Visible to the public Biblio

Found 316 results

Filters: Keyword is Sensors  [Clear All Filters]
2018-05-09
Javed, B., Iqbal, M. W., Abbas, H..  2017.  Internet of things (IoT) design considerations for developers and manufacturers. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :834–839.

IoT (Internet of Things) is a network of interconnected devices, designed to collect and exchange data which can then turn it into information, eventually into wisdom. IoT is a region where digital world converges with physical world. With the evolution of IoT, it is expected to create substantial impact on human lives. IoT ecosystem produces and exchanges sizeable data due to which IoT becomes an attractive target for adversary. The large-scale interconnectivity leads to various potential risk related to information security. Security assurance in IoT ecosystem is one of the major challenges to address. In this context, embedded security becomes a key issue in IoT devices which are constrained in terms of processing, power, memory and bandwidth. The focus of this paper is on the recommended design considerations for constrained IoT devices with the objective to achieve security by default. Considering established set of protocols along with best practices during design and development stage can address majority of security challenges.

2018-05-02
Clifford, J., Garfield, K., Towhidnejad, M., Neighbors, J., Miller, M., Verenich, E., Staskevich, G..  2017.  Multi-layer model of swarm intelligence for resilient autonomous systems. 2017 IEEE/AIAA 36th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–4.

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) is working with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) to develop a distributed multi-layer autonomous UAS planning and control technology for gathering intelligence in Anti-Access Area Denial (A2/AD) environments populated by intelligent adaptive adversaries. These resilient autonomous systems are able to navigate through hostile environments while performing Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) tasks, and minimizing the loss of assets. Our approach incorporates artificial life concepts, with a high-level architecture divided into three biologically inspired layers: cyber-physical, reactive, and deliberative. Each layer has a dynamic level of influence over the behavior of the agent. Algorithms within the layers act on a filtered view of reality, abstracted in the layer immediately below. Each layer takes input from the layer below, provides output to the layer above, and provides direction to the layer below. Fast-reactive control systems in lower layers ensure a stable environment supporting cognitive function on higher layers. The cyber-physical layer represents the central nervous system of the individual, consisting of elements of the vehicle that cannot be changed such as sensors, power plant, and physical configuration. On the reactive layer, the system uses an artificial life paradigm, where each agent interacts with the environment using a set of simple rules regarding wants and needs. Information is communicated explicitly via message passing and implicitly via observation and recognition of behavior. In the deliberative layer, individual agents look outward to the group, deliberating on efficient resource management and cooperation with other agents. Strategies at all layers are developed using machine learning techniques such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) or NN applied to system training that takes place prior to the mission.

2018-04-11
Meyer, D., Haase, J., Eckert, M., Klauer, B..  2017.  New Attack Vectors for Building Automation and IoT. IECON 2017 - 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :8126–8131.

In the past the security of building automation solely depended on the security of the devices inside or tightly connected to the building. In the last years more devices evolved using some kind of cloud service as a back-end or providers supplying some kind of device to the user. Also, the number of building automation systems connected to the Internet for management, control, and data storage increases every year. These developments cause the appearance of new threats on building automation. As Internet of Thing (IoT) and building automation intertwine more and more these threats are also valid for IoT installations. The paper presents new attack vectors and new threats using the threat model of Meyer et al.[1].

2018-04-02
Vhaduri, S., Poellabauer, C..  2017.  Wearable Device User Authentication Using Physiological and Behavioral Metrics. 2017 IEEE 28th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). :1–6.

