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Longueira-Romerc, Ángel, Iglesias, Rosa, Gonzalez, David, Garitano, Iñaki.  2020.  How to Quantify the Security Level of Embedded Systems? A Taxonomy of Security Metrics 2020 IEEE 18th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). 1:153—158.
Embedded Systems (ES) development has been historically focused on functionality rather than security, and today it still applies in many sectors and applications. However, there is an increasing number of security threats over ES, and a successful attack could have economical, physical or even human consequences, since many of them are used to control critical applications. A standardized and general accepted security testing framework is needed to provide guidance, common reporting forms and the possibility to compare the results along the time. This can be achieved by introducing security metrics into the evaluation or assessment process. If carefully designed and chosen, metrics could provide a quantitative, repeatable and reproducible value that would reflect the level of security protection of the ES. This paper analyzes the features that a good security metric should exhibit, introduces a taxonomy for classifying them, and finally, it carries out a literature survey on security metrics for the security evaluation of ES. In this review, more than 500 metrics were collected and analyzed. Then, they were reduced to 169 metrics that have the potential to be applied to ES security evaluation. As expected, the 77.5% of them is related exclusively to software, and only the 0.6% of them addresses exclusively hardware security. This work aims to lay the foundations for constructing a security evaluation methodology that uses metrics so as to quantify the security level of an ES.
Mell, Peter, Gueye, Assane.  2020.  A Suite of Metrics for Calculating the Most Significant Security Relevant Software Flaw Types. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :511—516.
The Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) is a prominent list of software weakness types. This list is used by vulnerability databases to describe the underlying security flaws within analyzed vulnerabilities. This linkage opens the possibility of using the analysis of software vulnerabilities to identify the most significant weaknesses that enable those vulnerabilities. We accomplish this through creating mashup views combining CWE weakness taxonomies with vulnerability analysis data. The resulting graphs have CWEs as nodes, edges derived from multiple CWE taxonomies, and nodes adorned with vulnerability analysis information (propagated from children to parents). Using these graphs, we develop a suite of metrics to identify the most significant weakness types (using the perspectives of frequency, impact, exploitability, and overall severity).
Sinha, Ayush, Chakrabarti, Sourin, Vyas, O.P..  2020.  Distributed Grid restoration based on graph theory. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Sustainable Energy, Signal Processing and Cyber Security (iSSSC). :1–6.
With the emergence of smart grids as the primary means of distribution across wide areas, the importance of improving its resilience to faults and mishaps is increasing. The reliability of a distribution system depends upon its tolerance to attacks and the efficiency of restoration after an attack occurs. This paper proposes a unique approach to the restoration of smart grids under attack by impostors or due to natural calamities via optimal islanding of the grid with primary generators and distributed generators(DGs) into sub-grids minimizing the amount of load shed which needs to be incurred and at the same time minimizing the number of switching operations via graph theory. The minimum load which needs to be shed is computed in the first stage followed by selecting the nodes whose load needs to be shed to achieve such a configuration and then finally deriving the sequence of switching operations required to achieve the configuration. The proposed method is tested against standard IEEE 37-bus and a 1069-bus grid system and the minimum load shed along with the sequencing steps to optimal configuration and time to achieve such a configuration are presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method when compared to the existing methods in the field. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be easily modified to incorporate any other constraints which might arise due to any operational configuration of the grid.
Cesconetto, Jonas, Silva, Luís A., Valderi Leithardt, R. Q., Cáceres, María N., Silva, Luís A., Garcia, Nuno M..  2020.  PRIPRO:Solution for user profile control and management based on data privacy. 2020 15th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI). :1—6.
Intelligent environments work collaboratively, bringing more comfort to human beings. The intelligence of these environments comes from technological advances in sensors and communication. IoT is the model developed that allows a wide and intelligent communication between devices. Hardware reduction of IoT devices results in vulnerabilities. Thus, there are numerous concerns regarding the security of user information, since mobile devices are easily trackable over the Internet. Care must be taken regarding the information in user profiles. Mobile devices are protected by a permission-based mechanism, which limits third-party applications from accessing sensitive device resources. In this context, this work aims to present a proposal for materialization of application for the evolution of user profiles in intelligent environments. Having as parameters the parameters presented in the proposed taxonomy. The proposed solution is the development of two applications, one for Android devices, responsible for allowing or blocking some features of the device. And another in Cloud, responsible for imposing the parameters and privacy criteria, formalizing the profile control module (PRIPRO - PRIvacy PROfiles).
Abbas, Syed Ghazanfar, Hashmat, Fabiha, Shah, Ghalib A..  2020.  A Multi-layer Industrial-IoT Attack Taxonomy: Layers, Dimensions, Techniques and Application. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1820—1825.

