Security Requirements for Cloud-based C4I Security Architecture. 2019 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1—4.
With the development of cloud computing technology, developed countries including the U.S. are performing the efficiency of national defense and public sector, national innovation, and construction of the infrastructure for cloud computing environment through the policies that apply cloud computing. Korea Military is also considering that apply the cloud computing technology into its national defense command control system. However, only existing security requirements for national defense information system cannot solve the problem related security vulnerabilities of cloud computing. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to design the secure security architecture of national defense command control system considering security requirements related to cloud computing. This study analyze the security requirements needed when the U.S. military apply the cloud computing system. It also analyze existing security requirements for Korea national defense information system and security requirements for cloud computing system and draw the security requirements needed to Korea national defense information system based on cloud computing.
Moghaddam, F. F., Wieder, P., Yahyapour, R., Khodadadi, T..  2018.  A Reliable Ring Analysis Engine for Establishment of Multi-Level Security Management in Clouds. 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :1—5.
Security and Privacy challenges are the most obstacles for the advancement of cloud computing and the erosion of trust boundaries already happening in organizations is amplified and accelerated by this emerging technology. Policy Management Frameworks are the most proper solutions to create dedicated security levels based on the sensitivity of resources and according to the mapping process between requirements cloud customers and capabilities of service providers. The most concerning issue in these frameworks is the rate of perfect matches between capabilities and requirements. In this paper, a reliable ring analysis engine has been introduced to efficiently map the security requirements of cloud customers to the capabilities of service provider and to enhance the rate of perfect matches between them for establishment of different security levels in clouds. In the suggested model a structural index has been introduced to receive the requirement and efficiently map them to the most proper security mechanism of the service provider. Our results show that this index-based engine enhances the rate of perfect matches considerably and decreases the detected conflicts in syntactic and semantic analysis.
2020-11-17
Qian, K., Parizi, R. M., Lo, D..  2018.  OWASP Risk Analysis Driven Security Requirements Specification for Secure Android Mobile Software Development. 2018 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—2.
The security threats to mobile applications are growing explosively. Mobile apps flaws and security defects open doors for hackers to break in and access sensitive information. Defensive requirements analysis should be an integral part of secure mobile SDLC. Developers need to consider the information confidentiality and data integrity, to verify the security early in the development lifecycle rather than fixing the security holes after attacking and data leaks take place. Early eliminating known security vulnerabilities will help developers increase the security of apps and reduce the likelihood of exploitation. However, many software developers lack the necessary security knowledge and skills at the development stage, and that's why Secure Mobile Software Development education is very necessary for mobile software engineers. In this paper, we propose a guided security requirement analysis based on OWASP Mobile Top ten security risk recommendations for Android mobile software development and its traceability of the developmental controls in SDLC. Building secure apps immune to the OWASP Mobile Top ten risks would be an effective approach to provide very useful mobile security guidelines.
2020-11-09
Muller, T., Walz, A., Kiefer, M., Doran, H. Dermot, Sikora, A..  2018.  Challenges and prospects of communication security in real-time ethernet automation systems. 2018 14th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS). :1–9.
Real-Time Ethernet has become the major communication technology for modern automation and industrial control systems. On the one hand, this trend increases the need for an automation-friendly security solution, as such networks can no longer be considered sufficiently isolated. On the other hand, it shows that, despite diverging requirements, the domain of Operational Technology (OT) can derive advantage from high-volume technology of the Information Technology (IT) domain. Based on these two sides of the same coin, we study the challenges and prospects of approaches to communication security in real-time Ethernet automation systems. In order to capitalize the expertise aggregated in decades of research and development, we put a special focus on the reuse of well-established security technology from the IT domain. We argue that enhancing such technology to become automation-friendly is likely to result in more robust and secure designs than greenfield designs. Because of its widespread deployment and the (to this date) nonexistence of a consistent security architecture, we use PROFINET as a showcase of our considerations. Security requirements for this technology are defined and different well-known solutions are examined according their suitability for PROFINET. Based on these findings, we elaborate the necessary adaptions for the deployment on PROFINET.
2020-10-19
Hasan, Khondokar Fida, Kaur, Tarandeep, Hasan, Md. Mhedi, Feng, Yanming.  2019.  Cognitive Internet of Vehicles: Motivation, Layered Architecture and Security Issues. 2019 International Conference on Sustainable Technologies for Industry 4.0 (STI). :1–6.
Over the past few years, we have experienced great technological advancements in the information and communication field, which has significantly contributed to reshaping the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) concept. Evolving from the platform of a collection of sensors aiming to collect data, the data exchanged paradigm among vehicles is shifted from the local network to the cloud. With the introduction of cloud and edge computing along with ubiquitous 5G mobile network, it is expected to see the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in data processing and smart decision imminent. So as to fully understand the future automobile scenario in this verge of industrial revolution 4.0, it is necessary first of all to get a clear understanding of the cutting-edge technologies that going to take place in the automotive ecosystem so that the cyber-physical impact on transportation system can be measured. CIoV, which is abbreviated from Cognitive Internet of Vehicle, is one of the recently proposed architectures of the technological evolution in transportation, and it has amassed great attention. It introduces cloud-based artificial intelligence and machine learning into transportation system. What are the future expectations of CIoV? To fully contemplate this architecture's future potentials, and milestones set to achieve, it is crucial to understand all the technologies that leaned into it. Also, the security issues to meet the security requirements of its practical implementation. Aiming to that, this paper presents the evolution of CIoV along with the layer abstractions to outline the distinctive functional parts of the proposed architecture. It also gives an investigation of the prime security and privacy issues associated with technological evolution to take measures.
2020-10-16
Supriyanto, Aji, Diartono, Dwi Agus, Hartono, Budi, Februariyanti, Herny.  2019.  Inclusive Security Models To Building E-Government Trust. 2019 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Computational Sciences (ICICoS). :1—6.