Wearables, such as Fitbit, Apple Watch, and Microsoft Band, with their rich collection of sensors, facilitate the tracking of healthcare- and wellness-related metrics. However, the assessment of the physiological metrics collected by these devices could also be useful in identifying the user of the wearable, e.g., to detect unauthorized use or to correctly associate the data to a user if wearables are shared among multiple users. Further, researchers and healthcare providers often rely on these smart wearables to monitor research subjects and patients in their natural environments over extended periods of time. Here, it is important to associate the sensed data with the corresponding user and to detect if a device is being used by an unauthorized individual, to ensure study compliance. Existing one-time authentication approaches using credentials (e.g., passwords, certificates) or trait-based biometrics (e.g., face, fingerprints, iris, voice) might fail, since such credentials can easily be shared among users. In this paper, we present a continuous and reliable wearable-user authentication mechanism using coarse-grain minute-level physical activity (step counts) and physiological data (heart rate, calorie burn, and metabolic equivalent of task). From our analysis of 421 Fitbit users from a two-year long health study, we are able to statistically distinguish nearly 100% of the subject-pairs and to identify subjects with an average accuracy of 92.97%.

Siddiqi, M., All, S. T., Sivaraman, V..  2017.  Secure Lightweight Context-Driven Data Logging for Bodyworn Sensing Devices. 2017 5th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1–6.

Rapid advancement in wearable technology has unlocked a tremendous potential of its applications in the medical domain. Among the challenges in making the technology more useful for medical purposes is the lack of confidence in the data thus generated and communicated. Incentives have led to attacks on such systems. We propose a novel lightweight scheme to securely log the data from bodyworn sensing devices by utilizing neighboring devices as witnesses who store the fingerprints of data in Bloom filters to be later used for forensics. Medical data from each sensor is stored at various locations of the system in chronological epoch-level blocks chained together, similar to the blockchain. Besides secure logging, the scheme offers to secure other contextual information such as localization and timestamping. We prove the effectiveness of the scheme through experimental results. We define performance parameters of our scheme and quantify their cost benefit trade-offs through simulation.

Yadav, S., Howells, G..  2017.  Analysis of ICMetrics Features/Technology for Wearable Devices IOT Sensors. 2017 Seventh International Conference on Emerging Security Technologies (EST). :175–178.

This paper investigates the suitability of employing various measurable features derived from multiple wearable devices (Apple Watch), for the generation of unique authentication and encryption keys related to the user. This technique is termed as ICMetrics. The ICMetrics technology requires identifying the suitable features in an environment for key generation most useful for online services. This paper presents an evaluation of the feasibility of identifying a unique user based on desirable feature set and activity data collected over short and long term and explores how the number of samples being factored into the ICMetrics system affects uniqueness of the key.

Odesile, A., Thamilarasu, G..  2017.  Distributed Intrusion Detection Using Mobile Agents in Wireless Body Area Networks. 2017 Seventh International Conference on Emerging Security Technologies (EST). :144–149.

Technological advances in wearable and implanted medical devices are enabling wireless body area networks to alter the current landscape of medical and healthcare applications. These systems have the potential to significantly improve real time patient monitoring, provide accurate diagnosis and deliver faster treatment. In spite of their growth, securing the sensitive medical and patient data relayed in these networks to protect patients' privacy and safety still remains an open challenge. The resource constraints of wireless medical sensors limit the adoption of traditional security measures in this domain. In this work, we propose a distributed mobile agent based intrusion detection system to secure these networks. Specifically, our autonomous mobile agents use machine learning algorithms to perform local and network level anomaly detection to detect various security attacks targeted on healthcare systems. Simulation results show that our system performs efficiently with high detection accuracy and low energy consumption.

Sridhar, S., Smys, S..  2017.  Intelligent Security Framework for Iot Devices Cryptography Based End-to-End Security Architecture. 2017 International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC). :1–5.