Industrial IoT (IIoT) is a specialized subset of IoT which involves the interconnection of industrial devices with ubiquitous control and intelligent processing services to improve industrial system's productivity and operational capability. In essence, IIoT adapts a use-case specific architecture based on RFID sense network, BLE sense network or WSN, where heterogeneous industrial IoT devices can collaborate with each other to achieve a common goal. Nonetheless, most of the IIoT deployments are brownfield in nature which involves both new and legacy technologies (SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System)). The merger of these technologies causes high degree of cross-linking and decentralization which ultimately increases the complexity of IIoT systems and introduce new vulnerabilities. Hence, industrial organizations becomes not only vulnerable to conventional SCADA attacks but also to a multitude of IIoT specific threats. However, there is a lack of understanding of these attacks both with respect to the literature and empirical evaluation. As a consequence, it is infeasible for industrial organizations, researchers and developers to analyze attacks and derive a robust security mechanism for IIoT. In this paper, we developed a multi-layer taxonomy of IIoT attacks by considering both brownfield and greenfield architecture of IIoT. The taxonomy consists of 11 layers 94 dimensions and approximately 100 attack techniques which helps to provide a holistic overview of the incident attack pattern, attack characteristics and impact on industrial system. Subsequently, we have exhibited the practical relevance of developed taxonomy by applying it to a real-world use-case. This research will benefit researchers and developers to best utilize developed taxonomy for analyzing attack sequence and to envisage an efficient security platform for futuristic IIoT applications.

Mundie, D. A., Perl, S., Huth, C. L..  2013.  Toward an Ontology for Insider Threat Research: Varieties of Insider Threat Definitions. 2013 Third Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust. :26—36.
The lack of standardization of the terms insider and insider threat has been a noted problem for researchers in the insider threat field. This paper describes the investigation of 42 different definitions of the terms insider and insider threat, with the goal of better understanding the current conceptual model of insider threat and facilitating communication in the research community.
Eftimie, S., Moinescu, R., Rǎcuciu, C..  2020.  Insider Threat Detection Using Natural Language Processing and Personality Profiles. 2020 13th International Conference on Communications (COMM). :325–330.
This work represents an interdisciplinary effort to proactively identify insider threats, using natural language processing and personality profiles. Profiles were developed for the relevant insider threat types using the five-factor model of personality and were used in a proof-of-concept detection system. The system employs a third-party cloud service that uses natural language processing to analyze personality profiles based on personal content. In the end, an assessment was made over the feasibility of the system using a public dataset.
Bahaei, S. Sheikh.  2020.  A Framework for Risk Assessment in Augmented Reality-Equipped Socio-Technical Systems. 2020 50th Annual IEEE-IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks-Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :77—78.

New technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) are used to enhance human capabilities and extend human functioning; nevertheless they may cause distraction and incorrect human functioning. Systems including socio entities (such as human) and technical entities (such as augmented reality) are called socio-technical systems. In order to do risk assessment in such systems, considering new dependability threats caused by augmented reality is essential, for example failure of an extended human function is a new type of dependability threat introduced to the system because of new technologies. In particular, it is required to identify these new dependability threats and extend modeling and analyzing techniques to be able to uncover their potential impacts. This research aims at providing a framework for risk assessment in AR-equipped socio-technical systems by identifying AR-extended human failures and AR-caused faults leading to human failures. Our work also extends modeling elements in an existing metamodel for modeling socio-technical systems, to enable AR-relevant dependability threats modeling. This extended metamodel is expected to be used for extending analysis techniques to analyze AR-equipped socio-technical systems.

