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Shrestha, Babins, Mohamed, Manar, Saxena, Nitesh.  2019.  ZEMFA: Zero-Effort Multi-Factor Authentication based on Multi-Modal Gait Biometrics. 2019 17th International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1–10.
In this paper, we consider the problem of transparently authenticating a user to a local terminal (e.g., a desktop computer) as she approaches towards the terminal. Given its appealing usability, such zero-effort authentication has already been deployed in the real-world where a computer terminal or a vehicle can be unlocked by the mere proximity of an authentication token (e.g., a smartphone). However, existing systems based on a single authentication factor contains one major security weakness - unauthorized physical access to the token, e.g., during lunch-time or upon theft, allows the attacker to have unfettered access to the terminal. We introduce ZEMFA, a zero-effort multi-factor authentication system based on multiple authentication tokens and multi-modal behavioral biometrics. Specifically, ZEMFA utilizes two types of authentication tokens, a smartphone and a smartwatch (or a bracelet) and two types of gait patterns captured by these tokens, mid/lower body movements measured by the phone and wrist/arm movements captured by the watch. Since a user's walking or gait pattern is believed to be unique, only that user (no impostor) would be able to gain access to the terminal even when the impostor is given access to both of the authentication tokens. We present the design and implementation of ZEMFA. We demonstrate that ZEMFA offers a high degree of detection accuracy, based on multi-sensor and multi-device fusion. We also show that ZEMFA can resist active attacks that attempt to mimic a user's walking pattern, especially when multiple devices are used.
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Sarkisyan, A., Debbiny, R., Nahapetian, A..  2015.  WristSnoop: Smartphone PINs prediction using smartwatch motion sensors. 2015 IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security (WIFS). :1–6.

Smartwatches, with motion sensors, are becoming a common utility for users. With the increasing popularity of practical wearable computers, and in particular smartwatches, the security risks linked with sensors on board these devices have yet to be fully explored. Recent research literature has demonstrated the capability of using a smartphone's own accelerometer and gyroscope to infer tap locations; this paper expands on this work to demonstrate a method for inferring smartphone PINs through the analysis of smartwatch motion sensors. This study determines the feasibility and accuracy of inferring user keystrokes on a smartphone through a smartwatch worn by the user. Specifically, we show that with malware accessing only the smartwatch's motion sensors, it is possible to recognize user activity and specific numeric keypad entries. In a controlled scenario, we achieve results no less than 41% and up to 92% accurate for PIN prediction within 5 guesses.

MUTAR, AHMED IRMAYYIDH, KURNAZ, Sefer, Mohammed, Alaa Hamid.  2020.  Wireless Sensor Networks Mutual Policy For Position Protection. 2020 4th International Symposium on Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies (ISMSIT). :1—4.
The usage of K-anonymity to preserve location privacy for wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring systems, where sensor nodes operate together to notify a server with anonymous shared positions. That k-anonymous position is a coated region with at least k people. However, we identify an attack model to show that overlapping aggregate locations remain privacy-risk because the enemy can infer certain overlapping areas with persons under k who violate the privacy requirement for anonymity. Within this paper we suggest a mutual WSN privacy protocol (REAL). Actual needs sensor nodes to arrange their sensing areas separately into a variety of non-overlapping, extremely precise anonymous aggregate positions. We also developed a state transfer framework, a locking mechanism and a time delay mechanism to address the three main REAL challenges, namely self-organisation, shared assets and high precision. We equate REAL's output with current protocols through virtual experiments. The findings demonstrate that REAL preserves the privacy of sites, offers more precise question answers and decreases connectivity and device expense.
Leff, D., Maskay, A., Cunha, M. P. da.  2020.  Wireless Interrogation of High Temperature Surface Acoustic Wave Dynamic Strain Sensor. 2020 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS). :1–4.
Dynamic strain sensing is necessary for high-temperature harsh-environment applications, including powerplants, oil wells, aerospace, and metal manufacturing. Monitoring dynamic strain is important for structural health monitoring and condition-based maintenance in order to guarantee safety, increase process efficiency, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. Sensing in high-temperature (HT), harsh-environments (HE) comes with challenges including mounting and packaging, sensor stability, and data acquisition and processing. Wireless sensor operation at HT is desirable because it reduces the complexity of the sensor connection, increases reliability, and reduces costs. Surface acoustic wave resonators (SAWRs) are compact, can operate wirelessly and battery-free, and have been shown to operate above 1000°C, making them a potential option for HT HE dynamic strain sensing. This paper presents wirelessly interrogated SAWR dynamic strain sensors operating around 288.8MHz at room temperature and tested up to 400°C. The SAWRs were calibrated with a high-temperature wired commercial strain gauge. The sensors were mounted onto a tapered-type Inconel constant stress beam and the assembly was tested inside a box furnace. The SAWR sensitivity to dynamic strain excitation at 25°C, 100°C, and 400°C was .439 μV/με, 0.363μV/με, and .136 μV/με, respectively. The experimental outcomes verified that inductive coupled wirelessly interrogated SAWRs can be successfully used for dynamic strain sensing up to 400°C.
Brinkman, Bo.  2012.  Willing to be fooled: Security and autoamputation in augmented reality. 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality - Arts, Media, and Humanities (ISMAR-AMH). :89—90.