Internet of Thing (IoT) provide services by linking the different platform devices. They have the limitation in providing intelligent service. The IoT devices are heterogeneous which includes wireless sensors to less resource constrained devices. These devices are prone to hardware/software and network attacks. If not properly secured, it may lead to security issues like privacy and confidentiality. To resolve the above problem, an Intelligent Security Framework for IoT Devices is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is made up of (1) the light weight Asymmetric cryptography for securing the End-To-End devices which protects the IoT service gateway and the low power sensor nodes and (2) implements Lattice-based cryptography for securing the Broker devices/Gateway and the cloud services. The proposed architecture implements Asymmetric Key Encryption to share session key between the nodes and then uses this session key for message transfer This protects the system from Distributed Denial of Service Attacks, eavesdropping and Quantum algorithm attacks. The proposed protocol uses the unique Device ID of the sensors to generate key pair to establish mutual authentication between Devices and Services. Finally, the Mutual authentication mechanism is implemented in the gateway.

Ádám, Norbert, Madoš, Branislav, Baláž, Anton, Pavlik, Tomáš.  2017.  Artificial Neural Network Based IDS. 2017 IEEE 15th International Symposium on Applied Machine Intelligence and Informatics (SAMI). :000159–000164.

The Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) are either signature based or anomaly based. In this paper presented NIDS system belongs to anomaly based Neural Network Intrusion Detection System (NNIDS). The proposed NNIDS is able to successfully recognize learned malicious activities in a network environment. It was tested for the SYN flood attack, UDP flood attack, nMap scanning attack, and also for non-malicious communication.

Hayawi, K., Ho, P. H., Mathew, S. S., Peng, L..  2017.  Securing the Internet of Things: A Worst-Case Analysis of Trade-Off between Query-Anonymity and Communication-Cost. 2017 IEEE 31st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA). :939–946.

Cloud services are widely used to virtualize the management and actuation of the real-world the Internet of Things (IoT). Due to the increasing privacy concerns regarding querying untrusted cloud servers, query anonymity has become a critical issue to all the stakeholders which are related to assessment of the dependability and security of the IoT system. The paper presents our study on the problem of query receiver-anonymity in the cloud-based IoT system, where the trade-off between the offered query-anonymity and the incurred communication is considered. The paper will investigate whether the accepted worst-case communication cost is sufficient to achieve a specific query anonymity or not. By way of extensive theoretical analysis, it shows that the bounds of worst-case communication cost is quadratically increased as the offered level of anonymity is increased, and they are quadratic in the network diameter for the opposite range. Extensive simulation is conducted to verify the analytical assertions.

2018-03-19
Ward, T., Choi, J. I., Butler, K., Shea, J. M., Traynor, P., Wong, T. F..  2017.  Privacy Preserving Localization Using a Distributed Particle Filtering Protocol. MILCOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :835–840.

Cooperative spectrum sensing is often necessary in cognitive radios systems to localize a transmitter by fusing the measurements from multiple sensing radios. However, revealing spectrum sensing information also generally leaks information about the location of the radio that made those measurements. We propose a protocol for performing cooperative spectrum sensing while preserving the privacy of the sensing radios. In this protocol, radios fuse sensing information through a distributed particle filter based on a tree structure. All sensing information is encrypted using public-key cryptography, and one of the radios serves as an anonymizer, whose role is to break the connection between the sensing radios and the public keys they use. We consider a semi-honest (honest-but-curious) adversary model in which there is at most a single adversary that is internal to the sensing network and complies with the specified protocol but wishes to determine information about the other participants. Under this scenario, an adversary may learn the sensing information of some of the radios, but it does not have any way to tie that information to a particular radio's identity. We test the performance of our proposed distributed, tree-based particle filter using physical measurements of FM broadcast stations.

Massonet, P., Deru, L., Achour, A., Dupont, S., Levin, A., Villari, M..  2017.  End-To-End Security Architecture for Federated Cloud and IoT Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP). :1–6.

