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Le, Van Thanh, El Ioini, Nabil, Pahl, Claus, Barzegar, Hamid R., Ardagna, Claudio.  2021.  A Distributed Trust Layer for Edge Infrastructure. 2021 Sixth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :1—8.
Recently, Mobile Edge Cloud computing (MEC) has attracted attention both from academia and industry. The idea of moving a part of cloud resources closer to users and data sources can bring many advantages in terms of speed, data traffic, security and context-aware services. The MEC infrastructure does not only host and serves applications next to the end-users, but services can be dynamically migrated and reallocated as mobile users move in order to guarantee latency and performance constraints. This specific requirement calls for the involvement and collaboration of multiple MEC providers, which raises a major issue related to trustworthiness. Two main challenges need to be addressed: i) trustworthiness needs to be handled in a manner that does not affect latency or performance, ii) trustworthiness is considered in different dimensions - not only security metrics but also performance and quality metrics in general. In this paper, we propose a trust layer for public MEC infrastructure that handles establishing and updating trust relations among all MEC entities, making the interaction withing a MEC network transparent. First, we define trust attributes affecting the trusted quality of the entire infrastructure and then a methodology with a computation model that combines these trust attribute values. Our experiments showed that the trust model allows us to reduce latency by removing the burden from a single MEC node, while at the same time increase the network trustworthiness.
Palma, Noelia Pérez, Matheu-García, Sara Nieves, Zarca, Alejandro Molina, Ortiz, Jordi, Skarmeta, Antonio.  2021.  Enhancing trust and liability assisted mechanisms for ZSM 5G architectures. 2021 IEEE 4th 5G World Forum (5GWF). :362—367.
5G improves previous generations not only in terms of radio access but the whole infrastructure and services paradigm. Automation, dynamism and orchestration are now key features that allow modifying network behaviour, such as Virtual Network Functions (VNFs), and resource allocation reactively and on demand. However, such dynamic ecosystem must pay special attention to security while ensuring that the system actions are trustworthy and reliable. To this aim, this paper introduces the integration of the Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD) standard alongside a Trust and Reputation Manager (TRM) into the INSPIRE-5GPlus framework, enforcing security properties defined by MUD files while the whole infrastructure, virtual and physical, as well as security metrics are continuously audited to compute trust and reputation values. These values are later fed to enhance trustworthiness on the zero-touch decision making such as the ones orchestrating end-to-end security in a closed-loop.
Gao, Xiaotong, Ma, Yanfang, Zhou, Wei.  2021.  The Trustworthiness Measurement Model of Component-based Software Based on the Subjective and Objective Weight Allocation Method. 2021 IEEE 21st International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :478—486.
Software trustworthiness includes many attributes. Reasonable weight allocation of trustworthy attributes plays a key role in the software trustworthiness measurement. In practical application, attribute weight usually comes from experts' evaluation to attributes and hidden information derived from attributes. Therefore, when the weight of attributes is researched, it is necessary to consider weight from subjective and objective aspects. Firstly, a novel weight allocation method is proposed by combining the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method and the Criteria Importance Though Intercrieria Correlation (CRITIC) method. Secondly, based on the weight allocation method, the trustworthiness measurement models of component-based software are established according to the four combination structures of components. Thirdly, some metric criteria of the model are proved to verify the reasonability. Finally, a case is used to illustrate the practicality of the model.
Li, Hongman, Xu, Peng, Zhao, Qilin, Liu, Yihong.  2021.  Research on fault diagnosis in early stage of software development based on Object-oriented Bayesian Networks. 2021 IEEE 21st International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :161–168.
