Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-08-31
Subairu, Sikiru, Alhassan, John, Abdulhamid, Shafii, Ojeniyi, Joseph.  2020.  A Review of Detection Methodologies for Quick Response code Phishing Attacks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1—5.
Recently, phishing attacks have taking a new dimension with the addition of quick response code to phishing attacks vectors. Quick response code phishing attack is when an attacker lures its victims to voluntarily divulge personal information such as password, personal identification number, username and other information such as online banking details through the use of quick response code. This attack is on the rise as more and more people have adopted mobile phone usage not just for communication only but to perform transaction seamlessly. The ease of creation and use of quick response code has made it easily acceptable to both provider of goods and services and consumers. This attack is semantic as it exploits human vulnerabilities; as users can hardly know what is hidden in the quick response code before usage. This study reviewed various methodologies that earlier researcher have used to detect this semantic-based attack of phishing. The strength of each methodology, its weakness and general research gaps identified.
Ge, Chonghui, Sun, Jian, Sun, Yuxin, Di, Yunlong, Zhu, Yongjin, Xie, Linfeng, Zhang, Yingzhou.  2020.  Reversible Database Watermarking Based on Random Forest and Genetic Algorithm. 2020 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :239—247.
The advancing information technology is playing more and more important role in data mining of relational database.1 The transfer and sharing of databases cause the copyright-related security threats. Database watermarking technology can effectively solve the problem with copyright protection and traceability, which has been attracting researchers' attention. In this paper, we proposed a novel, robust and reversible database watermarking technique, named histogram shifting watermarking based on random forest and genetic algorithm (RF-GAHCSW). It greatly improves the watermark capacity by means of histogram width reduction and eliminates the impact of the prediction error attack. Meanwhile, random forest algorithm is used to select important attributes for watermark embedding, and genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimal secret key for the database grouping and determine the position of watermark embedding to improve the watermark capacity and reduce data distortion. The experimental results show that the robustness of RF-GAHCSW is greatly improved, compared with the original HSW, and the distortion has little effect on the usability of database.
2021-05-18
Sinhabahu, Nadun, Wimalaratne, Prasad, Wijesiriwardana, Chaman.  2020.  Secure Codecity with Evolution: Visualizing Security Vulnerability Evolution of Software Systems. 2020 20th International Conference on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions (ICTer). :1–2.
The analysis of large-scale software and finding security vulnerabilities while its evolving is difficult without using supplementary tools, because of the size and complexity of today's systems. However just by looking at a report, doesn't transmit the overall picture of the system in terms of security vulnerabilities and its evolution throughout the project lifecycle. Software visualization is a program comprehension technique used in the context of the present and explores large amounts of information precisely. For the analysis of security vulnerabilities of complex software systems, Secure Codecity with Evolution is an interactive 3D visualization tool that can be utilized. Its studies techniques and methods are used for graphically illustrating security aspects and the evolution of software. The Main goal of the proposed Framework defined as uplift, simplify, and clarify the mental representation that a software engineer has of a software system and its evolution in terms of its security. Static code was visualised based on a city metaphor, which represents classes as buildings and packages as districts of a city. Identified Vulnerabilities were represented in a different color according to the severity. To visualize a number of different aspects, A large variety of options were given. Users can evaluate the evolution of the security vulnerabilities of a system on several versions using Matrices provided which will help users go get an overall understanding about security vulnerabilities varies with different versions of software. This framework was implemented using SonarQube for software vulnerability detection and ThreeJs for implementing the City Metaphor. The evaluation results evidently show that our framework surpasses the existing tools in terms of accuracy, efficiency and usability.
2021-05-13
Lit, Yanyan, Kim, Sara, Sy, Eric.  2021.  A Survey on Amazon Alexa Attack Surfaces. 2021 IEEE 18th Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–7.
Since being launched in 2014, Alexa, Amazon's versatile cloud-based voice service, is now active in over 100 million households worldwide [1]. Alexa's user-friendly, personalized vocal experience offers customers a more natural way of interacting with cutting-edge technology by allowing the ability to directly dictate commands to the assistant. Now in the present year, the Alexa service is more accessible than ever, available on hundreds of millions of devices from not only Amazon but third-party device manufacturers. Unfortunately, that success has also been the source of concern and controversy. The success of Alexa is based on its effortless usability, but in turn, that has led to a lack of sufficient security. This paper surveys various attacks against Amazon Alexa ecosystem including attacks against the frontend voice capturing and the cloud backend voice command recognition and processing. Overall, we have identified six attack surfaces covering the lifecycle of Alexa voice interaction that spans several stages including voice data collection, transmission, processing and storage. We also discuss the potential mitigation solutions for each attack surface to better improve Alexa or other voice assistants in terms of security and privacy.
2021-04-27
Mladenova, T..  2020.  Software Quality Metrics – Research, Analysis and Recommendation. 2020 International Conference Automatics and Informatics (ICAI). :1—5.