The low attention to security and privacy causes some problems on data and information that can lead to a lack of public trust in e-Gov service. Security threats are not only included in technical issues but also non-technical issues and therefore, it needs the implementation of inclusive security. The application of inclusive security to e-Gov needs to develop a model involving security and privacy requirements as a trusted security solution. The method used is the elicitation of security and privacy requirements in a security perspective. Identification is carried out on security and privacy properties, then security and privacy relationships are determined. The next step is developing the design of an inclusive security model on e-Gov. The last step is doing an analysis of e-Gov service activities and the role of inclusive security. The results of this study identified security and privacy requirements for building inclusive security. Identification of security requirements involves properties such as confidentiality (C), integrity (I), availability (A). Meanwhile, privacy requirement involves authentication (Au), authorization (Az), and Non-repudiation (Nr) properties. Furthermore, an inclusive security design model on e-Gov requires trust of internet (ToI) and trust of government (ToG) as an e-Gov service provider. Access control is needed to provide solutions to e-Gov service activities.

2020-08-28
Dauenhauer, Ralf, Müller, Tobias.  2016.  An Evaluation of Information Connection in Augmented Reality for 3D Scenes with Occlusion. 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR-Adjunct). :235—237.
Most augmented reality applications connect virtual information to anchors, i.e. physical places or objects, by using spatial overlays or proximity. However, for industrial use cases this is not always feasible because specific parts must remain fully visible in order to meet work or security requirements. In these situations virtual information must be displayed at alternative positions while connections to anchors must still be clearly recognizable. In our previous research we were the first to show that for simple scenes connection lines are most suitable for this. To extend these results to more complex environments, we conducted an experiment on the effects of visual interruptions in connection lines and incorrect occlusion. Completion time and subjective mental effort for search tasks were used as measures. Our findings confirm that also in 3D scenes with partial occlusion connection lines are preferable to connect virtual information with anchors if an assignment via overlay or close proximity is not feasible. The results further imply that neither incorrectly used depth cues nor missing parts of connection lines make a significant difference concerning completion time or subjective mental effort. For designers of industrial augmented reality applications this means that they can choose either visualization based on their needs.
2020-08-10
Almajed, Hisham N., Almogren, Ahmad S..  2019.  SE-Enc: A Secure and Efficient Encoding Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography. IEEE Access. 7:175865–175878.
Many applications use asymmetric cryptography to secure communications between two parties. One of the main issues with asymmetric cryptography is the need for vast amounts of computation and storage. While this may be true, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to asymmetric cryptography used widely in low computation devices due to its effectiveness in generating small keys with a strong encryption mechanism. The ECC decreases power consumption and increases device performance, thereby making it suitable for a wide range of devices, ranging from sensors to the Internet of things (IoT) devices. It is necessary for the ECC to have a strong implementation to ensure secure communications, especially when encoding a message to an elliptic curve. It is equally important for the ECC to secure the mapping of the message to the curve used in the encryption. This work objective is to propose a trusted and proofed scheme that offers authenticated encryption (AE) for both encoding and mapping a message to the curve. In addition, this paper provides analytical results related to the security requirements of the proposed scheme against several encryption techniques. Additionally, a comparison is undertaken between the SE-Enc and other state-of-the-art encryption schemes to evaluate the performance of each scheme.
2020-07-24