Continuous development of Internet of Things, big data and other emerging technologies has brought new challenges to the reliability of security-critical system products in various industries. Fault detection and evaluation in the early stage of software plays an important role in improving the reliability of software. However, fault prediction and evaluation, which are currently focused on the early stage of software, hardly provide high guidance for actual project development. In this study, a fault diagnosis method based on object-oriented Bayesian network (OOBN) is proposed. Starting from the time dimension and internal logic, a two-dimensional metric fault propagation model is established to calculate the failure rate of each early stage of software respectively, and the fault relationship of each stage is analyzed to find out the key fault units. In particular, it explores and validates the relationship between the failure rate of code phase and the failure caused by faults in requirement analysis stage and design stage in a train control system, to alert the developer strictly accordance with the industry development standards for software requirements analysis, design and coding, so as to reduce potential faults in the early stage. There is evidence that the study plays a crucial role to optimize the cost of software development and avoid catastrophic consequences.
Ganesh, Sundarakrishnan, Ohlsson, Tobias, Palma, Francis.  2021.  Predicting Security Vulnerabilities using Source Code Metrics. 2021 Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS). :1–7.
Large open-source systems generate and operate on a plethora of sensitive enterprise data. Thus, security threats or vulnerabilities must not be present in open-source systems and must be resolved as early as possible in the development phases to avoid catastrophic consequences. One way to recognize security vulnerabilities is to predict them while developers write code to minimize costs and resources. This study examines the effectiveness of machine learning algorithms to predict potential security vulnerabilities by analyzing the source code of a system. We obtained the security vulnerabilities dataset from Apache Tomcat security reports for version 4.x to 10.x. We also collected the source code of Apache Tomcat 4.x to 10.x to compute 43 object-oriented metrics. We assessed four traditional supervised learning algorithms, i.e., Naive Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Logistic Regression (LR), to understand their efficacy in predicting security vulnerabilities. We obtained the highest accuracy of 80.6% using the KNN. Thus, the KNN classifier was demonstrated to be the most effective of all the models we built. The DT classifier also performed well but under-performed when it came to multi-class classification.
Lv, Tianxiang, Bao, Qihao, Chen, Haibo, Zhang, Chi.  2021.  A Testing Method for Object-oriented Program based on Adaptive Random Testing with Variable Probability. 2021 IEEE 21st International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :1155–1156.
Object-oriented program (OOP) is very popular in these years for its advantages, but the testing method for OOP is still not mature enough. To deal with the problem that it is impossible to generate the probability density function by simply numeralizing a point in the test case caused by the complex structure of the object-oriented test case, we propose the Adaptive Random Testing through Test Profile for Object-Oriented software (ARTTP-OO). It generates a test case at the edge of the input field and calculates the distance between object-oriented test cases using Object and Method Invocation Sequence Similarity (OMISS) metric formula. And the probability density function is generated by the distance to select the test cases, thereby realizing the application of ARTTP algorithm in OOP. The experimental results indicate the proposed ARTTP-OO consumes less time cost without reducing the detection effectiveness.
Ruohonen, Jukka, Hjerppe, Kalle, Rindell, Kalle.  2021.  A Large-Scale Security-Oriented Static Analysis of Python Packages in PyPI. 2021 18th International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1—10.
Different security issues are a common problem for open source packages archived to and delivered through software ecosystems. These often manifest themselves as software weaknesses that may lead to concrete software vulnerabilities. This paper examines various security issues in Python packages with static analysis. The dataset is based on a snapshot of all packages stored to the Python Package Index (PyPI). In total, over 197 thousand packages and over 749 thousand security issues are covered. Even under the constraints imposed by static analysis, (a) the results indicate prevalence of security issues; at least one issue is present for about 46% of the Python packages. In terms of the issue types, (b) exception handling and different code injections have been the most common issues. The subprocess module stands out in this regard. Reflecting the generally small size of the packages, (c) software size metrics do not predict well the amount of issues revealed through static analysis. With these results and the accompanying discussion, the paper contributes to the field of large-scale empirical studies for better understanding security problems in software ecosystems.
N, Praveena., Vivekanandan, K..  2021.  A Study on Shilling Attack Identification in SAN using Collaborative Filtering Method based Recommender Systems. 2021 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1—5.