What does it mean to trust, or not trust, an augmented reality system? Froma computer security point of view, trust in augmented reality represents a real threat to real people. The fact that augmented reality allows the programmer to tinker with the user's senses creates many opportunities for malfeasance. It might be natural to think that if we warn users to be careful it will lower their trust in the system, greatly reducing risk.

Kang, Lei, Feeney, Andrew, Somerset, Will, Dixon, Steve.  2019.  Wideband Electromagnetic Dynamic Acoustic Transducer as a Standard Acoustic Source for Air-coupled Ultrasonic Sensors. 2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS). :2481–2484.
To experimentally study the characteristics of ultrasonic sensors, a wideband air-coupled ultrasonic transducer, wideband electromagnetic dynamic acoustic transducer (WEMDAT), is designed and fabricated. Characterisation methods, including electrical impedance analysis, laser Doppler vibrometry and pressure-field microphone measurement, are used to examine the performance of the WEMDAT, which have shown that the transducer has a wide bandwidth ranging approximately from 47 kHz to 145 kHz and a good directivity with a beam angle of around 20˚ with no evident side lobes. A 40 kHz commercial flexural ultrasonic transducer (FUT) is then taken as an example to receive ultrasonic waves in a pitch-catch configuration to evaluate the performance of the WEMDAT as an acoustic source. Experiment results have demonstrated that the WEMDAT can maintain the most of the frequency content of a 5 cycle 40 kHz tone burst electric signal and convert it into an ultrasonic wave for studying the dynamic characteristic and the directivity pattern of the ultrasonic receiver. A comparison of the dynamic characteristics between the transmitting and the receiving processes of the same FUT reveals that the FUT has a wider bandwidth when operating as an ultrasonic receiver than operating as a transmitter, which indicates that it is necessary to quantitatively investigate the receiving process of an ultrasonic transducer, demonstrating a huge potential of the WEMDAT serving as a standard acoustic source for ultrasonic sensors for various air-coupled ultrasonic applications.
Chen, Q., Chen, D., Gong, J..  2020.  Weighted Predictive Coding Methods for Block-Based Compressive Sensing of Images. 2020 3rd International Conference on Unmanned Systems (ICUS). :587–591.
Compressive sensing (CS) is beneficial for unmanned reconnaissance systems to obtain high-quality images with limited resources. The existing prediction methods for block-based compressive sensing of images can be regarded as the particular coefficients of weighted predictive coding. To find better prediction coefficients for BCS, this paper proposes two weighted prediction methods. The first method converts the prediction model of measurements into a prediction model of image blocks. The prediction weights are obtained by training the prediction model of image blocks offline, which avoiding the influence of the sampling rates on the prediction model of measurements. Another method is to calculate the prediction coefficients adaptively based on the average energy of measurements, which can adjust the weights based on the measurements. Compared with existing methods, the proposed prediction methods for BCS of images can further improve the reconstruction image quality.
Vhaduri, S., Poellabauer, C..  2017.  Wearable Device User Authentication Using Physiological and Behavioral Metrics. 2017 IEEE 28th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). :1–6.