Navya, J M, Sanjay, H A, Deepika, KM.  2018.  Securing smart grid data under key exposure and revocation in cloud computing. 2018 3rd International Conference on Circuits, Control, Communication and Computing (I4C). :1—4.
Smart grid systems data has been exposed to several threats and attacks from different perspectives and have resulted in several system failures. Obtaining security of data and key exposure and enhancing system ability in data collection and transmission process are challenging, on the grounds smart grid data is sensitive and enormous sum. In this paper we introduce smart grid data security method along with advanced Cipher text policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE). Cloud supported IoT is widely used in smart grid systems. Smart IoT devices collect data and perform status management. Data obtained from the IOT devices will be divided into blocks and encrypted data will be stored in different cloud server with different encrypted keys even when one cloud server is assaulted and encrypted key is exposed data cannot be decrypted, thereby the transmission and encryption process are done in correspondingly. We protect access-tree structure information even after the data is shared to user by solving revocation problem in which cloud will inform data owner to revoke and update encryption key after user has downloaded the data, which preserves the data privacy from unauthorized users. The analysis of the system concludes that our proposed system can meet the security requirements in smart grid systems along with cloud-Internet of things.
2020-06-15
Gressl, Lukas, Steger, Christian, Neffe, Ulrich.  2019.  Consideration of Security Attacks in the Design Space Exploration of Embedded Systems. 2019 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :530–537.
Designing secure systems is a complex task, particularly for designers who are no security experts. Cyber security plays a key role in embedded systems, especially for the domain of the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT systems of this kind are becoming increasingly important in daily life as they simplify various tasks. They are usually small, either embedded into bigger systems or battery driven, and perform monitoring or one shot tasks. Thus, they are subject to manifold constraints in terms of performance, power consumption, chip area, etc. As they are continuously connected to the internet and utilize our private data to perform their tasks, they are interesting for potential attackers. Cyber security thus plays an important role for the design of an IoT system. As the usage of security measures usually increases both computation time, as well as power consumption, a conflict between these constraints must be solved. For the designers of such systems, balancing these constraints constitutes a highly complex task. In this paper we propose a novel approach for considering possible security attacks on embedded systems, simplifying the consideration of security requirements immediately at the start of the design process. We introduce a security aware design space exploration framework which based on an architectural, behavioral and security attack description, finds the optimal design for IoT systems. We also demonstrate the feasibility and the benefits of our framework based on a door access system use case.
Zhong-hua, WANG, Sha-sha, GAO, Ya-hui, LI.  2019.  Implementation of Multi-level Security Domain Scheme for Embedded Computer Based on MILS Architecture. 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1597–1601.
For multiple embedded computers working together, the functional failure resulting from the underlying hardware or system crash will cause a sudden abort of applications. Different types of applications may have security requirements for data isolation and access control. Therefore, we propose a scheme to implement multi-level security domain dynamic management oriented embedded computers based on MILS architecture. Firstly, the scheme builds local security policy items and access control lists according to type, function and security level. After that, security domain of all applications is constructed to achieve the safety purpose that applications can perform migration cross partitions and cross platforms. Our experiments and analysis show that the proposed scheme is feasible and correct.
2020-06-01
Pruthi, Vardaan, Mittal, Kanika, Sharma, Nikhil, Kaushik, Ila.  2019.  Network Layers Threats its Countermeasures in WSNs. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Communication, and Intelligent Systems (ICCCIS). :156—163.