Smart Internet of Things (IoT) applications will rely on advanced IoT platforms that not only provide access to IoT sensors and actuators, but also provide access to cloud services and data analytics. Future IoT platforms should thus provide connectivity and intelligence. One approach to connecting IoT devices, IoT networks to cloud networks and services is to use network federation mechanisms over the internet to create network slices across heterogeneous platforms. Network slices also need to be protected from potential external and internal threats. In this paper we describe an approach for enforcing global security policies in the federated cloud and IoT networks. Our approach allows a global security to be defined in the form of a single service manifest and enforced across all federation network segments. It relies on network function virtualisation (NFV) and service function chaining (SFC) to enforce the security policy. The approach is illustrated with two case studies: one for a user that wishes to securely access IoT devices and another in which an IoT infrastructure administrator wishes to securely access some remote cloud and data analytics services.

Jeon, H., Eun, Y..  2017.  Sensor Security Index for Control Systems. 2017 17th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS). :145–148.

Security of control systems have become a new and important field of research since malicious attacks on control systems indeed occurred including Stuxnet in 2011 and north eastern electrical grid black out in 2003. Attacks on sensors and/or actuators of control systems cause malfunction, instability, and even system destruction. The impact of attack may differ by which instrumentation (sensors and/or actuators) is being attacked. In particular, for control systems with multiple sensors, attack on each sensor may have different impact, i.e., attack on some sensors leads to a greater damage to the system than those for other sensors. To investigate this, we consider sensor bias injection attacks in linear control systems equipped with anomaly detector, and quantify the maximum impact of attack on sensors while the attack remains undetected. Then, we introduce a notion of sensor security index for linear dynamic systems to quantify the vulnerability under sensor attacks. Method of reducing system vulnerability is also discussed using the notion of sensor security index.

Aglargoz, A., Bierig, A., Reinhardt, A..  2017.  Dynamic Reconfigurability of Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks in Aircraft. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Wireless for Space and Extreme Environments (WiSEE). :1–6.

The wireless spectrum is a scarce resource, and the number of wireless terminals is constantly growing. One way to mitigate this strong constraint for wireless traffic is the use of dynamic mechanisms to utilize the spectrum, such as cognitive and software-defined radios. This is especially important for the upcoming wireless sensor and actuator networks in aircraft, where real-time guarantees play an important role in the network. Future wireless networks in aircraft need to be scalable, cater to the specific requirements of avionics (e.g., standardization and certification), and provide interoperability with existing technologies. In this paper, we demonstrate that dynamic network reconfigurability is a solution to the aforementioned challenges. We supplement this claim by surveying several flexible approaches in the context of wireless sensor and actuator networks in aircraft. More specifically, we examine the concept of dynamic resource management, accomplished through more flexible transceiver hardware and by employing dedicated spectrum agents. Subsequently, we evaluate the advantages of cross-layer network architectures which overcome the fixed layering of current network stacks in an effort to provide quality of service for event-based and time-triggered traffic. Lastly, the challenges related to implementation of the aforementioned mechanisms in wireless sensor and actuator networks in aircraft are elaborated, and key requirements to future research are summarized.

Harb, H., William, A., El-Mohsen, O. A., Mansour, H. A..  2017.  Multicast Security Model for Internet of Things Based on Context Awareness. 2017 13th International Computer Engineering Conference (ICENCO). :303–309.

Internet of Things (IoT) devices are resource constrained devices in terms of power, memory, bandwidth, and processing. On the other hand, multicast communication is considered more efficient in group oriented applications compared to unicast communication as transmission takes place using fewer resources. That is why many of IoT applications rely on multicast in their transmission. This multicast traffic need to be secured specially for critical applications involving actuators control. Securing multicast traffic by itself is cumbersome as it requires an efficient and scalable Group Key Management (GKM) protocol. In case of IoT, the situation is more difficult because of the dynamic nature of IoT scenarios. This paper introduces a solution based on using context aware security server accompanied with a group of key servers to efficiently distribute group encryption keys to IoT devices in order to secure the multicast sessions. The proposed solution is evaluated relative to the Logical Key Hierarchy (LKH) protocol. The comparison shows that the proposed scheme efficiently reduces the load on the key servers. Moreover, the key storage cost on both members and key servers is reduced.