Software Quality Testing has always been a crucial part of the software development process and lately, there has been a rise in the usage of testing applications. While a well-planned and performed test, regardless of its nature - automated or manual, is a key factor when deciding on the results of the test, it is often not enough to give a more deep and thorough view of the whole process. That can be achieved with properly selected software metrics that can be used for proper risk assessment and evaluation of the development.This paper considers the most commonly used metrics when measuring a performed test and examines metrics that can be applied in the development process.

Tolsdorf, J., Iacono, L. Lo.  2020.  Vision: Shred If Insecure – Persuasive Message Design as a Lesson and Alternative to Previous Approaches to Usable Secure Email Interfaces. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :172–177.
Despite the advances in research on usable secure email, the majority of mail user agents found in practice still violates best practices in UI design and uses ineffective and inhomogeneous design strategies to communicate and let users control the security status of an email message.We propose a novel interaction and design concept that we refer to as persuasive message design. Our approach is derived from heuristics and a systematic meta-study of existing HCI literature on email management, usable secure email and phishing research. Concluding on this body of knowledge we propose the design of interfaces that suppress weak cues and instead manipulate the display of emails according to their technical security level. Persuasive message design addresses several shortcomings of current secure email user interfaces and provides a consistent user experience that can be deployed even by email providers.
2021-04-08
Walia, K. S., Shenoy, S., Cheng, Y..  2020.  An Empirical Analysis on the Usability and Security of Passwords. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :1–8.
Security and usability are two essential aspects of a system, but they usually move in opposite directions. Sometimes, to achieve security, usability has to be compromised, and vice versa. Password-based authentication systems require both security and usability. However, to increase password security, absurd rules are introduced, which often drive users to compromise the usability of their passwords. Users tend to forget complex passwords and use techniques such as writing them down, reusing them, and storing them in vulnerable ways. Enhancing the strength while maintaining the usability of a password has become one of the biggest challenges for users and security experts. In this paper, we define the pronounceability of a password as a means to measure how easy it is to memorize - an aspect we associate with usability. We examine a dataset of more than 7 million passwords to determine whether the usergenerated passwords are secure. Moreover, we convert the usergenerated passwords into phonemes and measure the pronounceability of the phoneme-based representations. We then establish a relationship between the two and suggest how password creation strategies can be adapted to better align with both security and usability.
2021-03-18
Khan, A., Chefranov, A. G..  2020.  A Captcha-Based Graphical Password With Strong Password Space and Usability Study. 2020 International Conference on Electrical, Communication, and Computer Engineering (ICECCE). :1—6.

Security for authentication is required to give a superlative secure users' personal information. This paper presents a model of the Graphical password scheme under the impact of security and ease of use for user authentication. We integrate the concept of recognition with re-called and cued-recall based schemes to offer superior security compared to existing schemes. Click Symbols (CS) Alphabet combine into one entity: Alphanumeric (A) and Visual (V) symbols (CS-AV) is Captcha-based password scheme, we integrate it with recall-based n ×n grid points, where a user can draw the shape or pattern by the intersection of the grid points as a way to enter a graphical password. Next scheme, the combination of CS-AV with grid cells allows very large password space ( 2.4 ×104 bits of entropy) and provides reasonable usability results by determining an empirical study of memorable password space. Proposed schemes support most applicable platform for input devices and promising strong resistance to shoulder surfing attacks on a mobile device which can be occurred during unlocking (pattern) the smartphone.

2021-03-09
Toutara, F., Spathoulas, G..  2020.  A distributed biometric authentication scheme based on blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :470–475.