WSN can be termed as a collection of dimensionally diffused nodes which are capable of surveilling and analyzing their surroundings. The sensors are delicate, transportable and small in size while being economical at the same time. However, the diffused nature of these networks also exposes them to a variety of security hazards. Hence, ensuring a reliable file exchange in these networks is not an easy job due to various security requirements that must be fulfilled. In this paper we concentrate mainly on network layer threats and their security countermeasures to overcome the scope of intruders to access the information without having any authentication on the network layer. Various network layer intrusions that are discussed here include Sinkhole Attack, Sybil Attack, Wormhole Attack, Selective Forwarding Attack, Blackhole Attack And Hello Flood Attack.

2020-04-17
Jmila, Houda, Blanc, Gregory.  2019.  Designing Security-Aware Service Requests for NFV-Enabled Networks. 2019 28th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1—9.

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is a recent concept where virtualization enables the shift from network functions (e.g., routers, switches, load-balancers, proxies) on specialized hardware appliances to software images running on all-purpose, high-volume servers. The resource allocation problem in the NFV environment has received considerable attention in the past years. However, little attention was paid to the security aspects of the problem in spite of the increasing number of vulnerabilities faced by cloud-based applications. Securing the services is an urgent need to completely benefit from the advantages offered by NFV. In this paper, we show how a network service request, composed of a set of service function chains (SFC) should be modified and enriched to take into consideration the security requirements of the supported service. We examine the well-known security best practices and propose a two-step algorithm that extends the initial SFC requests to a more complex chaining model that includes the security requirements of the service.

2020-03-23
Xu, Yilin, Ge, Weimin, Li, Xiaohong, Feng, Zhiyong, Xie, Xiaofei, Bai, Yude.  2019.  A Co-Occurrence Recommendation Model of Software Security Requirement. 2019 International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering (TASE). :41–48.
To guarantee the quality of software, specifying security requirements (SRs) is essential for developing systems, especially for security-critical software systems. However, using security threat to determine detailed SR is quite difficult according to Common Criteria (CC), which is too confusing and technical for non-security specialists. In this paper, we propose a Co-occurrence Recommend Model (CoRM) to automatically recommend software SRs. In this model, the security threats of product are extracted from security target documents of software, in which the related security requirements are tagged. In order to establish relationships between software security threat and security requirement, semantic similarities between different security threat is calculated by Skip-thoughts Model. To evaluate our CoRM model, over 1000 security target documents of 9 types software products are exploited. The results suggest that building a CoRM model via semantic similarity is feasible and reliable.
2020-03-09
Salehie, Mazeiar, Pasquale, Liliana, Omoronyia, Inah, Nuseibeh, Bashar.  2012.  Adaptive Security and Privacy in Smart Grids: A Software Engineering Vision. 2012 First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids). :46–49.

Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements' failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.

2020-02-17
Hadar, Ethan, Hassanzadeh, Amin.  2019.  Big Data Analytics on Cyber Attack Graphs for Prioritizing Agile Security Requirements. 2019 IEEE 27th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE). :330–339.

In enterprise environments, the amount of managed assets and vulnerabilities that can be exploited is staggering. Hackers' lateral movements between such assets generate a complex big data graph, that contains potential hacking paths. In this vision paper, we enumerate risk-reduction security requirements in large scale environments, then present the Agile Security methodology and technologies for detection, modeling, and constant prioritization of security requirements, agile style. Agile Security models different types of security requirements into the context of an attack graph, containing business process targets and critical assets identification, configuration items, and possible impacts of cyber-attacks. By simulating and analyzing virtual adversary attack paths toward cardinal assets, Agile Security examines the business impact on business processes and prioritizes surgical requirements. Thus, handling these requirements backlog that are constantly evaluated as an outcome of employing Agile Security, gradually increases system hardening, reduces business risks and informs the IT service desk or Security Operation Center what remediation action to perform next. Once remediated, Agile Security constantly recomputes residual risk, assessing risk increase by threat intelligence or infrastructure changes versus defender's remediation actions in order to drive overall attack surface reduction.