Showkatbakhsh, M., Shoukry, Y., Chen, R. H., Diggavi, S., Tabuada, P..  2017.  An SMT-Based Approach to Secure State Estimation under Sensor and Actuator Attacks. 2017 IEEE 56th Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :157–162.

This paper addresses the problem of state estimation of a linear time-invariant system when some of the sensors or/and actuators are under adversarial attack. In our set-up, the adversarial agent attacks a sensor (actuator) by manipulating its measurement (input), and we impose no constraint on how the measurements (inputs) are corrupted. We introduce the notion of ``sparse strong observability'' to characterize systems for which the state estimation is possible, given bounds on the number of attacked sensors and actuators. Furthermore, we develop a secure state estimator based on Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solvers.

Mehta, N. P., Sahai, A. K..  2017.  Internet of Things: Raging Devices and Standardization in Low-Powered Protocols. 2017 Second International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). :1–5.

This paper addresses the need for standard communication protocols for IoT devices with limited power and computational capabilities. The world is rapidly changing with the proliferation and deployment of IoT devices. This will bring in new communication challenges as these devices are connected to Internet and need to communicate with each other in real time. The paper provides an overview of IoT system architecture and the forthcoming challenges it will bring. There is an urging need to establish standards for communication in the IoT world. With the recent development of new protocols like CoAP, 6LowPAN, IEEE 802.15.4 and Thread in different layers of OSI model, additional challenges also present themselves. Performance and data management is becoming more critical than ever before due to the complexity of connecting raging number of IoT devices. The performance of the systems dealing with IoT devices will require appropriate capacity planning the associated development of data centers. Finally, the paper also presents some reasonable approaches to address the above issues in the IoT world.

Roselin, A. G., Nanda, P., Nepal, S..  2017.  Lightweight Authentication Protocol (LAUP) for 6LoWPAN Wireless Sensor Networks. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :371–378.

6LoWPAN networks involving wireless sensors consist of resource starving miniature sensor nodes. Since secured authentication of these resource-constrained sensors is one of the important considerations during communication, use of asymmetric key distribution scheme may not be the perfect choice to achieve secure authentication. Recent research shows that Lucky Thirteen attack has compromised Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode for key establishment. Even though EAKES6Lo and S3K techniques for key establishment follow the symmetric key establishment method, they strongly rely on a remote server and trust anchor for secure key distribution. Our proposed Lightweight Authentication Protocol (LAUP) used a symmetric key method with no preshared keys and comprised of four flights to establish authentication and session key distribution between sensors and Edge Router in a 6LoWPAN environment. Each flight uses freshly derived keys from existing information such as PAN ID (Personal Area Network IDentification) and device identities. We formally verified our scheme using the Scyther security protocol verification tool for authentication properties such as Aliveness, Secrecy, Non-Injective Agreement and Non-Injective Synchronization. We simulated and evaluated the proposed LAUP protocol using COOJA simulator with ContikiOS and achieved less computational time and low power consumption compared to existing authentication protocols such as the EAKES6Lo and SAKES.

2018-03-05
Messai, M. L., Seba, H..  2017.  A Self-Healing Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Multi-Phase Wireless Sensor Networks. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :144–151.

Node compromising is still the most hard attack in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). It affects key distribution which is a building block in securing communications in any network. The weak point of several roposed key distribution schemes in WSNs is their lack of resilience to node compromising attacks. When a node is compromised, all its key material is revealed leading to insecure communication links throughout the network. This drawback is more harmful for long-lived WSNs that are deployed in multiple phases, i.e., Multi-phase WSNs (MPWSNs). In the last few years, many key management schemes were proposed to ensure security in WSNs. However, these schemes are conceived for single phase WSNs and their security degrades with time when an attacker captures nodes. To deal with this drawback and enhance the resilience to node compromising over the whole lifetime of the network, we propose in this paper, a new key pre-distribution scheme adapted to MPWSNs. Our scheme takes advantage of the resilience improvement of Q-composite key scheme and adds self-healing which is the ability of the scheme to decrease the effect of node compromising over time. Self-healing is achieved by pre-distributing each generation with fresh keys. The evaluation of our scheme proves that it has a good key connectivity and a high resilience to node compromising attack compared to existing key management schemes.