Biometric authentication is the preferred authentication scheme in modern computing systems. While it offers enhanced usability, it also requires cautious handling of sensitive users' biometric templates. In this paper, a distributed scheme that eliminates the requirement for a central node that holds users' biometric templates is presented. This is replaced by an Ethereum/IPFS combination to which the templates of the users are stored in a homomorphically encrypted form. The scheme enables the biometric authentication of the users by any third party service, while the actual biometric templates of the user never leave his device in non encrypted form. Secure authentication of users in enabled, while sensitive biometric data are not exposed to anyone. Experiments show that the scheme can be applied as an authentication mechanism with minimal time overhead.

2021-01-25
Oesch, S., Bridges, R., Smith, J., Beaver, J., Goodall, J., Huffer, K., Miles, C., Scofield, D..  2020.  An Assessment of the Usability of Machine Learning Based Tools for the Security Operations Center. 2020 International Conferences on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData) and IEEE Congress on Cybermatics (Cybermatics). :634—641.

Gartner, a large research and advisory company, anticipates that by 2024 80% of security operation centers (SOCs) will use machine learning (ML) based solutions to enhance their operations.11https://www.ciodive.com/news/how-data-science-tools-can-lighten-the-load-for-cybersecurity-teams/572209/ In light of such widespread adoption, it is vital for the research community to identify and address usability concerns. This work presents the results of the first in situ usability assessment of ML-based tools. With the support of the US Navy, we leveraged the national cyber range-a large, air-gapped cyber testbed equipped with state-of-the-art network and user emulation capabilities-to study six US Naval SOC analysts' usage of two tools. Our analysis identified several serious usability issues, including multiple violations of established usability heuristics for user interface design. We also discovered that analysts lacked a clear mental model of how these tools generate scores, resulting in mistrust \$a\$ and/or misuse of the tools themselves. Surprisingly, we found no correlation between analysts' level of education or years of experience and their performance with either tool, suggesting that other factors such as prior background knowledge or personality play a significant role in ML-based tool usage. Our findings demonstrate that ML-based security tool vendors must put a renewed focus on working with analysts, both experienced and inexperienced, to ensure that their systems are usable and useful in real-world security operations settings.

2021-01-20
Mindermann, K., Wagner, S..  2020.  Fluid Intelligence Doesn't Matter! Effects of Code Examples on the Usability of Crypto APIs. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceedings (ICSE-Companion). :306—307.

Context : Programmers frequently look for the code of previously solved problems that they can adapt for their own problem. Despite existing example code on the web, on sites like Stack Overflow, cryptographic Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are commonly misused. There is little known about what makes examples helpful for developers in using crypto APIs. Analogical problem solving is a psychological theory that investigates how people use known solutions to solve new problems. There is evidence that the capacity to reason and solve novel problems a.k.a Fluid Intelligence (Gf) and structurally and procedurally similar solutions support problem solving. Aim: Our goal is to understand whether similarity and Gf also have an effect in the context of using cryptographic APIs with the help of code examples. Method : We conducted a controlled experiment with 76 student participants developing with or without procedurally similar examples, one of two Java crypto libraries and measured the Gf of the participants as well as the effect on usability (effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction) and security bugs. Results: We observed a strong effect of code examples with a high procedural similarity on all dependent variables. Fluid intelligence Gf had no effect. It also made no difference which library the participants used. Conclusions: Example code must be more highly similar to a concrete solution, not very abstract and generic to have a positive effect in a development task.

2020-12-01
Weigelin, B. C., Mathiesen, M., Nielsen, C., Fischer, K., Nielsen, J..  2018.  Trust in Medical Human-Robot Interactions based on Kinesthetic guidance. 2018 27th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :901—908.

In medical human-robot interactions, trust plays an important role since for patients there may be more at stake than during other kinds of encounters with robots. In the current study, we address issues of trust in the interaction with a prototype of a therapeutic robot, the Universal RoboTrainer, in which the therapist records patient-specific tasks for the patient by means of kinesthetic guidance of the patients arm, which is connected to the robot. We carried out a user study with twelve pairs of participants who collaborate on recording a training program on the robot. We examine a) the degree with which participants identify the situation as uncomfortable or distressing, b) participants' own strategies to mitigate that stress, c) the degree to which the robot is held responsible for the problems occurring and the amount of agency ascribed to it, and d) when usability issues arise, what effect these have on participants' trust. We find signs of distress mostly in contexts with usability issues, as well as many verbal and kinesthetic mitigation strategies intuitively employed by the participants. Recommendations for robots to increase users' trust in kinesthetic interactions include the timely production of verbal cues that continuously confirm that everything is alright as well as increased contingency in the presentation of strategies for recovering from usability issues arising.