In Social Aware Network (SAN) model, the elementary actions focus on investigating the attributes and behaviors of the customer. This analysis of customer attributes facilitate in the design of highly active and improved protocols. In specific, the recommender systems are highly vulnerable to the shilling attack. The recommender system provides the solution to solve the issues like information overload. Collaborative filtering based recommender systems are susceptible to shilling attack known as profile injection attacks. In the shilling attack, the malicious users bias the output of the system's recommendations by adding the fake profiles. The attacker exploits the customer reviews, customer ratings and fake data for the processing of recommendation level. It is essential to detect the shilling attack in the network for sustaining the reliability and fairness of the recommender systems. This article reviews the most prominent issues and challenges of shilling attack. This paper presents the literature survey which is contributed in focusing of shilling attack and also describes the merits and demerits with its evaluation metrics like attack detection accuracy, precision and recall along with different datasets used for identifying the shilling attack in SAN network.
Zhuravchak, Danyil, Ustyianovych, Taras, Dudykevych, Valery, Venny, Bogdan, Ruda, Khrystyna.  2021.  Ransomware Prevention System Design based on File Symbolic Linking Honeypots. 2021 11th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:284–287.
The data-driven period produces more and more security-related challenges that even experts can hardly deal with. One of the most complex threats is ransomware, which is very taxing and devastating to detect and mainly prevent. Our research methods showed significant results in identifying ransomware processes using the honeypot concept augmented with symbolic linking to reduce damage made to the file system. The CIA (confidentiality, integrity, availability) metrics have been adhered to. We propose to optimize the malware process termination procedure and introduce an artificial intelligence-human collaboration to enhance ransomware classification and detection.
Koutsouris, Nikolaos, Vassilakis, Costas, Kolokotronis, Nicholas.  2021.  Cyber-Security Training Evaluation Metrics. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :192—197.
Cyber-security training has evolved into an imperative need, aiming to provide cyber-security professionals with the knowledge and skills required to confront cyber-attacks that are increasing in number and sophistication. Training activities are typically associated with evaluation means, aimed to assess the extent to which the trainee has acquired the knowledge and skills whose development is targeted by the training programme, while cyber-security awareness and skill level evaluation means may be used to support additional security-related aspects of organizations. In this paper, we review trainee performance assessment metrics in cyber-security training, aiming to assist designers of cyber-security training activities to identify the most prominent trainee performance assessment means for their training programmes, while additional research directions involving cyber-security training evaluation metrics are also identified.
Swann, Matthew, Rose, Joseph, Bendiab, Gueltoum, Shiaeles, Stavros, Li, Fudong.  2021.  Open Source and Commercial Capture The Flag Cyber Security Learning Platforms - A Case Study. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :198—205.
The use of gamified learning platforms as a method of introducing cyber security education, training and awareness has risen greatly. With this rise, the availability of platforms to create, host or otherwise provide the challenges that make up the foundation of this education has also increased. In order to identify the best of these platforms, we need a method to compare their feature sets. In this paper, we compare related work on identifying the best platforms for a gamified cyber security learning platform as well as contemporary literature that describes the most needed feature sets for an ideal platform. We then use this to develop a metric for comparing these platforms, before then applying this metric to popular current platforms.