Wearables, such as Fitbit, Apple Watch, and Microsoft Band, with their rich collection of sensors, facilitate the tracking of healthcare- and wellness-related metrics. However, the assessment of the physiological metrics collected by these devices could also be useful in identifying the user of the wearable, e.g., to detect unauthorized use or to correctly associate the data to a user if wearables are shared among multiple users. Further, researchers and healthcare providers often rely on these smart wearables to monitor research subjects and patients in their natural environments over extended periods of time. Here, it is important to associate the sensed data with the corresponding user and to detect if a device is being used by an unauthorized individual, to ensure study compliance. Existing one-time authentication approaches using credentials (e.g., passwords, certificates) or trait-based biometrics (e.g., face, fingerprints, iris, voice) might fail, since such credentials can easily be shared among users. In this paper, we present a continuous and reliable wearable-user authentication mechanism using coarse-grain minute-level physical activity (step counts) and physiological data (heart rate, calorie burn, and metabolic equivalent of task). From our analysis of 421 Fitbit users from a two-year long health study, we are able to statistically distinguish nearly 100% of the subject-pairs and to identify subjects with an average accuracy of 92.97%.

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Mirzamohammadi, Saeed, Amiri Sani, Ardalan.  2016.  Viola: Trustworthy Sensor Notifications for Enhanced Privacy on Mobile Systems. Proceedings of the 14th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services. :263–276.

Modern mobile systems such as smartphones, tablets, and wearables contain a plethora of sensors such as camera, microphone, GPS, and accelerometer. Moreover, being mobile, these systems are with the user all the time, e.g., in user's purse or pocket. Therefore, mobile sensors can capture extremely sensitive and private information about the user including daily conversations, photos, videos, and visited locations. Such a powerful sensing capability raises important privacy concerns. To address these concerns, we believe that mobile systems must be equipped with trustworthy sensor notifications, which use indicators such as LED to inform the user unconditionally when the sensors are on. We present Viola, our design and implementation of trustworthy sensor notifications, in which we leverage two novel solutions. First, we deploy a runtime monitor in low-level system software, e.g., in the operating system kernel or in the hypervisor. The monitor intercepts writes to the registers of sensors and indicators, evaluates them against checks on sensor notification invariants, and rejects those that fail the checks. Second, we use formal verification methods to prove the functional correctness of the compilation of our invariant checks from a high-level language. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Viola on different mobile systems, such as Nexus 5, Galaxy Nexus, and ODROID XU4, and for various sensors and indicators, such as camera, microphone, LED, and vibrator. We demonstrate that Viola incurs almost no overhead to the sensor's performance and incurs only small power consumption overhead.

Hang Shao, Japkowicz, N., Abielmona, R., Falcon, R..  2014.  Vessel track correlation and association using fuzzy logic and Echo State Networks. Evolutionary Computation (CEC), 2014 IEEE Congress on. :2322-2329.

Tracking moving objects is a task of the utmost importance to the defence community. As this task requires high accuracy, rather than employing a single detector, it has become common to use multiple ones. In such cases, the tracks produced by these detectors need to be correlated (if they belong to the same sensing modality) or associated (if they were produced by different sensing modalities). In this work, we introduce Computational-Intelligence-based methods for correlating and associating various contacts and tracks pertaining to maritime vessels in an area of interest. Fuzzy k-Nearest Neighbours will be used to conduct track correlation and Fuzzy C-Means clustering will be applied for association. In that way, the uncertainty of the track correlation and association is handled through fuzzy logic. To better model the state of the moving target, the traditional Kalman Filter will be extended using an Echo State Network. Experimental results on five different types of sensing systems will be discussed to justify the choices made in the development of our approach. In particular, we will demonstrate the judiciousness of using Fuzzy k-Nearest Neighbours and Fuzzy C-Means on our tracking system and show how the extension of the traditional Kalman Filter by a recurrent neural network is superior to its extension by other methods.

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Mhamdi, L., Njima, C. B., Dhouibi, H., Hassani, M..  2017.  Using timed automata and fuzzy logic for diagnosis of multiple faults in DES. 2017 International Conference on Control, Automation and Diagnosis (ICCAD). :457–463.

This paper proposes a design method of a support tool for detection and diagnosis of failures in discrete event systems (DES). The design of this diagnoser goes through three phases: an identification phase and finding paths and temporal parameters of the model describing the two modes of normal and faulty operation, a detection phase provided by the comparison and monitoring time operation and a location phase based on the combination of the temporal evolution of the parameters and thresholds exceeded technique. Our contribution lays in the application of this technique in the presence of faults arising simultaneously, sensors and actuators. The validation of the proposed approach is illustrated in a filling system through a simulation.