2020-10-16
Kő, Andrea, Molnár, Tamás, Mátyus, Bálint.  2018.  A User-centred Design Approach for Mobile- Government Systems for the Elderly. 2018 12th International Conference on Software, Knowledge, Information Management Applications (SKIMA). :1—7.

This paper aims to discover the characteristics of acceptance of mobile government systems by elderly. Several initiatives and projects offer various governmental services for them, like information sharing, alerting and mHealth services. All of them carry important benefits for this user group, but these can only be utilized if the user acceptance is at a certain level. This is a requirement in order for the users to perceive the services as a benefit and not as hindrance. The key aspects for high acceptance are usability and user-friendliness, which will lead to successful-government systems designed for the target group. We have applied a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods including an m-Government prototype to explore the key acceptance factors. Research approach utilizes the IGUAN framework, which is a user-driven method. We collected and analysed data guided by IGUAN framework about the acceptance of e-government services by elderly. The target group was recruited from Germany and Hungary. Our findings draw the attention to perceived security and perceived usability of an application; these are decisive factors for this target group.

Shayganmehr, Masoud, Montazer, Gholam Ali.  2019.  Identifying Indexes Affecting the Quality of E-Government Websites. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :167—171.

With the development of new technologies in the world, governments have tendency to make a communications with people and business with the help of such technologies. Electronic government (e-government) is defined as utilizing information technologies such as electronic networks, Internet and mobile phones by organizations and state institutions in order to making wide communication between citizens, business and different state institutions. Development of e-government starts with making website in order to share information with users and is considered as the main infrastructure for further development. Website assessment is considered as a way for improving service quality. Different international researches have introduced various indexes for website assessment, they only see some dimensions of website in their research. In this paper, the most important indexes for website quality assessment based on accurate review of previous studies are "Web design", "navigation", services", "maintenance and Support", "Citizens Participation", "Information Quality", "Privacy and Security", "Responsiveness", "Usability". Considering mentioned indexes in designing the website facilitates user interaction with the e-government websites.

2020-09-11
Zhang, Yang, Gao, Haichang, Pei, Ge, Luo, Sainan, Chang, Guoqin, Cheng, Nuo.  2019.  A Survey of Research on CAPTCHA Designing and Breaking Techniques. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :75—84.
The Internet plays an increasingly important role in people's lives, but it also brings security problems. CAPTCHA, which stands for Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart, has been widely used as a security mechanism. This paper outlines the scientific and technological progress in both the design and attack of CAPTCHAs related to these three CAPTCHA categories. It first presents a comprehensive survey of recent developments for each CAPTCHA type in terms of usability, robustness and their weaknesses and strengths. Second, it summarizes the attack methods for each category. In addition, the differences between the three CAPTCHA categories and the attack methods will also be discussed. Lastly, this paper provides suggestions for future research and proposes some problems worthy of further study.
Ababtain, Eman, Engels, Daniel.  2019.  Gestures Based CAPTCHAs the Use of Sensor Readings to Solve CAPTCHA Challenge on Smartphones. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :113—119.
We present novel CAPTCHA challenges based on user gestures designed for mobile. A gesture CAPTCHA challenge is a security mechanism to prevent malware from gaining access to network resources from mobile. Mobile devices contain a number of sensors that record the physical movement of the device. We utilized the accelerometer and gyroscope data as inputs to our novel CAPTCHAs to capture the physical manipulation of the device. We conducted an experimental study on a group of people. We discovered that younger people are able to solve this type of CAPTCHA challenges successfully in a short amount of time. We found that using accelerometer readings produces issues for some older people.
2020-09-04
Zheng, Shengbao, Zhou, Zhenyu, Tang, Heyi, Yang, Xiaowei.  2019.  SwitchMan: An Easy-to-Use Approach to Secure User Input and Output. 2019 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :105—113.