D'Angelo, Mirko, Gerasimou, Simos, Ghahremani, Sona, Grohmann, Johannes, Nunes, Ingrid, Pournaras, Evangelos, Tomforde, Sven.  2019.  On Learning in Collective Self-Adaptive Systems: State of Practice and a 3D Framework. 2019 IEEE/ACM 14th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS). :13–24.
Collective self-adaptive systems (CSAS) are distributed and interconnected systems composed of multiple agents that can perform complex tasks such as environmental data collection, search and rescue operations, and discovery of natural resources. By providing individual agents with learning capabilities, CSAS can cope with challenges related to distributed sensing and decision-making and operate in uncertain environments. This unique characteristic of CSAS enables the collective to exhibit robust behaviour while achieving system-wide and agent-specific goals. Although learning has been explored in many CSAS applications, selecting suitable learning models and techniques remains a significant challenge that is heavily influenced by expert knowledge. We address this gap by performing a multifaceted analysis of existing CSAS with learning capabilities reported in the literature. Based on this analysis, we introduce a 3D framework that illustrates the learning aspects of CSAS considering the dimensions of autonomy, knowledge access, and behaviour, and facilitates the selection of learning techniques and models. Finally, using example applications from this analysis, we derive open challenges and highlight the need for research on collaborative, resilient and privacy-aware mechanisms for CSAS.
Akond Rahman, Effat Farhana, Chris Parnin, Laurie Williams.  2020.  Gang of Eight: A Defect Taxonomy for Infrastructure as Code Scripts. International Conference of Softare Engineering (ICSE).

Defects in infrastructure as code (IaC) scripts can have serious
consequences, for example, creating large-scale system outages. A
taxonomy of IaC defects can be useful for understanding the nature
of defects, and identifying activities needed to fix and prevent
defects in IaC scripts. The goal of this paper is to help practitioners
improve the quality of infrastructure as code (IaC) scripts by developing
a defect taxonomy for IaC scripts through qualitative analysis.
We develop a taxonomy of IaC defects by applying qualitative analysis
on 1,448 defect-related commits collected from open source
software (OSS) repositories of the Openstack organization. We conduct
a survey with 66 practitioners to assess if they agree with the
identified defect categories included in our taxonomy. We quantify
the frequency of identified defect categories by analyzing 80,425
commits collected from 291 OSS repositories spanning across 2005
to 2019.

Our defect taxonomy for IaC consists of eight categories, including
a category specific to IaC called idempotency (i.e., defects that
lead to incorrect system provisioning when the same IaC script is
executed multiple times). We observe the surveyed 66 practitioners
to agree most with idempotency. The most frequent defect category
is configuration data i.e., providing erroneous configuration data
in IaC scripts. Our taxonomy and the quantified frequency of the
defect categories may help in advancing the science of IaC script

Gawanmeh, Amjad, Alomari, Ahmad.  2018.  Taxonomy Analysis of Security Aspects in Cyber Physical Systems Applications. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1–6.
The notion of Cyber Physical Systems is based on using recent computing, communication, and control methods to design and operate intelligent and autonomous systems that can provide using innovative technologies. The existence of several critical applications within the scope of cyber physical systems results in many security and privacy concerns. On the other hand, the distributive nature of these CPS increases security risks. In addition, certain CPS, such as medical ones, generate and process sensitive data regularly, hence, this data must be protected at all levels of generation, processing, and transmission. In this paper, we present a taxonomy based analysis for the state of the art work on security issues in CPS. We identify four types of analysis for security issues in CPS: Modeling, Detection, Prevention, and Response. In addition, we identified six applications of CPS where security is relevant: eHealth and medical, smart grid and power related, vehicular technologies, industrial control and manufacturing, autonomous systems and UAVs, and finally IoT related issues. Then we mapped existing works in the literature into these categories.
Amoroso, E., Merritt, M..  1994.  Composing system integrity using I/O automata. Tenth Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :34—43.
The I/O automata model of Lynch and Turtle (1987) is summarized and used to formalize several types of system integrity based on the control of transitions to invalid starts. Type-A integrity is exhibited by systems with no invalid initial states and that disallow transitions from valid reachable to invalid states. Type-B integrity is exhibited by systems that disallow externally-controlled transitions from valid reachable to invalid states, Type-C integrity is exhibited by systems that allow locally-controlled or externally-controlled transitions from reachable to invalid states. Strict-B integrity is exhibited by systems that are Type-B but not Type-A. Strict-C integrity is exhibited by systems that are Type-C but not Type-B. Basic results on the closure properties that hold under composition of systems exhibiting these types of integrity are presented in I/O automata-theoretic terms. Specifically, Type-A, Type-B, and Type-C integrity are shown to be composable, whereas Strict-B and Strict-C integrity are shown to not be generally composable. The integrity definitions and compositional results are illustrated using the familiar vending machine example specified as an I/O automaton and composed with a customer environment. The implications of the integrity definitions and compositional results on practical system design are discussed and a research plan for future work is outlined.
Mishra, Narendra, Singh, R K.  2019.  Taxonomy Analysis of Cloud Computing Vulnerabilities through Attack Vector, CVSS and Complexity Parameter. 2019 International Conference on Issues and Challenges in Intelligent Computing Techniques (ICICT). 1:1—8.