Halba, Khalid, Griffor, Edward, Kamongi, Patrick, Roth, Thomas.  2019.  Using Statistical Methods and Co-Simulation to Evaluate ADS-Equipped Vehicle Trustworthiness. 2019 Electric Vehicles International Conference (EV). :1–5.

With the increasing interest in studying Automated Driving System (ADS)-equipped vehicles through simulation, there is a growing need for comprehensive and agile middleware to provide novel Virtual Analysis (VA) functions of ADS-equipped vehicles towards enabling a reliable representation for pre-deployment test. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Universal Cyber-physical systems Environment for Federation (UCEF) is such a VA environment. It provides Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) capable of ensuring synchronized interactions across multiple simulation platforms such as LabVIEW, OMNeT++, Ricardo IGNITE, and Internet of Things (IoT) platforms. UCEF can aid engineers and researchers in understanding the impact of different constraints associated with complex cyber-physical systems (CPS). In this work UCEF is used to produce a simulated Operational Domain Design (ODD) for ADS-equipped vehicles where control (drive cycle/speed pattern), sensing (obstacle detection, traffic signs and lights), and threats (unusual signals, hacked sources) are represented as UCEF federates to simulate a drive cycle and to feed it to vehicle dynamics simulators (e.g. OpenModelica or Ricardo IGNITE) through the Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI). In this way we can subject the vehicle to a wide range of scenarios, collect data on the resulting interactions, and analyze those interactions using metrics to understand trustworthiness impact. Trustworthiness is defined here as in the NIST Framework for Cyber-Physical Systems, and is comprised of system reliability, resiliency, safety, security, and privacy. The goal of this work is to provide an example of an experimental design strategy using Fractional Factorial Design for statistically assessing the most important safety metrics in ADS-equipped vehicles.

Sulavko, A. E., Eremenko, A. V., Fedotov, A. A..  2017.  Users' Identification through Keystroke Dynamics Based on Vibration Parameters and Keyboard Pressure. 2017 Dynamics of Systems, Mechanisms and Machines (Dynamics). :1–7.

The paper considers an issues of protecting data from unauthorized access by users' authentication through keystroke dynamics. It proposes to use keyboard pressure parameters in combination with time characteristics of keystrokes to identify a user. The authors designed a keyboard with special sensors that allow recording complementary parameters. The paper presents an estimation of the information value for these new characteristics and error probabilities of users' identification based on the perceptron algorithms, Bayes' rule and quadratic form networks. The best result is the following: 20 users are identified and the error rate is 0.6%.

Ivanov, A. V., Sklyarov, V. A..  2018.  The Urgency of the Threats of Attacks on Interfaces and Field-Layer Protocols in Industrial Control Systems. 2018 XIV International Scientific-Technical Conference on Actual Problems of Electronics Instrument Engineering (APEIE). :162-165.

The paper is devoted to analysis of condition of executing devices and sensors of Industrial Control Systems information security. The work contains structures of industrial control systems divided into groups depending on system's layer. The article contains the analysis of analog interfaces work and work features of data transmission protocols in industrial control system field layer. Questions about relevance of industrial control systems information security, both from the point of view of the information security occurring incidents, and from the point of view of regulators' reaction in the form of normative legal acts, are described. During the analysis of the information security systems of industrial control systems a possibility of leakage through technical channels of information leakage at the field layer was found. Potential vectors of the attacks on devices of field layer and data transmission network of an industrial control system are outlined in the article. The relevance analysis of the threats connected with the attacks at the field layer of an industrial control system is carried out, feature of this layer and attractiveness of this kind of attacks is observed.