Shelar, D., Sun, P., Amin, S., Zonouz, S..  2017.  Compromising Security of Economic Dispatch in Power System Operations. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :531–542.

Power grid operations rely on the trustworthy operation of critical control center functionalities, including the so-called Economic Dispatch (ED) problem. The ED problem is a large-scale optimization problem that is periodically solved by the system operator to ensure the balance of supply and load while maintaining reliability constraints. In this paper, we propose a semantics-based attack generation and implementation approach to study the security of the ED problem.1 Firstly, we generate optimal attack vectors to transmission line ratings to induce maximum congestion in the critical lines, resulting in the violation of capacity limits. We formulate a bilevel optimization problem in which the attacker chooses manipulations of line capacity ratings to maximinimize the percentage line capacity violations under linear power flows. We reformulate the bilevel problem as a mixed integer linear program that can be solved efficiently. Secondly, we describe how the optimal attack vectors can be implemented in commercial energy management systems (EMSs). The attack explores the dynamic memory space of the EMS, and replaces the true line capacity ratings stored in data regions with the optimal attack vectors. In contrast to the well-known false data injection attacks to control systems that require compromising distributed sensors, our approach directly implements attacks to the control center server. Our experimental results on benchmark power systems and five widely utilized EMSs show the practical feasibility of our attack generation and implementation approach.

Shelar, D., Sun, P., Amin, S., Zonouz, S..  2017.  Compromising Security of Economic Dispatch in Power System Operations. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :531–542.

Power grid operations rely on the trustworthy operation of critical control center functionalities, including the so-called Economic Dispatch (ED) problem. The ED problem is a large-scale optimization problem that is periodically solved by the system operator to ensure the balance of supply and load while maintaining reliability constraints. In this paper, we propose a semantics-based attack generation and implementation approach to study the security of the ED problem.1 Firstly, we generate optimal attack vectors to transmission line ratings to induce maximum congestion in the critical lines, resulting in the violation of capacity limits. We formulate a bilevel optimization problem in which the attacker chooses manipulations of line capacity ratings to maximinimize the percentage line capacity violations under linear power flows. We reformulate the bilevel problem as a mixed integer linear program that can be solved efficiently. Secondly, we describe how the optimal attack vectors can be implemented in commercial energy management systems (EMSs). The attack explores the dynamic memory space of the EMS, and replaces the true line capacity ratings stored in data regions with the optimal attack vectors. In contrast to the well-known false data injection attacks to control systems that require compromising distributed sensors, our approach directly implements attacks to the control center server. Our experimental results on benchmark power systems and five widely utilized EMSs show the practical feasibility of our attack generation and implementation approach.

Shelar, D., Sun, P., Amin, S., Zonouz, S..  2017.  Compromising Security of Economic Dispatch in Power System Operations. 2017 47th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :531–542.
Power grid operations rely on the trustworthy operation of critical control center functionalities, including the so-called Economic Dispatch (ED) problem. The ED problem is a large-scale optimization problem that is periodically solved by the system operator to ensure the balance of supply and load while maintaining reliability constraints. In this paper, we propose a semantics-based attack generation and implementation approach to study the security of the ED problem.1 Firstly, we generate optimal attack vectors to transmission line ratings to induce maximum congestion in the critical lines, resulting in the violation of capacity limits. We formulate a bilevel optimization problem in which the attacker chooses manipulations of line capacity ratings to maximinimize the percentage line capacity violations under linear power flows. We reformulate the bilevel problem as a mixed integer linear program that can be solved efficiently. Secondly, we describe how the optimal attack vectors can be implemented in commercial energy management systems (EMSs). The attack explores the dynamic memory space of the EMS, and replaces the true line capacity ratings stored in data regions with the optimal attack vectors. In contrast to the well-known false data injection attacks to control systems that require compromising distributed sensors, our approach directly implements attacks to the control center server. Our experimental results on benchmark power systems and five widely utilized EMSs show the practical feasibility of our attack generation and implementation approach.
2018-02-28
Krupp, B., Sridhar, N., Zhao, W..  2017.  SPE: Security and Privacy Enhancement Framework for Mobile Devices. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 14:433–446.