The world is witnessing an exceptional expansion in the cloud enabled services which is further growing day by day due to advancement & requirement of technology. However, the identification of vulnerabilities & its exploitation in the cloud computing will always be the major challenge and concern for any cloud computing system. To understand the challenges and its consequences and further provide mitigation techniques for the vulnerabilities, the identification of cloud specific vulnerabilities needs to be examined first and after identification of vulnerabilities a detailed taxonomy must be positioned. In this paper several cloud specific identified vulnerabilities have been studied which is listed by the NVD, ENISA CSA etc accordingly a unified taxonomy for security vulnerabilities has been prepared. In this paper we proposed a comprehensive taxonomy for cloud specific vulnerabilities on the basis of several parameters like attack vector, CVSS score, complexity etc which will be further act as input for the analysis and mitigation of cloud vulnerabilities. Scheming of Taxonomy of vulnerabilities is an effective way for cloud administrators, cloud mangers, cloud consumers and other stakeholders for identifying, understanding and addressing security risks.

Fawaz, Kassem, Linden, Thomas, Harkous, Hamza.  2019.  Invited Paper: The Applications of Machine Learning in Privacy Notice and Choice. 2019 11th International Conference on Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS). :118—124.
For more than two decades since the rise of the World Wide Web, the “Notice and Choice” framework has been the governing practice for the disclosure of online privacy practices. The emergence of new forms of user interactions, such as voice, and the enforcement of new regulations, such as the EU's recent General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), promise to change this privacy landscape drastically. This paper discusses the challenges towards providing the privacy stakeholders with privacy awareness and control in this changing landscape. We will also present our recent research on utilizing Machine learning to analyze privacy policies and settings.
Pascucci, Antonio, Masucci, Vincenzo, Monti, Johanna.  2019.  Computational Stylometry and Machine Learning for Gender and Age Detection in Cyberbullying Texts. 2019 8th International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction Workshops and Demos (ACIIW). :1–6.

The aim of this paper is to show the importance of Computational Stylometry (CS) and Machine Learning (ML) support in author's gender and age detection in cyberbullying texts. We developed a cyberbullying detection platform and we show the results of performances in terms of Precision, Recall and F -Measure for gender and age detection in cyberbullying texts we collected.

Saharan, Shail, Gupta, Vishal.  2019.  Prevention and Mitigation of DNS Based DDoS Attacks in SDN Environment. 2019 11th International Conference on Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS). :571-573.

Denial-of-Service attack (DoS attack) is an attack on network in which an attacker tries to disrupt the availability of network resources by overwhelming the target network with attack packets. In DoS attack it is typically done using a single source, and in a Distributed Denial-of-Service attack (DDoS attack), like the name suggests, multiple sources are used to flood the incoming traffic of victim. Typically, such attacks use vulnerabilities of Domain Name System (DNS) protocol and IP spoofing to disrupt the normal functioning of service provider or Internet user. The attacks involving DNS, or attacks exploiting vulnerabilities of DNS are known as DNS based DDOS attacks. Many of the proposed DNS based DDoS solutions try to prevent/mitigate such attacks using some intelligent non-``network layer'' (typically application layer) protocols. Utilizing the flexibility and programmability aspects of Software Defined Networks (SDN), via this proposed doctoral research it is intended to make underlying network intelligent enough so as to prevent DNS based DDoS attacks.

Arabsorkhi, A., Ghaffari, F..  2018.  Security Metrics: Principles and Security Assessment Methods. 2018 9th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST). :305–310.