Akowuah, Francis, Kong, Fanxin.  2021.  Real-Time Adaptive Sensor Attack Detection in Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems. 2021 IEEE 27th Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS). :237—250.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) tightly couple information technology with physical processes, which rises new vulnerabilities such as physical attacks that are beyond conventional cyber attacks. Attackers may non-invasively compromise sensors and spoof the controller to perform unsafe actions. This issue is even emphasized with the increasing autonomy in CPS. While this fact has motivated many defense mechanisms against sensor attacks, a clear vision on the timing and usability (or the false alarm rate) of attack detection still remains elusive. Existing works tend to pursue an unachievable goal of minimizing the detection delay and false alarm rate at the same time, while there is a clear trade-off between the two metrics. Instead, we argue that attack detection should bias different metrics when a system sits in different states. For example, if the system is close to unsafe states, reducing the detection delay is preferable to lowering the false alarm rate, and vice versa. To achieve this, we make the following contributions. In this paper, we propose a real-time adaptive sensor attack detection framework. The framework can dynamically adapt the detection delay and false alarm rate so as to meet a detection deadline and improve the usability according to different system status. The core component of this framework is an attack detector that identifies anomalies based on a CUSUM algorithm through monitoring the cumulative sum of difference (or residuals) between the nominal (predicted) and observed sensor values. We augment this algorithm with a drift parameter that can govern the detection delay and false alarm. The second component is a behavior predictor that estimates nominal sensor values fed to the core component for calculating the residuals. The predictor uses a deep learning model that is offline extracted from sensor data through leveraging convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN). The model relies on little knowledge of the system (e.g., dynamics), but uncovers and exploits both the local and complex long-term dependencies in multivariate sequential sensor measurements. The third component is a drift adaptor that estimates a detection deadline and then determines the drift parameter fed to the detector component for adjusting the detection delay and false alarms. Finally, we implement the proposed framework and validate it using realistic sensor data of automotive CPS to demonstrate its efficiency and efficacy.
ERÇİN, Mehmet Serhan, YOLAÇAN, Esra Nergis.  2021.  A system for redicting SQLi and XSS Attacks. 2021 International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCTURKEY). :155—160.
In this study, it is aimed to reduce False-Alarm levels and increase the correct detection rate in order to reduce this uncertainty. Within the scope of the study, 13157 SQLi and XSS type malicious and 10000 normal HTTP Requests were used. All HTTP requests were received from the same web server, and it was observed that normal requests and malicious requests were close to each other. In this study, a novel approach is presented via both digitization and expressing the data with words in the data preprocessing stages. LSTM, MLP, CNN, GNB, SVM, KNN, DT, RF algorithms were used for classification and the results were evaluated with accuracy, precision, recall and F1-score metrics. As a contribution of this study, we can clearly express the following inferences. Each payload even if it seems different which has the same impact maybe that we can clearly view after the preprocessing phase. After preprocessing we are calculating euclidean distances which brings and gives us the relativity between expressions. When we put this relativity as an entry data to machine learning and/or deep learning models, perhaps we can understand the benign request or the attack vector difference.
Su, Liyilei, Fu, Xianjun, Hu, Qingmao.  2021.  A convolutional generative adversarial framework for data augmentation based on a robust optimal transport metric. 2021 IEEE 23rd Int Conf on High Performance Computing & Communications; 7th Int Conf on Data Science & Systems; 19th Int Conf on Smart City; 7th Int Conf on Dependability in Sensor, Cloud & Big Data Systems & Application (HPCC/DSS/SmartCity/DependSys). :1155–1162.
Enhancement of the vanilla generative adversarial network (GAN) to preserve data variability in the presence of real world noise is of paramount significance in deep learning. In this study, we proposed a new distance metric of cosine distance in the framework of optimal transport (OT), and presented and validated a convolutional neural network (CNN) based GAN framework. In comparison with state-of-the-art methods based on Graphics Processing Units (GPU), the proposed framework could maintain the data diversity and quality best in terms of inception score (IS), Fréchet inception distance (FID) and enhancing the classification network of bone age, and is robust to noise degradation. The proposed framework is independent of hardware and thus could also be extended to more advanced hardware such as specialized Tensor Processing Units (TPU), and could be a potential built-in component of a general deep learning networks for such applications as image classification, segmentation, registration, and object detection.
Zuech, Richard, Hancock, John, Khoshgoftaar, Taghi M..  2021.  Feature Popularity Between Different Web Attacks with Supervised Feature Selection Rankers. 2021 20th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA). :30–37.