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Jiang, Qi, Zhang, Xin, Zhang, Ning, Tian, Youliang, Ma, Xindi, Ma, Jianfeng.  2019.  Two-Factor Authentication Protocol Using Physical Unclonable Function for IoV. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :195–200.
As an extension of Internet of Things (IoT) in transportation sector, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) can greatly facilitate vehicle management and route planning. With ever-increasing penetration of IoV, the security and privacy of driving data should be guaranteed. Moreover, since vehicles are often left unattended with minimum human interventions, the onboard sensors are vulnerable to physical attacks. Therefore, the physically secure authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocol is urgently needed for IoV to implement access control and information protection. In this paper, physical unclonable function (PUF) is introduced in the AKA protocol to ensure that the system is secure even if the user devices or sensors are compromised. Specifically, PUF, as a hardware fingerprint generator, eliminates the storage of any secret information in user devices or vehicle sensors. By combining password with PUF, the user device cannot be used by someone else to be successfully authenticated as the user. By resorting to public key cryptography, the proposed protocol can provide anonymity and desynchronization resilience. Finally, the elaborate security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is free from the influence of known attacks and can achieve expected security properties, and the performance evaluation indicates the efficiency of our protocol.
Sun, M., Li, M., Gerdes, R..  2018.  Truth-Aware Optimal Decision-Making Framework with Driver Preferences for V2V Communications. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1-9.

In Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications, malicious actors may spread false information to undermine the safety and efficiency of the vehicular traffic stream. Thus, vehicles must determine how to respond to the contents of messages which maybe false even though they are authenticated in the sense that receivers can verify contents were not tampered with and originated from a verifiable transmitter. Existing solutions to find appropriate actions are inadequate since they separately address trust and decision, require the honest majority (more honest ones than malicious), and do not incorporate driver preferences in the decision-making process. In this work, we propose a novel trust-aware decision-making framework without requiring an honest majority. It securely determines the likelihood of reported road events despite the presence of false data, and consequently provides the optimal decision for the vehicles. The basic idea of our framework is to leverage the implied effect of the road event to verify the consistency between each vehicle's reported data and actual behavior, and determine the data trustworthiness and event belief by integrating the Bayes' rule and Dempster Shafer Theory. The resulting belief serves as inputs to a utility maximization framework focusing on both safety and efficiency. This framework considers the two basic necessities of the Intelligent Transportation System and also incorporates drivers' preferences to decide the optimal action. Simulation results show the robustness of our framework under the multiple-vehicle attack, and different balances between safety and efficiency can be achieved via selecting appropriate human preference factors based on the driver's risk-taking willingness.

ur Rahman, Hafiz, Duan, Guihua, Wang, Guojun, Bhuiyan, Md Zakirul Alam, Chen, Jianer.  2020.  Trustworthy Data Acquisition and Faulty Sensor Detection using Gray Code in Cyber-Physical System. 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE). :58—65.
Due to environmental influence and technology limitation, a wireless sensor/sensors module can neither store or process all raw data locally nor reliably forward it to a destination in heterogeneous IoT environment. As a result, the data collected by the IoT's sensors are inherently noisy, unreliable, and may trigger many false alarms. These false or misleading data can lead to wrong decisions once the data reaches end entities. Therefore, it is highly recommended and desirable to acquire trustworthy data before data transmission, aggregation, and data storing at the end entities/cloud. In this paper, we propose an In-network Generalized Trustworthy Data Collection (IGTDC) framework for trustworthy data acquisition and faulty sensor detection in the IoT environment. The key idea of IGTDC is to allow a sensor's module to examine locally whether the raw data is trustworthy before transmitting towards upstream nodes. It further distinguishes whether the acquired data can be trusted or not before data aggregation at the sink/edge node. Besides, IGTDC helps to recognize a faulty or compromised sensor. For a reliable data collection, we use collaborative IoT technique, gate-level modeling, and programmable logic device (PLD) to ensure that the acquired data is reliable before transmitting towards upstream nodes/cloud. We use a hardware-based technique called “Gray Code” to detect a faulty sensor. Through simulations we reveal that the acquired data in IGTDC framework is reliable that can make a trustworthy data collection for event detection, and assist to distinguish a faulty sensor.
Allig, C., Leinmüller, T., Mittal, P., Wanielik, G..  2019.  Trustworthiness Estimation of Entities within Collective Perception. 2019 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). :1–8.
The idea behind collective perception is to improve vehicles' awareness about their surroundings. Every vehicle shares information describing its perceived environment by means of V2X communication. Similar to other information shared using V2X communication, collective perception information is potentially safety relevant, which means there is a need to assess the reliability and quality of received information before further processing. Transmitted information may have been forged by attackers or contain inconsistencies e.g. caused by malfunctions. This paper introduces a novel approach for estimating a belief that a pair of entities, e.g. two remote vehicles or the host vehicle and a remote vehicle, within a Vehicular ad hoc Network (VANET) are both trustworthy. The method updates the belief based on the consistency of the data that both entities provide. The evaluation shows that the proposed method is able to identify forged information.
Hossain, M., Hasan, R., Zawoad, S..  2017.  Trust-IoV: A Trustworthy Forensic Investigation Framework for the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). 2017 IEEE International Congress on Internet of Things (ICIOT). :25–32.