Nowadays, Information Technology is one of the important parts of human life and also of organizations. Organizations face problems such as IT problems. To solve these problems, they have to improve their security sections. Thus there is a need for security assessments within organizations to ensure security conditions. The use of security standards and general metric can be useful for measuring the safety of an organization; however, it should be noted that the general metric which are applied to businesses in general cannot be effective in this particular situation. Thus it's important to select metric standards for different businesses to improve both cost and organizational security. The selection of suitable security measures lies in the use of an efficient way to identify them. Due to the numerous complexities of these metric and the extent to which they are defined, in this paper that is based on comparative study and the benchmarking method, taxonomy for security measures is considered to be helpful for a business to choose metric tailored to their needs and conditions.

Cho, S., Han, I., Jeong, H., Kim, J., Koo, S., Oh, H., Park, M..  2018.  Cyber Kill Chain based Threat Taxonomy and its Application on Cyber Common Operational Picture. 2018 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–8.

Over a decade, intelligent and persistent forms of cyber threats have been damaging to the organizations' cyber assets and missions. In this paper, we analyze current cyber kill chain models that explain the adversarial behavior to perform advanced persistent threat (APT) attacks, and propose a cyber kill chain model that can be used in view of cyber situation awareness. Based on the proposed cyber kill chain model, we propose a threat taxonomy that classifies attack tactics and techniques for each attack phase using CAPEC, ATT&CK that classify the attack tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) proposed by MITRE. We also implement a cyber common operational picture (CyCOP) to recognize the situation of cyberspace. The threat situation can be represented on the CyCOP by applying cyber kill chain based threat taxonomy.

Salah, H., Eltoweissy, M..  2017.  Towards Collaborative Trust Management. 2017 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :198–208.

Current technologies to include cloud computing, social networking, mobile applications and crowd and synthetic intelligence, coupled with the explosion in storage and processing power, are evolving massive-scale marketplaces for a wide variety of resources and services. They are also enabling unprecedented forms and levels of collaborations among human and machine entities. In this new era, trust remains the keystone of success in any relationship between two or more parties. A primary challenge is to establish and manage trust in environments where massive numbers of consumers, providers and brokers are largely autonomous with vastly diverse requirements, capabilities, and trust profiles. Most contemporary trust management solutions are oblivious to diversities in trustors' requirements and contexts, utilize direct or indirect experiences as the only form of trust computations, employ hardcoded trust computations and marginally consider collaboration in trust management. We surmise the need for reference architecture for trust management to guide the development of a wide spectrum of trust management systems. In our previous work, we presented a preliminary reference architecture for trust management which provides customizable and reconfigurable trust management operations to accommodate varying levels of diversity and trust personalization. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy for trust management and extend our reference architecture to feature collaboration as a first-class object. Our goal is to promote the development of new collaborative trust management systems, where various trust management operations would involve collaborating entities. Using the proposed architecture, we implemented a collaborative personalized trust management system. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our system.

Jinan, S., Kefeng, P., Xuefeng, C., Junfu, Z..  2017.  Security Patterns from Intelligent Data: A Map of Software Vulnerability Analysis. 2017 ieee 3rd international conference on big data security on cloud (bigdatasecurity), ieee international conference on high performance and smart computing (hpsc), and ieee international conference on intelligent data and security (ids). :18–25.

A significant milestone is reached when the field of software vulnerability research matures to a point warranting related security patterns represented by intelligent data. A substantial research material of empirical findings, distinctive taxonomy, theoretical models, and a set of novel or adapted detection methods justify a unifying research map. The growth interest in software vulnerability is evident from a large number of works done during the last several decades. This article briefly reviews research works in vulnerability enumeration, taxonomy, models and detection methods from the perspective of intelligent data processing and analysis. This article also draws the map which associated with specific characteristics and challenges of vulnerability research, such as vulnerability patterns representation and problem-solving strategies.

Kafali, Ö, Jones, J., Petruso, M., Williams, L., Singh, M. P..  2017.  How Good Is a Security Policy against Real Breaches? A HIPAA Case Study 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :530–540.