We introduce the novel concept of feature popularity with three different web attacks and big data from the CSE-CIC-IDS2018 dataset: Brute Force, SQL Injection, and XSS web attacks. Feature popularity is based upon ensemble Feature Selection Techniques (FSTs) and allows us to more easily understand common important features between different cyberattacks, for two main reasons. First, feature popularity lists can be generated to provide an easy comprehension of important features across different attacks. Second, the Jaccard similarity metric can provide a quantitative score for how similar feature subsets are between different attacks. Both of these approaches not only provide more explainable and easier-to-understand models, but they can also reduce the complexity of implementing models in real-world systems. Four supervised learning-based FSTs are used to generate feature subsets for each of our three different web attack datasets, and then our feature popularity frameworks are applied. For these three web attacks, the XSS and SQL Injection feature subsets are the most similar per the Jaccard similarity. The most popular features across all three web attacks are: Flow\_Bytes\_s, FlowİAT\_Max, and Flow\_Packets\_s. While this introductory study is only a simple example using only three web attacks, this feature popularity concept can be easily extended, allowing an automated framework to more easily determine the most popular features across a very large number of attacks and features.
Kawanishi, Yasuyuki, Nishihara, Hideaki, Yoshida, Hirotaka, Hata, Yoichi.  2021.  A Study of The Risk Quantification Method focusing on Direct-Access Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2021 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :298–305.

Direct-access attacks were initially considered as un-realistic threats in cyber security because the attacker can more easily mount other non-computerized attacks like cutting a brake line. In recent years, some research into direct-access attacks have been conducted especially in the automotive field, for example, research on an attack method that makes the ECU stop functioning via the CAN bus. The problem with existing risk quantification methods is that direct-access attacks seem not to be recognized as serious threats. To solve this problem, we propose a new risk quantification method by applying vulnerability evaluation criteria and by setting metrics. We also confirm that direct-access attacks not recognized by conventional methods can be evaluated appropriately, using the case study of an automotive system as an example of a cyber-physical system.

Singh, A K, Goyal, Navneet.  2021.  Detection of Malicious Webpages Using Deep Learning. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3370–3379.
Malicious Webpages have been a serious threat on Internet for the past few years. As per the latest Google Transparency reports, they continue to be top ranked amongst online threats. Various techniques have been used till date to identify malicious sites, to include, Static Heuristics, Honey Clients, Machine Learning, etc. Recently, with the rapid rise of Deep Learning, an interest has aroused to explore Deep Learning techniques for detecting Malicious Webpages. In this paper Deep Learning has been utilized for such classification. The model proposed in this research has used a Deep Neural Network (DNN) with two hidden layers to distinguish between Malicious and Benign Webpages. This DNN model gave high accuracy of 99.81% with very low False Positives (FP) and False Negatives (FN), and with near real-time response on test sample. The model outperformed earlier machine learning solutions in accuracy, precision, recall and time performance metrics.
Schneider, Madeleine, Aspinall, David, Bastian, Nathaniel D..  2021.  Evaluating Model Robustness to Adversarial Samples in Network Intrusion Detection. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3343–3352.
Adversarial machine learning, a technique which seeks to deceive machine learning (ML) models, threatens the utility and reliability of ML systems. This is particularly relevant in critical ML implementations such as those found in Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS). This paper considers the impact of adversarial influence on NIDS and proposes ways to improve ML based systems. Specifically, we consider five feature robustness metrics to determine which features in a model are most vulnerable, and four defense methods. These methods are tested on six ML models with four adversarial sample generation techniques. Our results show that across different models and adversarial generation techniques, there is limited consistency in vulnerable features or in effectiveness of defense method.
Kim, Seongsoo, Chen, Lei, Kim, Jongyeop.  2021.  Intrusion Prediction using Long Short-Term Memory Deep Learning with UNSW-NB15. 2021 IEEE/ACIS 6th International Conference on Big Data, Cloud Computing, and Data Science (BCD). :53–59.