In this paper, we present a security and privacy enhancement (SPE) framework for unmodified mobile operating systems. SPE introduces a new layer between the application and the operating system and does not require a device be jailbroken or utilize a custom operating system. We utilize an existing ontology designed for enforcing security and privacy policies on mobile devices to build a policy that is customizable. Based on this policy, SPE provides enhancements to native controls that currently exist on the platform for privacy and security sensitive components. SPE allows access to these components in a way that allows the framework to ensure the application is truthful in its declared intent and ensure that the user's policy is enforced. In our evaluation we verify the correctness of the framework and the computing impact on the device. Additionally, we discovered security and privacy issues in several open source applications by utilizing the SPE Framework. From our findings, if SPE is adopted by mobile operating systems producers, it would provide consumers and businesses the additional privacy and security controls they demand and allow users to be more aware of security and privacy issues with applications on their devices.

2018-02-27
Sulavko, A. E., Eremenko, A. V., Fedotov, A. A..  2017.  Users' Identification through Keystroke Dynamics Based on Vibration Parameters and Keyboard Pressure. 2017 Dynamics of Systems, Mechanisms and Machines (Dynamics). :1–7.

The paper considers an issues of protecting data from unauthorized access by users' authentication through keystroke dynamics. It proposes to use keyboard pressure parameters in combination with time characteristics of keystrokes to identify a user. The authors designed a keyboard with special sensors that allow recording complementary parameters. The paper presents an estimation of the information value for these new characteristics and error probabilities of users' identification based on the perceptron algorithms, Bayes' rule and quadratic form networks. The best result is the following: 20 users are identified and the error rate is 0.6%.

2018-02-21
Conti, F., Schilling, R., Schiavone, P. D., Pullini, A., Rossi, D., Gürkaynak, F. K., Muehlberghuber, M., Gautschi, M., Loi, I., Haugou, G. et al..  2017.  An IoT Endpoint System-on-Chip for Secure and Energy-Efficient Near-Sensor Analytics. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 64:2481–2494.

Near-sensor data analytics is a promising direction for internet-of-things endpoints, as it minimizes energy spent on communication and reduces network load - but it also poses security concerns, as valuable data are stored or sent over the network at various stages of the analytics pipeline. Using encryption to protect sensitive data at the boundary of the on-chip analytics engine is a way to address data security issues. To cope with the combined workload of analytics and encryption in a tight power envelope, we propose Fulmine, a system-on-chip (SoC) based on a tightly-coupled multi-core cluster augmented with specialized blocks for compute-intensive data processing and encryption functions, supporting software programmability for regular computing tasks. The Fulmine SoC, fabricated in 65-nm technology, consumes less than 20mW on average at 0.8V achieving an efficiency of up to 70pJ/B in encryption, 50pJ/px in convolution, or up to 25MIPS/mW in software. As a strong argument for real-life flexible application of our platform, we show experimental results for three secure analytics use cases: secure autonomous aerial surveillance with a state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural network (CNN) consuming 3.16pJ per equivalent reduced instruction set computer operation, local CNN-based face detection with secured remote recognition in 5.74pJ/op, and seizure detection with encrypted data collection from electroencephalogram within 12.7pJ/op.