Policy design is an important part of software development. As security breaches increase in variety, designing a security policy that addresses all potential breaches becomes a nontrivial task. A complete security policy would specify rules to prevent breaches. Systematically determining which, if any, policy clause has been violated by a reported breach is a means for identifying gaps in a policy. Our research goal is to help analysts measure the gaps between security policies and reported breaches by developing a systematic process based on semantic reasoning. We propose SEMAVER, a framework for determining coverage of breaches by policies via comparison of individual policy clauses and breach descriptions. We represent a security policy as a set of norms. Norms (commitments, authorizations, and prohibitions) describe expected behaviors of users, and formalize who is accountable to whom and for what. A breach corresponds to a norm violation. We develop a semantic similarity metric for pairwise comparison between the norm that represents a policy clause and the norm that has been violated by a reported breach. We use the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) as a case study. Our investigation of a subset of the breaches reported by the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reveals the gaps between HIPAA and reported breaches, leading to a coverage of 65%. Additionally, our classification of the 1,577 HHS breaches shows that 44% of the breaches are accidental misuses and 56% are malicious misuses. We find that HIPAA's gaps regarding accidental misuses are significantly larger than its gaps regarding malicious misuses.

Bojanova, I., Black, P. E., Yesha, Y..  2017.  Cryptography classes in bugs framework (BF): Encryption bugs (ENC), verification bugs (VRF), and key management bugs (KMN). 2017 IEEE 28th Annual Software Technology Conference (STC). :1–8.

Accurate, precise, and unambiguous definitions of software weaknesses (bugs) and clear descriptions of software vulnerabilities are vital for building the foundations of cybersecurity. The Bugs Framework (BF) comprises rigorous definitions and (static) attributes of bug classes, along with their related dynamic properties, such as proximate, secondary and tertiary causes, consequences, and sites. This paper presents an overview of previously developed BF classes and the new cryptography related classes: Encryption Bugs (ENC), Verification Bugs (VRF), and Key Management Bugs (KMN). We analyze corresponding vulnerabilities and provide their clear descriptions by applying the BF taxonomy. We also discuss the lessons learned and share our plans for expanding BF.

Zaytsev, A., Malyuk, A., Miloslavskaya, N..  2017.  Critical Analysis in the Research Area of Insider Threats. 2017 IEEE 5th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). :288–296.

The survey of related works on insider information security (IS) threats is presented. Special attention is paid to works that consider the insiders' behavioral models as it is very up-to-date for behavioral intrusion detection. Three key research directions are defined: 1) the problem analysis in general, including the development of taxonomy for insiders, attacks and countermeasures; 2) study of a specific IS threat with forecasting model development; 3) early detection of a potential insider. The models for the second and third directions are analyzed in detail. Among the second group the works on three IS threats are examined, namely insider espionage, cyber sabotage and unintentional internal IS violation. Discussion and a few directions for the future research conclude the paper.

Donno, M. De, Dragoni, N., Giaretta, A., Spognardi, A..  2017.  Analysis of DDoS-capable IoT malwares. 2017 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (FedCSIS). :807–816.

The Internet of Things (IoT) revolution promises to make our lives easier by providing cheap and always connected smart embedded devices, which can interact on the Internet and create added values for human needs. But all that glitters is not gold. Indeed, the other side of the coin is that, from a security perspective, this IoT revolution represents a potential disaster. This plethora of IoT devices that flooded the market were very badly protected, thus an easy prey for several families of malwares that can enslave and incorporate them in very large botnets. This, eventually, brought back to the top Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, making them more powerful and easier to achieve than ever. This paper aims at provide an up-to-date picture of DDoS attacks in the specific subject of the IoT, studying how these attacks work and considering the most common families in the IoT context, in terms of their nature and evolution through the years. It also explores the additional offensive capabilities that this arsenal of IoT malwares has available, to mine the security of Internet users and systems. We think that this up-to-date picture will be a valuable reference to the scientific community in order to take a first crucial step to tackle this urgent security issue.

Meng, Q., Shameng, Wen, Chao, Feng, Chaojing, Tang.  2016.  Predicting buffer overflow using semi-supervised learning. 2016 9th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics (CISP-BMEI). :1959–1963.

As everyone knows vulnerability detection is a very difficult and time consuming work, so taking advantage of the unlabeled data sufficiently is needed and helpful. According the above reality, in this paper a method is proposed to predict buffer overflow based on semi-supervised learning. We first employ Antlr to extract AST from C/C++ source files, then according to the 22 buffer overflow attributes taxonomies, a 22-dimension vector is extracted from every function in AST, at last, the vector is leveraged to train a classifier to predict buffer overflow vulnerabilities. The experiment and evaluation indicate our method is correct and efficient.