2020-02-10
Ben Othmane, Lotfi, Jamil, Ameerah-Muhsina, Abdelkhalek, Moataz.  2019.  Identification of the Impacts of Code Changes on the Security of Software. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 2:569–574.
Companies develop their software in versions and iterations. Ensuring the security of each additional version using code review is costly and time consuming. This paper investigates automated tracing of the impacts of code changes on the security of a given software. To this end, we use call graphs to model the software code, and security assurance cases to model the security requirements of the software. Then we relate assurance case elements to code through the entry point methods of the software, creating a map of monitored security functions. This mapping allows to evaluate the security requirements that are affected by code changes. The approach is implemented in a set of tools and evaluated using three open-source ERP/E-commerce software applications. The limited evaluation showed that the approach is effective in identifying the impacts of code changes on the security of the software. The approach promises to considerably reduce the security assessment time of the subsequent releases and iterations of software, keeping the initial security state throughout the software lifetime.
2020-01-27
Zhi, Li, Yanzhu, Liu, Di, Liu, Nan, Zhang, Xueying, Ding, Yuanyuan, Liu.  2019.  A Hypergraph-Based Key Management Scheme for Smart Charging Networking. 2019 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC). :4904–4908.

In this article, to deal with data security requirements of electric vehicle users, a key management scheme for smart charging has been studied. According to the characteristics of the network, three elements and a two-subnetwork model between the charging and the electric vehicle users have been designed. Based on the hypergraph theory, the hypergraph structure of the smart charging network is proposed. And the key management scheme SCHKM is designed to satisfy the operational and security requirements of this structure. The efficiency of SCHKM scheme is analyzed from the cost experiment of key generation and key storage. The experimental results show that compared with the LKH, OFT and GKMP, the proposed key management scheme has obvious advantages in multi-user and key generation cost.

2020-01-21
Hou, Ye, Such, Jose, Rashid, Awais.  2019.  Understanding Security Requirements for Industrial Control System Supply Chains. 2019 IEEE/ACM 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS). :50–53.

We address the need for security requirements to take into account risks arising from complex supply chains underpinning cyber-physical infrastructures such as industrial control systems (ICS). We present SEISMiC (SEcurity Industrial control SysteM supply Chains), a framework that takes into account the whole spectrum of security risks - from technical aspects through to human and organizational issues - across an ICS supply chain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of SEISMiC through a supply chain risk assessment of Natanz, Iran's nuclear facility that was the subject of the Stuxnet attack.

2019-11-26
Samaila, Musa G., Sequeiros, João B. F., Freire, Mário M., Inácio, Pedro R. M..  2018.  Security Threats and Possible Countermeasures in IoT Applications Covering Different Industry Domains. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :16:1-16:9.

The world is witnessing the emerging role of Internet of Things (IoT) as a technology that is transforming different industries, global community and its economy. Currently a plethora of interconnected smart devices have been deployed for diverse pervasive applications and services, and billions more are expected to be connected to the Internet in the near future. The potential benefits of IoT include improved quality of life, convenience, enhanced energy efficiency, and more productivity. Alongside these potential benefits, however, come increased security risks and potential for abuse. Arguably, this is partly because many IoT start-ups and electronics hobbyists lack security expertise, and some established companies do not make security a priority in their designs, and hence they produce IoT devices that are often ill-equipped in terms of security. In this paper, we discuss different IoT application areas, and identify security threats in IoT architecture. We consider security requirements and present typical security threats for each of the application domains. Finally, we present several possible security countermeasures, and introduce the IoT Hardware Platform Security Advisor (IoT-HarPSecA) framework, which is still under development. IoT-HarPSecA is aimed at facilitating the design and prototyping of secure IoT devices.

2019-09-05
Monteuuis, Jean-Philippe, Boudguiga, Aymen, Zhang, Jun, Labiod, Houda, Servel, Alain, Urien, Pascal.  2018.  SARA: Security Automotive Risk Analysis Method. Proceedings of the 4th ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Security. :3-14.

Connected and automated vehicles aim to improve the comfort and the safety of the driver and passengers. To this end, car manufacturers continually improve actual standardized methods to ensure their customers safety, privacy, and vehicles security. However, these methods do not support fully autonomous vehicles, linkability and confusion threats. To address such gaps, we propose a systematic threat analysis and risk assessment framework, SARA, which comprises an improved threat model, a new attack method/asset map, the involvement of the attacker in the attack tree, and a new driving system observation metric. Finally, we demonstrate its feasibility in assessing risk with two use cases: Vehicle Tracking and Comfortable Emergency Brake Failure.

2019-06-17
Frey, Sylvain, Rashid, Awais, Anthonysamy, Pauline, Pinto-Albuquerque, Maria, Naqvi, Syed Asad.  2018.  The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: A Study of Security Decisions in a Cyber-Physical Systems Game. Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering. :496-496.