This study shows the effectiveness of anomaly-based IDS using long short-term memory(LSTM) based on the newly developed dataset called UNSW-NB15 while considering root mean square error and mean absolute error as evaluation metrics for accuracy. For each attack, 80% and 90% of samples were used as LSTM inputs and trained this model while increasing epoch values. Furthermore, this model has predicted attack points by applying test data and produced possible attack points for each attack at the 3rd time frame against the actual attack point. However, in the case of an Exploit attack, the consecutive overlapping attacks happen, there was ambiguity in the interpretation of the numerical values calculated by the LSTM. We presented a methodology for training data with binary values using LSTM and evaluation with RMSE metrics throughout this study.
Yasa, Ray Novita, Buana, I Komang Setia, Girinoto, Setiawan, Hermawan, Hadiprakoso, Raden Budiarto.  2021.  Modified RNP Privacy Protection Data Mining Method as Big Data Security. 2021 International Conference on Informatics, Multimedia, Cyber and Information System (ICIMCIS. :30–34.
Privacy-Preserving Data Mining (PPDM) has become an exciting topic to discuss in recent decades due to the growing interest in big data and data mining. A technique of securing data but still preserving the privacy that is in it. This paper provides an alternative perturbation-based PPDM technique which is carried out by modifying the RNP algorithm. The novelty given in this paper are modifications of some steps method with a specific purpose. The modifications made are in the form of first narrowing the selection of the disturbance value. With the aim that the number of attributes that are replaced in each record line is only as many as the attributes in the original data, no more and no need to repeat; secondly, derive the perturbation function from the cumulative distribution function and use it to find the probability distribution function so that the selection of replacement data has a clear basis. The experiment results on twenty-five perturbed data show that the modified RNP algorithm balances data utility and security level by selecting the appropriate disturbance value and perturbation value. The level of security is measured using privacy metrics in the form of value difference, average transformation of data, and percentage of retains. The method presented in this paper is fascinating to be applied to actual data that requires privacy preservation.
Mangino, Antonio, Bou-Harb, Elias.  2021.  A Multidimensional Network Forensics Investigation of a State-Sanctioned Internet Outage. 2021 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :813–818.
In November 2019, the government of Iran enforced a week-long total Internet blackout that prevented the majority of Internet connectivity into and within the nation. This work elaborates upon the Iranian Internet blackout by characterizing the event through Internet-scale, near realtime network traffic measurements. Beginning with an investigation of compromised machines scanning the Internet, nearly 50 TB of network traffic data was analyzed. This work discovers 856,625 compromised IP addresses, with 17,182 attributed to the Iranian Internet space. By the second day of the Internet shut down, these numbers dropped by 18.46% and 92.81%, respectively. Empirical analysis of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm revealed that over 90% of compromised Iranian hosts were fingerprinted as IoT devices, which saw a significant drop throughout the shutdown (96.17% decrease by the blackout's second day). Further examination correlates BGP reachability metrics and related data with geolocation databases to statistically evaluate the number of reachable Iranian ASNs (dropping from approximately 1100 to under 200 reachable networks). In-depth investigation reveals the top affected ASNs, providing network forensic evidence of the longitudinal unplugging of such key networks. Lastly, the impact's interruption of the Bitcoin cryptomining market is highlighted, disclosing a massive spike in unsuccessful (i.e., pending) transactions. When combined, these network traffic measurements provide a multidimensional perspective of the Iranian Internet shutdown.
Jisna, P, Jarin, T, Praveen, P N.  2021.  Advanced Intrusion Detection Using Deep Learning-LSTM Network On Cloud Environment. 2021 Fourth International Conference on Microelectronics, Signals Systems (ICMSS). :1–6.