Modern operating systems for personal computers (including Linux, MAC, and Windows) provide user-level APIs for an application to access the I/O paths of another application. This design facilitates information sharing between applications, enabling applications such as screenshots. However, it also enables user-level malware to log a user's keystrokes or scrape a user's screen output. In this work, we explore a design called SwitchMan to protect a user's I/O paths against user-level malware attacks. SwitchMan assigns each user with two accounts: a regular one for normal operations and a protected one for inputting and outputting sensitive data. Each user account runs under a separate virtual terminal. Malware running under a user's regular account cannot access sensitive input/output under a user's protected account. At the heart of SwitchMan lies a secure protocol that enables automatic account switching when an application requires sensitive input/output from a user. Our performance evaluation shows that SwitchMan adds acceptable performance overhead. Our security and usability analysis suggests that SwitchMan achieves a better tradeoff between security and usability than existing solutions.

2020-08-13
Cheng, Chen, Xiaoli, Liu, Linfeng, Wei, Longxin, Lin, Xiaofeng, Wu.  2019.  Algorithm for k-anonymity based on ball-tree and projection area density partition. 2019 14th International Conference on Computer Science Education (ICCSE). :972—975.

K-anonymity is a popular model used in microdata publishing to protect individual privacy. This paper introduces the idea of ball tree and projection area density partition into k-anonymity algorithm.The traditional kd-tree implements the division by forming a super-rectangular, but the super-rectangular has the area angle, so it cannot guarantee that the records on the corner are most similar to the records in this area. In this paper, the super-sphere formed by the ball-tree is used to address this problem. We adopt projection area density partition to increase the density of the resulting recorded points. We implement our algorithm with the Gotrack dataset and the Adult dataset in UCI. The experimentation shows that the k-anonymity algorithm based on ball-tree and projection area density partition, obtains more anonymous groups, and the generalization rate is lower. The smaller the K is, the more obvious the result advantage is. The result indicates that our algorithm can make data usability even higher.

2020-07-13
Hepp, Thomas, Spaeh, Fabian, Schoenhals, Alexander, Ehret, Philip, Gipp, Bela.  2019.  Exploring Potentials and Challenges of Blockchain-based Public Key Infrastructures. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :847–852.
Traditional public key infrastructures (PKIs), in particular, X.509 and PGP, is plagued by security and usability issues. As reoccurring incidents show, these are not only of theoretical nature but allow attackers to inflict severe damage. Emerging blockchain technology allows for advances in this area, facilitating a trustless immutable ledger with fast consensus. There have been numerous proposals for utilization of the blockchain in the area of PKI, either as extensions upon existing methods or independent solutions. In this paper, we first study traditional PKI, then proceed with novel approaches, showing how they can improve upon recent issues. We provide a comprehensive evaluation, finding that independent blockchain-based solutions are preferable in the future, mainly due to their stronger security. However, global adoption of these yet requires advances in blockchain development, e.g., concerning scalability.
2020-03-23
Arul, Tolga, Anagnostopoulos, Nikolaos Athanasios, Katzenbeisser, Stefan.  2019.  Privacy Usability of IPTV Recommender Systems. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–2.
IPTV is capable of providing recommendations for upcoming TV programs based on consumer feedback. With the increasing popularity and performance of recommender systems, risks of user privacy breach emerge. Although several works about privacy-preserving designs of recommender systems exist in the literature, a detailed analysis of the current state-of-the-art regarding privacy as well as an investigation of the usability aspects of such systems, so far, have not received consideration. In this paper, we survey current approaches for recommender systems by studying their privacy and usability properties in the context of IPTV.
2020-03-02
Dutson, Jonathan, Allen, Danny, Eggett, Dennis, Seamons, Kent.  2019.  Don't Punish all of us: Measuring User Attitudes about Two-Factor Authentication. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :119–128.
Two-factor authentication (2FA) defends against password compromise by a remote attacker. We surveyed 4,275 students, faculty, and staff at Brigham Young University to measure user sentiment about Duo 2FA one year after the university adopted it. The results were mixed. A majority of the participants felt more secure using Duo and felt it was easy to use. About half of all participants reported at least one instance of being locked out of their university account because of an inability to authenticate with Duo. We found that students and faculty generally had more negative perceptions of Duo than staff. The survey responses reveal some pain points for Duo users. In response, we offer recommendations that reduce the frequency of 2FA for users. We also suggest UI changes that draw more attention to 2FA methods that do not require WiFi, the "Remember Me" setting, and the help utility.
2020-02-17
Zhang, Lili, Han, Dianqi, Li, Ang, Li, Tao, Zhang, Yan, Zhang, Yanchao.  2019.  WristUnlock: Secure and Usable Smartphone Unlocking with Wrist Wearables. 2019 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :28–36.
We propose WristUnlock, a novel technique that uses a wrist wearable to unlock a smartphone in a secure and usable fashion. WristUnlock explores both the physical proximity and secure Bluetooth connection between the smartphone and wrist wearable. There are two modes in WristUnlock with different security and usability features. In the WristRaise mode, the user raises his smartphone in his natural way with the same arm carrying the wrist wearable; the smartphone gets unlocked if the acceleration data on the smartphone and wrist wearable satisfy an anticipated relationship specific to the user himself. In the WristTouch mode, the wrist wearable sends a random number to the smartphone through both the Bluetooth channel and a touch-based physical channel; the smartphone gets unlocked if the numbers received from both channels are equal. We thoroughly analyze the security of WristUnlock and confirm its high efficacy through detailed experiments.
2020-01-02
Gallagher, Kevin, Patil, Sameer, Dolan-Gavitt, Brendan, McCoy, Damon, Memon, Nasir.  2018.  Peeling the Onion's User Experience Layer: Examining Naturalistic Use of the Tor Browser. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1290–1305.