Motivation: The security of any system is a direct consequence of stakeholders' decisions regarding security requirements. Such decisions are taken with varying degrees of expertise, and little is currently understood about how various demographics - security experts, general computer scientists, managers - approach security decisions and the strategies that underpin those decisions. What are the typical decision patterns, the consequences of such patterns and their impact on the security of the system in question? Nor is there any substantial understanding of how the strategies and decision patterns of these different groups contrast. Is security expertise necessarily an advantage when making security decisions in a given context? Answers to these questions are key to understanding the "how" and "why" behind security decision processes. The Game: In this talk1, we present a tabletop game: Decisions and Disruptions (D-D)2 that tasks a group of players with managing the security of a small utility company while facing a variety of threats. The game is kept short - 2 hours - and simple enough to be played without prior training. A cyber-physical infrastructure, depicted through a Lego\textregistered board, makes the game easy to understand and accessible to players from varying backgrounds and security expertise, without being too trivial a setting for security experts. Key insights: We played D-D with 43 players divided into homogeneous groups: 4 groups of security experts, 4 groups of nontechnical managers and 4 groups of general computer scientists. • Strategies: Security experts had a strong interest in advanced technological solutions and tended to neglect intelligence gathering, to their own detriment. Managers, too, were technology-driven and focused on data protection while neglecting human factors more than other groups. Computer scientists tended to balance human factors and intelligence gathering with technical solutions, and achieved the best results of the three demographics. • Decision Processes: Technical experience significantly changes the way players think. Teams with little technical experience had shallow, intuition-driven discussions with few concrete arguments. Technical teams, and the most experienced in particular, had much richer debates, driven by concrete scenarios, anecdotes from experience, and procedural thinking. Security experts showed a high confidence in their decisions - despite some of them having bad consequences - while the other groups tended to doubt their own skills - even when they were playing good games. • Patterns: A number of characteristic plays were identified, some good (balance between priorities, open-mindedness, and adapting strategies based on inputs that challenge one's pre-conceptions), some bad (excessive focus on particular issues, confidence in charismatic leaders), some ugly ("tunnel vision" syndrome by over-confident players). These patterns are documented in the full paper - showing the virtue of the positive ones, discouraging the negative ones, and inviting the readers to do their own introspection. Conclusion: Beyond the analysis of the security decisions of the three demographics, there is a definite educational and awareness-raising aspect to D-D (as noted consistently by players in all our subject groups). Game boxes will be brought to the conference for demonstration purposes, and the audience will be invited to experiment with D-D themselves, make their own decisions, and reflect on their own perception of security.

2019-02-08
Bekmezci, A. B., Eri\c s, Ç, Bölük, P. S..  2018.  A Multi-Layered Approach to Securing Enterprise Applications by Using TLS, Two-Factor Authentication and Single Sign-On. 2018 26th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1-4.

With the recent advances in information and communication technology, Web and Mobile Internet applications have become a part of our daily lives. These developments have also emerged Information Security concept due to the necessity of protecting information of institutions from Internet attackers. There are many security approaches to provide information security in Enterprise applications. However, using only one of these approaches may not be efficient enough to obtain security. This paper describes a Multi-Layered Framework of implementing two-factor and single sign-on authentication together. The proposed framework generates unique one-time passwords (OTP), which are used to authenticate application data. Nevertheless, using only OTP mechanism does not meet security requirements. Therefore, implementing a separate authentication application which has single sign-on capability is necessary.

2019-01-31
Kazemi, M., Delavar, M., Mohajeri, J., Salmasizadeh, M..  2018.  On the Security of an Efficient Anonymous Authentication with Conditional Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE). :510–514.

Design of anonymous authentication scheme is one of the most important challenges in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Most of the existing schemes have high computational and communication overhead and they do not meet security requirements. Recently, Azees et al. have introduced an Efficient Anonymous Authentication with Conditional Privacy-Preserving (EAAP) scheme for VANET and claimed that it is secure. In this paper, we show that this protocol is vulnerable against replay attack, impersonation attack and message modification attack. Also, we show that the messages sent by a vehicle are linkable. Therefore, an adversary can easily track the vehicles. In addition, it is shown that vehicles face with some problems when they enter in a new Trusted Authority (TA) range. As a solution, we propose a new authentication protocol which is more secure than EAAP protocol without increasing its computational and communication overhead.