Cloud Computing is a favored choice of any IT organization in the current context since that provides flexibility and pay-per-use service to the users. Moreover, due to its open and inclusive architecture which is accessible to attackers. Security and privacy are a big roadblock to its success. For any IT organization, intrusion detection systems are essential to the detection and endurance of effective detection system against attacker aggressive attacks. To recognize minor occurrences and become significant breaches, a fully managed intrusion detection system is required. The most prevalent approach for intrusion detection on the cloud is the Intrusion Detection System (IDS). This research introduces a cloud-based deep learning-LSTM IDS model and evaluates it to a hybrid Stacked Contractive Auto Encoder (SCAE) + Support Vector Machine (SVM) IDS model. Deep learning algorithms like basic machine learning can be built to conduct attack detection and classification simultaneously. Also examine the detection methodologies used by certain existing intrusion detection systems. On two well-known Intrusion Detection datasets (KDD Cup 99 and NSL-KDD), our strategy outperforms current methods in terms of accurate detection.
Gayathri, R G, Sajjanhar, Atul, Xiang, Yong, Ma, Xingjun.  2021.  Anomaly Detection for Scenario-based Insider Activities using CGAN Augmented Data. 2021 IEEE 20th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :718–725.
Insider threats are the cyber attacks from the trusted entities within an organization. An insider attack is hard to detect as it may not leave a footprint and potentially cause huge damage to organizations. Anomaly detection is the most common approach for insider threat detection. Lack of real-world data and the skewed class distribution in the datasets makes insider threat analysis an understudied research area. In this paper, we propose a Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (CGAN) to enrich under-represented minority class samples to provide meaningful and diverse data for anomaly detection from the original malicious scenarios. Comprehensive experiments performed on benchmark dataset demonstrates the effectiveness of using CGAN augmented data, and the capability of multi-class anomaly detection for insider activity analysis. Moreover, the method is compared with other existing methods against different parameters and performance metrics.
Meng, Fanzhi, Lu, Peng, Li, Junhao, Hu, Teng, Yin, Mingyong, Lou, Fang.  2021.  GRU and Multi-autoencoder based Insider Threat Detection for Cyber Security. 2021 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :203–210.
The concealment and confusion nature of insider threat makes it a challenging task for security analysts to identify insider threat from log data. To detect insider threat, we propose a novel gated recurrent unit (GRU) and multi-autoencoder based insider threat detection method, which is an unsupervised anomaly detection method. It takes advantage of the extremely unbalanced characteristic of insider threat data and constructs a normal behavior autoencoder with low reconfiguration error through multi-level filter behavior learning, and identifies the behavior data with high reconfiguration error as abnormal behavior. In order to achieve the high efficiency of calculation and detection, GRU and multi-head attention are introduced into the autoencoder. Use dataset v6.2 of the CERT insider threat as validation data and threat detection recall as evaluation metric. The experimental results show that the effect of the proposed method is obviously better than that of Isolation Forest, LSTM autoencoder and multi-channel autoencoders based insider threat detection methods, and it's an effective insider threat detection technology.
Zheng, Wei, Abdallah Semasaba, Abubakar Omari, Wu, Xiaoxue, Agyemang, Samuel Akwasi, Liu, Tao, Ge, Yuan.  2021.  Representation vs. Model: What Matters Most for Source Code Vulnerability Detection. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering (SANER). :647–653.
Vulnerabilities in the source code of software are critical issues in the realm of software engineering. Coping with vulnerabilities in software source code is becoming more challenging due to several aspects of complexity and volume. Deep learning has gained popularity throughout the years as a means of addressing such issues. In this paper, we propose an evaluation of vulnerability detection performance on source code representations and evaluate how Machine Learning (ML) strategies can improve them. The structure of our experiment consists of 3 Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) in conjunction with five different source code representations; Abstract Syntax Trees (ASTs), Code Gadgets (CGs), Semantics-based Vulnerability Candidates (SeVCs), Lexed Code Representations (LCRs), and Composite Code Representations (CCRs). Experimental results show that employing different ML strategies in conjunction with the base model structure influences the performance results to a varying degree. However, ML-based techniques suffer from poor performance on class imbalance handling when used in conjunction with source code representations for software vulnerability detection.