The strength of an anonymity system depends on the number of users. Therefore, User eXperience (UX) and usability of these systems is of critical importance for boosting adoption and use. To this end, we carried out a study with 19 non-expert participants to investigate how users experience routine Web browsing via the Tor Browser, focusing particularly on encountered problems and frustrations. Using a mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative approach to study one week of naturalistic use of the Tor Browser, we uncovered a variety of UX issues, such as broken Web sites, latency, lack of common browsing conveniences, differential treatment of Tor traffic, incorrect geolocation, operational opacity, etc. We applied this insight to suggest a number of UX improvements that could mitigate the issues and reduce user frustration when using the Tor Browser.

2019-11-26
Aiken, William, Kim, Hyoungshick, Ryoo, Jungwoo, Rosson, Mary Beth.  2018.  An Implementation and Evaluation of Progressive Authentication Using Multiple Level Pattern Locks. 2018 16th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1-6.

This paper presents a possible implementation of progressive authentication using the Android pattern lock. Our key idea is to use one pattern for two access levels to the device; an abridged pattern is used to access generic applications and a second, extended and higher-complexity pattern is used less frequently to access more sensitive applications. We conducted a user study of 89 participants and a consecutive user survey on those participants to investigate the usability of such a pattern scheme. Data from our prototype showed that for unlocking lowsecurity applications the median unlock times for users of the multiple pattern scheme and conventional pattern scheme were 2824 ms and 5589 ms respectively, and the distributions in the two groups differed significantly (Mann-Whitney U test, p-value less than 0.05, two-tailed). From our user survey, we did not find statistically significant differences between the two groups for their qualitative responses regarding usability and security (t-test, p-value greater than 0.05, two-tailed), but the groups did not differ by more than one satisfaction rating at 90% confidence.

2019-09-09
Kumar, M., Bhandari, R., Rupani, A., Ansari, J. H..  2018.  Trust-Based Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocol Design with Security and QoS over MANET. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communication Engineering (ICACCE). :139-142.

Nowadays, The incorporation of different function of the network, as well as routing, administration, and security, is basic to the effective operation of a mobile circumstantial network these days, in MANET thought researchers manages the problems of QoS and security severally. Currently, each the aspects of security and QoS influence negatively on the general performance of the network once thought-about in isolation. In fact, it will influence the exceptionally operating of QoS and security algorithms and should influence the important and essential services needed within the MANET. Our paper outlines 2 accomplishments via; the accomplishment of security and accomplishment of quality. The direction towards achieving these accomplishments is to style and implement a protocol to suite answer for policy-based network administration, and methodologies for key administration and causing of IPsec in a very MANET.