The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is a complex and dynamic mobile network system that enables information sharing between vehicles, their surrounding sensors, and clouds. While IoV opens new opportunities in various applications and services to provide safety on the road, it introduces new challenges in the field of digital forensics investigations. The existing tools and procedures of digital forensics cannot meet the highly distributed, decentralized, dynamic, and mobile infrastructures of the IoV. Forensic investigators will face challenges while identifying necessary pieces of evidence from the IoV environment, and collecting and analyzing the evidence. In this article, we propose TrustIoV - a digital forensic framework for the IoV systems that provides mechanisms to collect and store trustworthy evidence from the distributed infrastructure. Trust-IoV maintains a secure provenance of the evidence to ensure the integrity of the stored evidence and allows investigators to verify the integrity of the evidence during an investigation. Our experimental results on a simulated environment suggest that Trust-IoV can operate with minimal overhead while ensuring the trustworthiness of evidence in a strong adversarial scenario.

Liu, Jia, Fu, Hongchuan, Chen, Yunhua, Shi, Zhiping.  2020.  A Trust-based Message Passing Algorithm against Persistent SSDF. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :1112–1115.
As a key technology in cognitive radio, cooperative spectrum sensing has been paid more and more attention. In cooperative spectrum sensing, multi-user cooperative spectrum sensing can effectively alleviate the performance degradation caused by multipath effect and shadow fading, and improve the spectrum utilization. However, as there may be malicious users in the cooperative sensing users, sending forged false messages to the fusion center or neighbor nodes to mislead them to make wrong judgments, which will greatly reduce the spectrum utilization. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an intelligent anti spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack algorithm using trust-based non consensus message passing algorithm. In this scheme, only one perception is needed, and the historical propagation path of each message is taken as the basis to calculate the reputation of each cognitive user. Every time a node receives different messages from the same cognitive user, there must be malicious users in its propagation path. We reward the nodes that appear more times in different paths with reputation value, and punish the nodes that appear less. Finally, the real value of the tampered message is restored according to the calculated reputation value. The MATLAB results show that the proposed scheme has a high recovery rate for messages and can identify malicious users in the network at the same time.
Severson, T., Rodriguez-Seda, E., Kiriakidis, K., Croteau, B., Krishnankutty, D., Robucci, R., Patel, C., Banerjee, N..  2018.  Trust-Based Framework for Resilience to Sensor-Targeted Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2018 Annual American Control Conference (ACC). :6499-6505.

Networked control systems improve the efficiency of cyber-physical plants both functionally, by the availability of data generated even in far-flung locations, and operationally, by the adoption of standard protocols. A side-effect, however, is that now the safety and stability of a local process and, in turn, of the entire plant are more vulnerable to malicious agents. Leveraging the communication infrastructure, the authors here present the design of networked control systems with built-in resilience. Specifically, the paper addresses attacks known as false data injections that originate within compromised sensors. In the proposed framework for closed-loop control, the feedback signal is constructed by weighted consensus of estimates of the process state gathered from other interconnected processes. Observers are introduced to generate the state estimates from the local data. Side-channel monitors are attached to each primary sensor in order to assess proper code execution. These monitors provide estimates of the trust assigned to each observer output and, more importantly, independent of it; these estimates serve as weights in the consensus algorithm. The authors tested the concept on a multi-sensor networked physical experiment with six primary sensors. The weighted consensus was demonstrated to yield a feedback signal within specified accuracy even if four of the six primary sensors were injecting false data.

He, S., Shu, Y., Cui, X., Wei, C., Chen, J., Shi, Z..  2017.  A Trust Management Based Framework for Fault-Tolerant Barrier Coverage in Sensor Networks. 2017 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1–6.

Barrier coverage has been widely adopted to prevent unauthorized invasion of important areas in sensor networks. As sensors are typically placed outdoors, they are susceptible to getting faulty. Previous works assumed that faulty sensors are easy to recognize, e.g., they may stop functioning or output apparently deviant sensory data. In practice, it is, however, extremely difficult to recognize faulty sensors as well as their invalid output. We, in this paper, propose a novel fault-tolerant intrusion detection algorithm (TrusDet) based on trust management to address this challenging issue. TrusDet comprises of three steps: i) sensor-level detection, ii) sink-level decision by collective voting, and iii) trust management and fault determination. In the Step i) and ii), TrusDet divides the surveillance area into a set of fine- grained subareas and exploits temporal and spatial correlation of sensory output among sensors in different subareas to yield a more accurate and robust performance of barrier coverage. In the Step iii), TrusDet builds a trust management based framework to determine the confidence level of sensors being faulty. We implement TrusDet on HC- SR501 infrared sensors and demonstrate that TrusDet has a desired performance.

Sharnagat, Lekhchand, Babu, Rajesh, Adhikari, Jayant.  2020.  Trust Evaluation for Securing Compromised data Aggregation against the Collusion Attack in WSN. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :1–5.
With a storage space limit on the sensors, WSN has some drawbacks related to bandwidth and computational skills. This limited resources would reduce the amount of data transmitted across the network. For this reason, data aggregation is considered as a new process. Iterative filtration (IF) algorithms, which provide trust assessment to the various sources from which the data aggregation has been performed, are efficient in the present data aggregation algorithms. Trust assessment is done with weights from the simple average method to aggregation, which treats attack susceptibility. Iteration filter algorithms are stronger than the ordinary average, but they do not handle the current advanced attack that takes advantage of false information with many compromise nodes. Iterative filters are strengthened by an initial confidence estimate to track new and complex attacks, improving the solidity and accuracy of the IF algorithm. The new method is mainly concerned with attacks against the clusters and not against the aggregator. In this process, if an aggregator is attacked, the current system fails, and the information is eventually transmitted to the aggregator by the cluster members. This problem can be detected when both cluster members and aggregators are being targeted. It is proposed to choose an aggregator which chooses a new aggregator according to the remaining maximum energy and distance to the base station when an aggregator attack is detected. It also save time and energy compared to the current program against the corrupted aggregator node.
P N, Renjith, K, Ramesh.  2020.  Trust based Security framework for IoT data. 2020 4th International Conference on Computer, Communication and Signal Processing (ICCCSP). :1–5.
With an incredible growth in MEMS and Internet, IoT has developed to an inevitable invention and resource for human needs. IoT reframes the communication and created a new way of machine to machine communication. IoT utilizes smart sensor to monitor and track environmental changes in any area of interest. The high volume of sensed information is processed, formulated and presented to the user for decision making. In this paper a model is designed to perform trust evaluation and data aggregation with confidential transmission of secured information in to the network and enables higher secure and reliable data transmission for effective analysis and decision making. The Sensors in IoT devices, senses the same information and forwards redundant data in to the network. This results in higher network congestion and causes transmission overhead. This could be control by introducing data aggregation. A gateway sensor node can act as aggregator and a forward unique information to the base station. However, when the network is adulterated with malicious node, these malicious nodes tend to injects false data in to the network. In this paper, a trust based malicious node detection technique has been introduced to isolate the malicious node from forwarding false information into the network. Simulation results proves the proposed protocol can be used to reduce malicious attack with increased throughput and performance.
Chaturvedi, P., Daniel, A. K..  2017.  Trust aware node scheduling protocol for target coverage using rough set theory. 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Instrumentation and Control Technologies (ICICICT). :511–514.

Wireless sensor networks have achieved the substantial research interest in the present time because of their unique features such as fault tolerance, autonomous operation etc. The coverage maximization while considering the resource scarcity is a crucial problem in the wireless sensor networks. The approaches which address these problems and maximize the network lifetime are considered prominent. The node scheduling is such mechanism to address this issue. The scheduling strategy which addresses the target coverage problem based on coverage probability and trust values is proposed in Energy Efficient Coverage Protocol (EECP). In this paper the optimized decision rules is obtained by using the rough set theory to determine the number of active nodes. The results show that the proposed extension results in the lesser number of decision rules to consider in determination of node states in the network, hence it improves the network efficiency by reducing the number of packets transmitted and reducing the overhead.